Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide in water. "Constant boiling" hydrobromic acid is an aqueous solution that distills at 124.3 °C and contains 47.6% HBr by mass, 8.77 mol/L. Hydrobromic acid has a pKa of −9, making it a stronger acid than hydrochloric acid, but not as strong as hydroiodic acid. Hydrobromic acid is one of the strongest mineral acids known. Hydrobromic acid is used for the production of inorganic bromides the bromides of zinc and sodium, it is a useful reagent for generating organobromine compounds. Certain ethers are cleaved with HBr, it catalyzes alkylation reactions and the extraction of certain ores. Industrially significant organic compounds prepared from hydrobromic acid include allyl bromide and bromoacetic acid. HBr uniquely participates in antiMarkovnikov hydrohalogenation of alkenes; the resulting 1-bromoalkanes are versatile alkylating agents, giving rise to fatty amines and quaternary ammonium salts. Hydrobromic acid can be prepared in the laboratory via the reaction of Br2, SO2, water.
Br2 + SO2 + 2 H2O → H2SO4 + 2 HBrMore laboratory preparations involve the production of anhydrous HBr, dissolved in water. Hydrobromic acid has been prepared industrially by reacting bromine with either sulfur or phosphorus and water. However, it can be produced electrolytically, it can be prepared by treating bromides with non-oxidising acids like phosphoric or acetic acids. Alternatively the acid can be prepared with dilute sulfuric acid and potassium bromide: H2SO4 + KBr → KHSO4 + HBrUsing more concentrated sulfuric acid or allowing the reaction solution to exceed 75 °C further oxidizes HBr to bromine gas; the acid is further purified by filtering out the KHSO4 and by distilling off the water until the solution reaches an azeotrope. The yield is 85%. Hydrobromic acid is available commercially in various purities. Media related to Hydrogen bromide at Wikimedia Commons International Chemical Safety Card 0282 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards Carlin, W. W. U. S. Patent 4,147,601
State Route 338 is a 22.3-mile-long state highway that travels south-to-north in a sideways V-shape within Laurens County in the central part of the U. S. state of Georgia. It connects Cadwell via Dudley. SR 338 begins at an intersection with SR 117 in Cadwell, where the roadway continues south as Old Eastman Road; the route travels to the north-northwest, to the town of Dexter, where it has a concurrency with SR 257. The route continues to the north-northwest, enters Dudley, it curves to the northeast, to an interchange with Interstate 16 in the southwestern part of the town. In the northeastern part of town, SR 338 intersects US 80/SR 19/SR 26; the route continues traveling to the northeast until it meets its northern terminus, an intersection with US 441/SR 29 northwest of Dublin. Here, the roadway continues northeast as Holly Ridge Road. SR 338 is not part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility; the highway that would become SR 338 was built by the end of 1953 as an unnumbered road from Caldwell to Dudley.
By mid-1954, the road had been extended to US 441/SR northwest of Dublin. By mid-1963, the entire roadway was designated as SR 338; the entire route is in Laurens County. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal
Helena Zeťová is a Czech singer. She started singing at the age of 15, first with a rock band, with an American band on the Spanish island of Lanzarote, her career started changing after her win at the 2000 Do-Re-Mi amateur singer contest TV show, where she performed "Against All Odds" by Phil Collins. It was her first TV performance. In 2001, together with Tereza Kerndlova and Tereza Černochova, established a girl group Black Milk. In 2002 they released their first studio album "Modrej dým"; the same year they earned the Czech Nightingale prize in the "Discovery of the Year" category. In 2005 the band dissolved. Half a year the same year Zeťová released her first solo album, Ready to Roll, was named "Surprise of the Year" in the Czech Nightingale poll. Modrej dým Sedmkrát Nechci tě trápit Nechci tě trápit Modrej dým Pár nápadů 2005: Ready to Roll ) 2008: Crossing Bridges 2005 - Impossible 2006 - Ready to Roll 2006 - Black Cat 2007 - Crossing Bridges 2008 - Love Me Again 2008 - Don't U Play Games "Helena Zeťová".
