Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain from the husks and straw to which it is attached. It is the step in grain preparation after reaping and before winnowing, which separates the grain from the chaff. Threshing does not remove the bran from the grain. Threshing may be done by beating the grain using a flail on a threshing floor. Another traditional method of threshing is to make donkeys or oxen walk in circles on the grain on a hard surface. A modern version of this in some areas is to spread the grain on the surface of a country road so the grain may be threshed by the wheels of passing vehicles. Hand threshing was laborious, with a bushel of wheat taking about an hour. In the late 18th century, before threshing was mechanized, about one-quarter of agricultural labor was devoted to it. Industrialization of threshing began in 1786 with the invention of the threshing machine by Scotsman Andrew Meikle. Today, in developed areas, it is now done by machine by a combine harvester, which harvests and winnows the grain while it is still in the field.
The cereal may be stored in silos. A threshing bee was traditionally a bee in which local people gathered together to pitch in and get the season's threshing done; such bees were sometimes events within larger harvest festivals. Today the original purpose is obsolete, but the festival tradition lives on in some modern examples that commemorate the past and include flea markets, hog wrestling, dances. Swing Riots Threshing-board Threshing floor Threshing machine Threshing stone Winnowing
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff. It is used to remove hay and chaff or other pests from stored grain. Threshing, the loosening of grain or seeds from the husks and straw, is the step in the chaff-removal process that comes before winnowing. In its simplest form it involves throwing the mixture into the air so that the wind blows away the lighter chaff, while the heavier grains fall back down for recovery. Techniques included using a tool on a pile of harvested grain; the winnowing-fan featured in the rites accorded Dionysus and in the Eleusinian Mysteries: "it was a simple agricultural implement taken over and mysticised by the religion of Dionysus," Jane Ellen Harrison remarked. Dionysus Liknites was wakened by the Dionysian women, in this instance called Thyiades, in a cave on Parnassus high above Delphi. In Callimachus' Hymn to Zeus, Adrasteia lays the infant Zeus in a golden líknon, her goat suckles him and he is given honey.
In the Odyssey, the dead oracle Teiresias tells Odysseus to walk away from Ithaca with an oar until a wayfarer tells him it is a winnowing fan, there to build a shrine to Poseidon. In Ancient China the method was improved by mechanisation with the development of the rotary winnowing fan, which used a cranked fan to produce the airstream; this was featured in Wang Zhen's book the Nong Shu of 1313 AD. In the Old Testament the word winnow is used in several verses in different books in the New International Version while other versions of the bible translate the action as "fan", "throw" or the separating tool as "pitchfork", "shovel", "winnowing fan", or "winnowing instrument". Ruth 3:2 "Now Boaz, with whose women you have worked, is a relative of ours. Tonight he will be winnowing barley on the threshing floor." Proverbs 20:8 "When a king sits on his throne to judge, he winnows out all evil with his eyes." Proverbs 20:26 "A wise king winnows out the wicked. Isaiah 41:16 "You will winnow them, the wind will pick them up, a gale will blow them away.
But you will rejoice in the Lord and glory in the Holy One of Israel." Jeremiah 4:11 "At that time this people and Jerusalem will be told, “A scorching wind from the barren heights in the desert blows toward my people, but not to winnow or cleanse. I will bring bereavement and destruction on my people, for they have not changed their ways." Jeremiah 51:2 "I will send foreigners to Babylon to devastate her land. In Matthew 3:12, a sentence introduces the separation of wheat and chaff by "His winnowing fan is in his hand"; the New International Version, the New Revised Standard Version and the New American Standard Bible translate the term as "winnowing fork". In Saxon settlements such as one identified in Northumberland as Bede's Ad Gefrin the buildings were shown by an excavator's reconstruction to have opposed entries. In barns a draught created by the use of these opposed; the technique developed by the Chinese was not adopted in Europe until the 18th century, when winnowing machines used a'sail fan'.
