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Hydraulic ram

A hydraulic ram, or hydram, is a cyclic water pump powered by hydropower. It takes in water at one "hydraulic head" and flow rate, outputs water at a higher hydraulic head and lower flow rate; the device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the input water that powers the pump to be lifted to a point higher than where the water started. The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas, where there is both a source of low-head hydropower and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. In this situation, the ram is useful, since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of flowing water. In 1772, John Whitehurst of Cheshire, United Kingdom, invented a manually controlled precursor of the hydraulic ram called the "pulsation engine" and installed the first one at Oulton, Cheshire to raise water to a height of 4.9 metres. In 1783, he installed another in Ireland, he did not patent it, details are obscure, but it is known to have had an air vessel.

The first self-acting ram pump was invented by the Frenchman Joseph Michel Montgolfier in 1796 for raising water in his paper mill at Voiron. His friend Matthew Boulton took out a British patent on his behalf in 1797; the sons of Montgolfier obtained a British patent for an improved version in 1816, this was acquired, together with Whitehurst's design, in 1820 by Josiah Easton, a Somerset-born engineer who had just moved to London. Easton's firm, inherited by his son James, grew during the nineteenth century to become one of the more important engineering manufacturers in the United Kingdom, with a large works at Erith, Kent, they sewerage systems worldwide, as well as land drainage projects. Eastons had a good business supplying rams for water supply purposes to large country houses and village communities; some of their installations still survived as of 2004, one such example being at the hamlet of Toller Whelme, in Dorset. Until about 1958 when the mains water arrived, the hamlet of East Dundry just south of Bristol had three working rams – their noisy "thump" every minute or so resonated through the valley night and day: these rams served farms that needed much water for their dairy herds.

The firm closed in 1909. In 1929, it was acquired by Green & Carter of Winchester, who were engaged in the manufacturing and installation of Vulcan and Vacher Rams; the first US patent was issued to Joseph Cerneau and Stephen S. Hallet in 1809. US interest in hydraulic rams picked up around 1840, as further patents were issued and domestic companies started offering rams for sale. Toward the end of the 19th century, interest waned as electricity and electric pumps became available. Priestly's Hydraulic Ram, built in 1890 in Idaho, was a "marvelous" invention independent, which lifted water 110 feet to provide irrigation; the ram survives and is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. NOTE: This pump claims to have no moving valves and uses high-pressure air, so it may be a Pulser pump. By the end of the twentieth century interest in hydraulic rams has revived, due to the needs of sustainable technology in developing countries, energy conservation in developed ones. A good example is Aid Foundation International in the Philippines, who won an Ashden Award for their work developing ram pumps that could be maintained for use in remote villages.

The hydraulic ram principle has been used in some proposals for exploiting wave power, one of, discussed as long ago as 1931 by Hanns Günther in his book In hundert Jahren. Some ram designs in the UK called compound rams were designed to pump treated water using an untreated drive water source, which overcomes some of the problems of having drinking water sourced from an open stream. In 1996 English engineer Frederick Philip Selwyn patented a hydraulic ram pump where the waste valve used the venturi effect and was arranged concentrically around the input pipe; the design is compact. It is sold as the "Papa Ram Pump". A traditional hydraulic ram has only two moving parts, a spring or weight loaded "waste" valve sometimes known as the "clack" valve and a "delivery" check valve, making it cheap to build, easy to maintain, reliable. Priestly's hydraulic ram, described in detail in the 1947 Encyclopedia Britannica, has no moving parts. NOTE: This pump claims to have no moving valves and uses high-pressure air, so it may be a Pulser pump.

A simplified hydraulic ram is shown in Figure 2. The waste valve is open because of its own weight, the delivery valve is closed under the pressure caused by the water column from the outlet; the water in the inlet pipe starts to flow under the force of gravity and picks up speed and kinetic energy until the increasing drag force lifts the waste valve's weight and closes it. The momentum of the water flow in the inlet pipe against the now closed waste valve causes a water hammer that raises the pressure in the pump beyond the pressure caused by the water column pressing down from the outlet; this pressure differential now opens the delivery valve, forces some water to flow into the delivery pipe. Because this water is being forced uphill through the delivery pipe farther than it is falling downhill from the source, the flow slows. Meanwhile, the water hammer from the closing of the waste valve produces a pressure pulse which propagates back up the inlet pipe to the source where it converts to a suction pulse