The COLEX process is a chemical method of isotopic separation of lithium-6 and lithium-7, based on the use of mercury. COLEX stands for column exchange. Since the beginning of the atomic era, a variety of lithium enrichments methods have been developed and the COLEX process has been the most extensively implemented method so far. In the US, several chemical exchange methods for lithium isotope separation have been under investigation in the 1930s and 1940s to develop a process for lithium-6 production, so that tritium could be obtained for thermonuclear weapons research; the system selected was the COLEX process, with aqueous lithium hydroxide contacted with lithium-mercury amalgam. This process was used in the US between 1955 and 1963 in the Y12 plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the COLEX plants in Oak Ridge had a rough start in 1955 with major problems in this new and hazardous technology. Stockpiles of lithium-6 and lithium-7 from that period have been available until to meet the small domestic and world demandSince due to environmental concerns, the US has stopped lithium enrichments operations in 1963.
South Africa built a pilot plant using the COLEX method to make lithium-6 for its nuclear weapons program in the 1970s. Natural lithium contains about 7.5 % lithium-6, with the rest being lithium-7. Occurring lithium has many non nuclear industrial uses, ranging from Li-ion batteries, lubricants, to glass. In the beginning of the 21st century, the steady increase of lithium world production is stimulated by the demand of Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles; the nuclear applications of lithium requires small annual quantities of lithium, in the form of enriched lithium-6 and lithium-7. Lithium-6 is valuable as the source material for the production of tritium and as an absorber of neutrons in nuclear fusion reactions. Enriched lithium-6 is used as a neutron booster in thermonuclear bombs, will be a key component in the tritium breeding modules of the future fusion reactors based on plasma confinement; the separation of lithium-6 has by now ceased in the large thermonuclear powers, but stockpiles of it remain in these countries.
Enriched lithium-7 is used as a coolant in molten salt reactors and pH stabilizer in pressurized water reactors. Lithium-6 has a greater affinity than lithium-7 for the element mercury; when an amalgam of lithium and mercury is added to aqueous lithium hydroxide, the lithium-6 becomes more concentrated in the amalgam and the lithium-7 more in the hydroxide solution. The COLEX separation method makes use of this by passing a counter-flow of lithium-mercury amalgam flowing down and aqueous lithium hydroxide flowing up through a cascade of stages; the fraction of lithium-6 is preferentially drained by the mercury, but the lithium-7 flows with the hydroxide. At the bottom of the column, the lithium is separated from the amalgam, the mercury is recovered to be reused in the process. At the top, the lithium hydroxide solution is electrolyzed to liberate the lithium-7 fraction; the enrichment obtained with this method varies with the column length, the flow speed, the operating temperature. From a technical and economical point of view, the COLEX separation has been so far the only method that enables industrial scale production of enriched lithium at minimal costs.
The technology is mature, has changed little since its development in the 1950s and 1960s. The method is not without a number of drawbacks, the main of which are: toxicity and large amounts of mercury, participating in the process amalgam trend to decomposition in aqueous solutions formation of dangerous mercury-containing waste high energy consumptionThe technology has disastrous environmental implications. A significant amount of mercury is required and there exists many opportunities for leaks into the environment. Cleanup remains difficult and expensive. In spite of the health and environmental concerns associated with processes based on mercury, some research is still being done on the COLEX separation along with cleaner lithium enrichment methods. Nowadays, it seems that China is the only country in the world that employ the COLEX process to enrich lithium. Due to environmental concerns and low demand for enriched lithium, further use of the COLEX process is banned in the USA since 1963, which strengthens China’s near unanimous hold over the market of enriched lithium, followed by Russia..