The rotary winnowing fan was exported to Europe, brought there by Dutch sailors between 1700 and 1720. They had obtained them from the Dutch settlement of Batavia in Java, Dutch East Indies; the Swedes imported some from south China at about the same time and Jesuits had taken several to France from China by 1720. Until the beginning of the 18th century, no rotary winnowing fans existed in the West; the development of the winnowing barn allowed rice plantations in South Carolina to increase their yields dramatically. In 1737 Andrew Rodger, a farmer on the estate of Cavers in Roxburghshire, developed a winnowing machine for corn, called a'Fanner'; these were successful and the family sold them throughout Scotland for many years. Some Scottish Presbyterian ministers saw the fanners as sins against God, for wind was a thing specially made by him and an artificial wind was a daring and impious attempt to usurp what belonged to God alone; as the Industrial Revolution, the winnowing process was mechanized by the invention of additional winnowing machines, such as fanning mills.
Threshing Rice huller Rice pounder Sieving Winnowing The dictionary definition of winnowing at Wiktionary
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group. Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors, he was the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits. There is a genetic difference between wild populations. There is such a difference between the domestication traits that researchers believe to have been essential at the early stages of domestication, the improvement traits that have appeared since the split between wild and domestic populations. Domestication traits are fixed within all domesticates, were selected during the initial episode of domestication of that animal or plant, whereas improvement traits are present only in a proportion of domesticates, though they may be fixed in individual breeds or regional populations.
The dog was the first domesticated vertebrate, was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals. The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses and Old World camelids, goats and pigs – was common. Given its importance to humans and its value as a model of evolutionary and demographic change, domestication has attracted scientists from archaeology, anthropology, zoology and the environmental sciences. Among birds, the major domestic species today is the chicken, important for meat and eggs, though economically valuable poultry include the turkey and numerous other species. Birds are widely kept as cagebirds, from songbirds to parrots; the longest established invertebrate domesticates are the silkworm. Terrestrial snails are raised for food, while species from several phyla are kept for research, others are bred for biological control.
The domestication of plants began at least 12,000 years ago with cereals in the Middle East, the bottle gourd in Asia. Agriculture developed in at least 11 different centres around the world, domesticating different crops and animals. Domestication, from the Latin domesticus,'belonging to the house', is "a sustained multi-generational, mutualistic relationship in which one organism assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another organism in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest, through which the partner organism gains advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship, thereby benefitting and increasing the fitness of both the domesticator and the target domesticate." This definition recognizes both the biological and the cultural components of the domestication process and the impacts on both humans and the domesticated animals and plants. All past definitions of domestication have included a relationship between humans with plants and animals, but their differences lay in, considered as the lead partner in the relationship.
This new definition recognizes a mutualistic relationship. Domestication has vastly enhanced the reproductive output of crop plants and pets far beyond that of their wild progenitors. Domesticates have provided humans with resources that they could more predictably and securely control and redistribute, the advantage that had fueled a population explosion of the agro-pastoralists and their spread to all corners of the planet. Houseplants and ornamentals are plants domesticated for aesthetic enjoyment in and around the home, while those domesticated for large-scale food production are called crops. Domesticated plants deliberately altered or selected for special desirable characteristics are cultigens. Animals domesticated for home companionship are called pets, while those domesticated for food or work are known as livestock; this biological mutualism is not restricted to humans with domestic crops and livestock but is well-documented in nonhuman species among a number of social insect domesticators and their plant and animal domesticates, for example the ant–fungus mutualism that exists between leafcutter ants and certain fungi.
Domestication syndrome is the suite of phenotypic traits arising during domestication that distinguish crops from their wild ancestors. The term is applied to vertebrate animals, includes increased docility and tameness, coat color changes, reductions in tooth size, changes in craniofacial morphology, alterations in ear and tail form, more frequent and nonseasonal estrus cycles, alterations in adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, changed concentrations of several neurotransmitters, prolongations in juvenile behavior, reductions in both total brain size and of particular brain regions; the domestication of animals and plants began with the wolf at least 15,000 years before present, which led to a rapid shift in the evolution and demography of both humans and numerous species of animals and plants. The sudden appearance of the domestic dog in the archaeological record was followed by livestock and crop domestication, the transition of humans from foraging to farming in different places and times across the planet.