Jacques-Théodore Saconney

Jacques-Théodore Saconney was a Senior French Army General, a scientist, an adventurous balloonist. He foresaw future developments of the French military air navigation, his legacy as an academic provided insights in mathematics and in the development of modern meteorology. As a military officer, he was at the forefront of the early French military and civil aviation with the development of military kites and a new discipline: the kite aerial photography. Having its roots in Saconnex, the Saconney family escaped the Protestant Revolution by immigrating to France during the XVIth century, his forefathers first settled in Lyon, where a few members of his family left some traces including Henri de Saconay and Gabriel de Saconay. The Saconay settled in Burgundy where they cultivated wine in Gevrey-Chambertin; the tombs of the family still remain in this village. During the 19th century, Jacques Theodore's grandfather became prosperous in the hotel industry, he followed the construction of the train between Dijon and Turin, he ended up earning many estates in Turin, Italy, in Dijon and Aix-les-Bains, France.

The coat of arms of the Saconney's: Coupé, au 1 d'argent au lion naissant de gueules, trois étoiles d'argent. Jacques Theodore Saconney was educated at the prestigious High School Henry IV in Paris and was admitted at "l'École Polytechnique", Paris, in 1895. In 1897, Saconney was appointed an officer in the French Army and he was assigned to the 4th regiment "du Génie" in Grenoble where he became a military balloonist. At first, one of his main interests lied in kites. In 1902, Captain Saconney was successful in creating a kite system, capable of carrying a camera that allowed the establishment of a precise mapping. In 1909, Théophile Bois and Jacques-Théodore Saconney published a scientific paper explaining the technical reasons why kites remained stable when flying in the air and providing scientific evidence explaining the equilibrium of such flying instruments. In 1909, a competition to determine the most suitable man lifting technique existent at that time was launched; the prize was won by Captain Madiot but he died shortly afterward in a flying accident.

As Captain Madiot’s system was not developed, Captain Saconney’s man lifting system was adopted by the French nascent Army Air force. Saconney’s man lifting system contained a motorcar, a winch, driven by the car's engine; the system was installed aboard the ship The Edgar Quinet in 1911. In November 1912, Saconney became head of the laboratory of meteorology and aerial photography of Chalais-Meudon. During World War I, he was in charge of the observation of the enemy. At first, he integrated a Balloonist Company, in August 1914, Captain Saconney took the command of the Automobile section of the balloon and kite military section, based in Epinal, Vosges. After World War I, Commandant Saconney became president of the Commission for the Application of Meteorology to Aerial Navigation, which became the International Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology; this Commission provided coordination to the International Aeronautical Meteorology. This commission was part of the International Meteorological Organization, the predecessor of the World Meteorological Organization, established in 1919.

At that time, he was reckoned to be the authority in his field. He was in charge of organising French civil aviation. Between 1919 and 1922, Colonel Saconney was the director of the civil aviation. In a report from the National Advisory Committee for aeronautics, entitled “commercial aviation in France”, it was said that the first step of the creation of the commercial aviation in France was realised by Colonel Saconney; the report states that between 1919 and 1922, the French commercial aviation acquired its first experience and its supremacy by setting permanent air routes between Paris–London, Paris–Brussels, Paris–Strasbourg–Prague–Warsaw, Paris–Geneva, Bordeaux–Toulouse–Montpellier, Nimes–Marseilles, Toulouse–Casablanca and Bayonne–Bilbao. According to General Nudant, Saconney was the architect of civil aviation. Further, he launched the creation of different airports including the Aéroport de Marseille on the Étang de Berre. In 1922, he rejoined the army and became a member of the Council of the French Air Force and went up in the military hierarchy.

Saconney inaugurated in 1926, with the Mayor of Dijon, the first air-lighthouse, specially designed for air navigation, sited on the Mont Afrique. Saconney died in Dijon on 14 July 1935 leaving behind him one daughter; the last exhibition of Saconney's kite was held in Soissons, France. The grandson of General Saconney attended the event. An Article in French on the life of General Saconney was written by André Mignard in the review " Lucane " in 1980; the Military distinctions are Grand Officier de l'Ordre de la Légion d'Honneur, French Army General, British and many foreign decorations. Saconney, J. T. Metrophotographie. Octave Doin et Fils, 1913 Cerfs-Volants Militaires: Théorie pratique de cerf-volant cellulaire et des trains de cerfs-volants. Berger-Levault: 1909 Saconney, J. T. Le Phare Du Mont Afrique. Collectif: L’aventure des premiers avions de combat. Ouvrage collectif. Hachette Collections. En collaboration avec le Musée de l’Air et de l’Espace. 2006 Robineau, Lucien. Les Français du Ciel.

Dictionnaire historique. Edit. Le cherche midi « L'utilisation du cerf-volant de type Saconney, durant la 1ére g

Tarcoola, South Australia

Tarcoola is a town in the Far North of South Australia 416 kilometres north-northwest of Port Augusta. At the 2006 census, the Tarcoola district had a population of 38. Tarcoola was named after Tarcoola the winner of the 1893 Melbourne Cup horse race; the horse Tarcoola had been raised on Tarcoola Station on the Darling River in New South Wales. It means river bend in the aboriginal language of the area around that Tarcoola Station. Tarcoola lies on; the Tarcoola Goldfield was discovered and named in 1893, but it was in an isolated arid area, there was little development until 1900. A Post Office opened on 18 August 1900 and the town was proclaimed on 21 February 1901; the goldfield's heyday was from about 1901 to 1918. A government battery was built to process ore from small mines. Between 1901 and 1954 the field produced about 77,000oz of gold, most of it from the Tarcoola Blocks mine; the Trans-Australian Railway was built through Tarcoola in 1915, in 2004 the Adelaide–Darwin railway diverged from Tarcoola to Darwin.

The town is completely deserted today except for transient railway maintenance staff and geological exploration teams. The original Tarcoola goldfields are long closed. However, there is now new exploration including the Challenger Mine; the Tarcoola Goldfield and Township is listed on the South Australian Heritage Register as a designated place of archaeological significance. In 2017, WPG Resources commenced mining an open pit at Tarcoola intending to mine for at least two years, transport the ore to the Challenger mine for processing in the facilities there. Tarcoola is now best known as the northern junction of the Sydney-Perth and Adelaide-Darwin railways, which share 530 kilometres of track between Tarcoola and Crystal Brook. There is a triangular junction at Tarcoola which joins Crystal Brook and Perth. Another triangular junction at Crystal Brook joins Tarcoola and Sydney; the Ghan and the Indian Pacific passenger services through Tarcoola both run once per week in each direction all year round, twice per week at various times.

The mail for Tarcoola arrives by train. Tarcoola is located within the federal division of Grey, the state electoral district of Giles and the unincorporated area of South Australia. Tarcoola has a desert climate with hot, dry summers and mild winters and sparse rainfall throughout the year. A record high temperature of 49.1°C was recorded on 24 January 2019

Frank Willenborg

Frank Willenborg is a German football referee, based in Osnabrück. He referees for SV Gehlenberg of the Lower Saxony Football Association. Willenborg, who referees for SV Gehlenberg, has been a DFB official since 2004. In 2007, he was appointed as a 2. Bundesliga referee. Willenborg officiated the final of the Junior DFB-Pokal on 1 June 2013 between 1. FC Köln U-19 against 1. FC Kaiserslautern U-19. In the summer of 2016, Willenborg was one of four referees promoted to officiate in the Bundesliga. In November 2011, he was one of the assistant referees that saved the life of fellow referee Babak Rafati from his suicide attempt, before the Bundesliga match between 1. FC Köln and Mainz 05. Willenborg is a Realschule teacher at "Realschule Damme" and lives with his wife and two children in Osnabrück, he temporarily worked at the secondary school "Hauptschule Dinklage" as a substitute teacher for German and sport. Profile at Profile at


Signetics was an American electronics manufacturer established to make integrated circuits. Founded in 1961, they went on to develop a number of early microprocessors and support chips, as well as the used 555 timer chip, they were incorporated in Philips Semiconductors. Signetics was started in 1961, by a group of engineers—David Allison, David James, Lionel Kattner, Mark Weissenstern—who left Fairchild Semiconductor. At the time, Fairchild was concentrating on its component business, its management felt that by making integrated circuits it would alienate its customers. Signetics founders believed that ICs were the future of electronics and wished to commercialize them; the name came from Signal Network Electronics. The venture was financed by a group organized through Lehman Brothers, who invested $1M; the initial idea was to manufacture ICs for specific customers. In order to facilitate this goal, Signetics did not have a separate R&D lab. Signetics first developed a series of standard DTL ICs, which it announced in 1962.

However, it was struggling to sell custom-made circuits, the original goal, was exhausting the initial investment money, new investors had to be found. In November 1962, Corning Glass invested another $1.7 M in exchange for 51 % ownership. This money enabled Signetics to survive, much of it was put into a marketing and sales campaign. In 1963, the Department of Defense made a decision to begin a shift towards microelectronics and ICs, due to their small size, higher reliability, lower power consumption; as a result, military contractors began to explore the field, as Signetics was one of the few firms selling custom circuits, it benefited greatly. In the fall of 1963 and throughout most of 1964, sales grew and the company became profitable. Signetics grew hiring more engineers and increasing its manufacturing space. In 1964, Signetics opened a large new manufacturing plant in California. At this time it was by far the largest manufacturer of ICs in Silicon Valley, it expanded to factories in Orem and Albuquerque, New Mexico where there were two fabs, FAB22 and FAB23.