Around 10,000 YBP, a new way of life emerged for humans through the management and exploitation of plant and an
A pumpkin seed known as a pepita, is the edible seed of a pumpkin or certain other cultivars of squash. The seeds are rather flat and asymmetrically oval, light green in color and may have a white outer hull; some cultivars are hulless, are grown only for their seed. The seeds are nutrient-rich, with high content of protein, dietary fiber and numerous micronutrients; the word can refer either to the hulled kernel or unhulled whole seed, most refers to the roasted end product. Pumpkin seeds are a common ingredient in Mexican cuisine and are roasted and served as a snack. Marinated and roasted, they are an autumn seasonal snack in the United States, as well as a commercially produced and distributed packaged snack, like sunflower seeds, available year-round. Pepitas are known by their Spanish name, salted and sometimes spiced after roasting, in Mexico and other Latin American countries, in the American Southwest, in speciality and Mexican food stores; the earliest known evidence of the domestication of Cucurbita dates back 8,000–10,000 years ago, predating the domestication of other crops such as maize and common beans in the region by about 4,000 years.
Changes in fruit shape and color indicate intentional breeding of C. pepo occurred by no than 8,000 years ago. The process to develop the agricultural knowledge of crop domestication took place over 5,000–6,500 years in Mesoamerica. Squash was domesticated first, with maize second, followed by beans, all becoming part of the Three Sisters agricultural system; as an ingredient in mole dishes, they are known in Spanish as pipián. A Mexican snack using pepitas in an artisan fashion is referred to as pepitoría. Roasted, unhulled pumpkin seeds are popular in Greece with the descriptive Italian name, passatempo; the pressed oil of the roasted seeds of a Cucurbita pepo subsp. Pepo var.'styriaca' is used in Central and Eastern Europe as cuisine. An example of this is pumpkin seed oil. Pumpkin seeds can be made into a nut butter. In a 100 gram serving, the seeds are calorie-dense and an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, iron, manganese and phosphorus; the seeds are a good source of riboflavin, pantothenic acid and potassium.
The oil of pumpkin seeds, a culinary specialty in and important export commodity of Central Europe, is used in cuisine as a salad and cooking oil. The following are ranges of fatty acid content in C. maxima pepitas: The total unsaturated fatty acid concentration ranged from 9% to 21% of the pepita. The total fat content ranged from 11% to 52%. Based on the quantity of alpha-tocopherol extracted in the oil, the vitamin E content of twelve C. maxima cultivar seeds ranged from 4 to 19 mg/100 g of pepita. Pumpkin seeds were once used as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine by indigenous people of North America to expel tapeworms and other intestinal parasites; this led to the seeds being listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia as an antiparasitic from 1863 until 1936. Cucurbitacin Cucurbitin Egusi List of edible seeds List of squash and pumpkin dishes
Compost is organic matter, decomposed in a process called composting. This process recycles various organic materials otherwise regarded as waste products and produces a soil conditioner. Compost is rich in nutrients, it is used, for example, in gardens, horticulture, urban agriculture and organic farming. The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, as a natural pesticide for soil. In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion control and stream reclamation, wetland construction, as landfill cover. At the simplest level, the process of composting requires making a heap of wet organic matter, such as leaves and food scraps, waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of months. However, composting can take place as a multi-step monitored process with measured inputs of water and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials; the decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by turning the mixture when open piles or "windrows" are used.
Earthworms and fungi further break up the material. Bacteria requiring oxygen to function and fungi manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide, ammonium. Composting is an aerobic method of decomposing organic solid wastes, it can therefore be used to recycle organic material. The process involves decomposition of organic material into a humus-like material, known as compost, a good fertilizer for plants. Composting requires the following three components: human management, aerobic conditions, development of internal biological heat. Composting organisms require four important ingredients to work effectively: Carbon — for energy. High carbon materials tend to be dry. Nitrogen — to grow and reproduce more organisms to oxidize the carbon. High nitrogen materials tend to be wet. Oxygen — for oxidizing the carbon, the decomposition process. Water — in the right amounts to maintain activity without causing anaerobic conditions. Certain ratios of these materials will provide microorganisms to work at a rate that will heat up the pile.
Active management of the pile is needed to maintain sufficient supply of oxygen and the right moisture level. The air/water balance is critical to maintaining high temperatures until the materials are broken down; the most efficient composting occurs with an optimal carbon:nitrogen ratio of about 25:1. Hot container composting focuses on retaining the heat to increase decomposition rate and produce compost more quickly. Rapid composting is favored by having a C/N ratio of ~30 or less. Above 30 the substrate is nitrogen starved, below 15 it is to outgas a portion of nitrogen as ammonia. Nearly all plant and animal materials have both carbon and nitrogen, but amounts vary with characteristics noted above. Fresh grass clippings have an average ratio of about 15:1 and dry autumn leaves about 50:1 depending on species. Mixing equal parts by volume approximates the ideal C:N range. Few individual situations will provide the ideal mix of materials at any point. Observation of amounts, consideration of different materials as a pile is built over time, can achieve a workable technique for the individual situation.