In 1964, Fairchild began to push its way into the IC business. Signetics's circuits being the standard in the market, Fairchild decided to copy them. However, it used its superior cash position, marketing power, manufacturing strength to undercut Signetics by slashing prices and flooding the market. Signetics was struggling to compete, began losing money again. Corning saw this as proof of poor management, used its controlling interest to drive out most of the founders and take complete control of the company. Signetics managed to stabilize and become profitable again, but it never regained its market leadership, held by Fairchild, it continued to innovate in the IC technology, remained a significant force. Around 1971, the Signetics Corporation introduced the 555 timer IC, it was called "The IC Time Machine". It was the first and only commercial IC timer available at the time. In 1975 it was acquired by Philips. In the United States, Signetics reached its manufacturing height at around 1980, it was integrated into Philips Semiconductors.

In 1995, Philips spun off the assembly and test operation in Korea, started by Signetics in 1966, as an independent subcontract service provider. They continue to use the name Signetics. Since 2000, Signetics is owned by the Young Poong Group; the best-known device introduced by Signetics is the 555 timer IC, still manufactured and used. Of major impact was the Phase-locked loop series based on the NE565, which along with the VCO NE566 helped advance digital communications. Other well-known devices include: The Signetics 2650 was an 8-bit microprocessor introduced in the early 1970s and used in several video games and game systems; the Signetics 8X300 was a bipolar microprocessor developed by Scientific Micro Systems but manufactured by Signetics starting in 1976. It was used as a controller chip due to its limited instruction set and its speed; the Signetics 2513 was a Character generator chip used in the Apple I and early versions of the Apple II, as well as Atari's earliest arcade games. The Signetics 82S100 FPLA was the first commercially successful user programmable logic device, the forerunner of the modern FPGA.

NE5532, a used audio op amp, now generic and produced by many other manufacturers. According to one 1993 article, NE5532 was "the standard audio op amp to which others are compared". NE5517, an operational transconductance amplifier, still in production by NXP Semiconductors and generically made by other manufacturers. Write-only memory Lécuyer, C. Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930-1970, MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 0-262-12281-2 official Signetics website Signetics


MedEquip4Kids is a registered charity based in Manchester, UK, which aims to improve the health and babies and young people by providing equipment not available from limited NHS resources. The charity supports projects across the North West of England and beyond, providing medical equipment and facilities to NHS Trusts, schools and community groups; the charity was founded in 1985 by a family from Greater Manchester. Their daughter was ill with meningitis at Booth Hall Children's Hospital in Manchester, where she made a full recovery. At the time, the hospital was unable to afford some vital items of equipment and so to show their gratitude to the hospital, the couple set out to raise money for the hospital; the family set out to raise £1 million for a new neonatal intensive care unit, at this time the organisation was known as the Booth Hall Children’s Hospital’s Research and Development Trust but was more known as the Bobby Bear Appeal. Once this target was reached, the charity continued to fundraiser under the title of "Children's Hospitals Appeals Trust" or CHAT, working with hospitals across Greater Manchester.

In 2004, the charity re-branded to become known as MedEquip4Kids and expanded their remit beyond just hospitals to support other organisations that care for children. MedEquip4Kids is governed by a board of 11 Trustees, who volunteer their time to plan the strategic future of the charity, make policy decisions and ensure the charity is accountable to all beneficiaries. On a day-to-day basis, the charity is run by Chief Executive, Ghazala Baig, supported by a small team of fundraisers and administrators. MedEquip4Kids has appeals offices based out of Rico House in Prestwich. Since their creation in 1985, the charity has raised over £20 million to fund healthcare equipment. In 2014, they began an appeal focused on improving Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services across the UK. In the first round of this appeal, the charity has raised over £22,000 to fund CAMHS projects nationwide; the second round of funding closes on 11 December 2014. The money raised as part of this appeal will help supply books and therapy items to help and support children and young people with a range of conditions including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, a range of eating disorders and self harm.

In 2015, MedEquip4Kids will be celebrating their 30th Anniversary and have launched a special anniversary challenge, 30 Peaks, as part of their celebrations. MedEquip4Kids runs a number of fundraising events each year which includes their Duck Race, Mega Trek, the Lancashire Loop, the Shimmer Ball