With the proper mixture of water, oxygen and nitrogen, micro-organisms are able to break down organic matter to produce compost. The composting process is dependent on micro-organisms to break down organic matter into compost. There are many types of microorganisms found in active compost of which the most common are: Bacteria- The most numerous of all the microorganisms found in compost. Depending on the phase of composting, mesophilic or thermophilic bacteria may predominate. Actinobacteria- Necessary for breaking down paper products such as newspaper, etc. Fungi- molds and yeast help break down materials that bacteria cannot lignin in woody material. Protozoa- Help consume bacteria and micro organic particulates. Rotifers- Rotifers help control populations of bacteria and small protozoans. In addition, earthworms not only ingest composted material, but continually re-create aeration and drainage tunnels as they move through the compost. Under ideal conditions, composting proceeds through three major phases: An initial, mesophilic phase, in which the decomposition is carried out under moderate temperatures by mesophilic microorganisms.
As the temperature rises, a second, thermophilic phase starts, in which the decomposition is carried out by various thermophilic bacteria under high temperatures. As the supply of high-energy compounds dwindles, the temperature starts to decrease, the mesophiles once again predominate in the maturation phase. There are many proponents of rapid composting that attempt to correct some of the perceived problems associated with traditional, slow composting. Many advocate. Many such short processes involve a few changes to traditional methods, including smaller, more homogenized pieces in the compost, controlling carbon-to-nitrogen ratio at 30 to 1 or less, monitoring the moisture level more carefully. However, none of these parameters differ from the early writings of compost researchers, suggesting that in fact modern composting has not made significant advances over the traditional methods that take a f
Bran known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain. It consists of pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, is produced as a byproduct of milling in the production of refined grains. Bran is present in cereal grain, including rice, wheat, barley and millet. Bran is not the same as chaff, a coarser scaly material surrounding the grain but not forming part of the grain itself. Bran is rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein and dietary minerals, it is a source of phytic acid, an antinutrient that prevents nutrient absorption. The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is separated from the grain before storage or further processing. Bran is heat-treated to increase its longevity. Rice bran is a byproduct of the rice milling process, it contains various antioxidants that impart beneficial effects on human health. A major rice bran fraction contains 12%–13% oil and unsaponifiable components.
This fraction contains tocotrienols, beta-sitosterol. Rice bran contains a high level of dietary fibres, it contains ferulic acid, a component of the structure of nonlignified cell walls. However, some research suggests. One study found the levels to be 20% higher than in drinking water. Bran is used to enrich breads and breakfast cereals for the benefit of those wishing to increase their intake of dietary fiber. Bran may be used for pickling as in the tsukemono of Japan. Rice bran in particular finds many uses in Japan. Besides using it for pickling, Japanese people add it to the water when boiling bamboo shoots, use it for dish washing. In Kitakyushu City, it is used for stewing fish, such as sardine. Rice bran is stuck to the surface of commercial ice blocks to prevent them from melting. Bran oil may be extracted for use by itself for industrial purposes, or as a cooking oil, such as rice bran oil. Wheat bran is useful as feed for poultry and other livestock, as part of a balanced ration with other inputs.
Wheatings, a milling byproduct comprising bran with some pieces of endosperm left over, are included in this category. Bran was found to be the most successful slug deterrent by BBC's TV programme Gardeners' World, it is a common food source used for feeder insects, such as mealworms and waxworms. Wheat bran has been used for tanning leather since at least the 16th century. George Washington had a recipe for small beer involving bran and molasses, it is common practice to heat-treat bran with the intention of slowing undesirable rancidification. However, a detailed 2003 study of heat-treatment of oat bran found a complex pattern whereby intense heat treatment reduced the development of hydrolitic rancidity and bitterness with time, but increased oxidative rancidity; the authors recommended that heat treatment should be sufficient to achieve selective lipase inactivation, but not so much as to render the polar lipids oxidisable upon prolonged storage. Alkylresorcinols Cereal germ Chaff Dietary fiber Phytic acid Rice bran solubles