Russian enrichment capacities focus on lithium-7 production by electrolysis of an aqueous lithium chloride solution using a mercury cathode, thus different from the COLEX process. Although US nuclear industry relies on Chinese and Russian enriched lithium, the ecological concerns of the process may impede the future domestic use at industrial scale. However, with the upswing in research in the general area of fusion reactor technology there has been renewed interest during the last decade in better processes for 6Li-7Li separation in Japan and the US. North Korea is assessed to have procured the wherewithal to build a lithium-6 enrichment plant based on the COLEX separation. No industrial-scale facilities exist today that could meet the future requirements of commercial fusion power plants. Y-12 National Security Complex Thermonuclear bomb Fusion power ITER Isotopes of lithium Mercury cycle Mercury
PAX Technology is a Chinese-based manufacturer of payment terminals. The company is headquartered in Shenzhen and operates in 5 global regions - EMEA, LACIS, North America and Asia Pacific. PAX has over 40 million point of sale terminals deployed in over 110 countries; the company operates in different markets through a network of direct offices and channel partners worldwide. PAX Technology was founded in Shenzhen in 2001. In the same year company was EMV certified as point of sale solution provider in Asia. In 2002, PAX was selected as supplier of EFTPOS terminals for China UnionPay Merchant Services and supplier for Bank of China & Bank of Communications in 2004; the company was ranked by the Nilson Report in the top 10 payment terminal suppliers in 2007. In 2010, PAX was listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and in 2013 Forbes listed PAX in their Asia's 200 best companies under a billion. In 2016, PAX announced a strategic partnership with Samsung to implement the Samsung Pay payment method in PAX payment terminals.
Same year at TRUSTECH, PAX set a major milestone in company's development unveiling first Android smart terminal - PAX A920. Same year Forbes listed again PAX in their Asia's 200 Best Under A Billion annual list. In 2017, Nie Guoming, Chairman of PAX Global, introduced PAXSTORE - open-platform for distribution of business apps for company's Android POS terminals, similar to the concept of Apple Store and Google Play. Point of sale companies Payment terminal Point of sale
Manuel María Orellana Contreras was a Guatemalan army officer and politician, from 17 to 31 December 1930, de facto interim President of Guatemala, after leading a coup d'état that ended Baudilio Palma interim presidency. Palma, in turn, had been appointed president only four days earlier, when president Lázaro Chacón González suffered a stroke and was forced to resign. At the moment the coup took place, orellana Contreras was commander of the San Rafael de Matamoros Fort in Guatemala City. In December, 1930 the following events occurred in a rapid succession: On 12 December, General Chacón suffers a stroke that forces him to resign. General Mauro de León, first designated successor to the Presidency resigns. Lawyer and cabinet member Baudilio Palma, second designated successor, is appointed interim President. However, on 16 December 1930 a coup de' etat led by general Orellana Contreras and Luis Leonardo forces Palma to resign after a short battle inside the Presidential Palace. During the fight, that lasted no more than an hour, both Palma and Mauro de León died.
The Liberal Progresista party placed general Roderico Anzueto in the key position of Chief of Police. Once in power, Orellana Contreras reformed the Cabinet and worked on restructuring the Guatemalan military bases. However, given the large investments that American companies had in Guatemala -especially the United Fruit Company, the United States Secretary of State Henry Stimson publicly denounced Orellana as an unconstitutional leader and demanded his removal. Realizing that the Americans would not recognize his government, Orellana resigned on December 29. Stimson sent Ambassador Sheltom Whitehouse to tell Orellana Contreras that his country would not be dealing with the new Guatemalan president whatsoever. Whitehouse pressed the National Assembly to force Orellana Contreras to resign, taking advantage of Orellana's lack of political experience, and the American government needed a stable regime in Guatemala. Orellana Contreras was cousin of former president general José María Orellana Pinto, president Manuel Estrada Cabrera Chief of Staff and who had appointed general Jorge Ubico as chief of his secret police while in office.
In attention to this, new president Ubico commissioned Orellana Contreras as military attaché in the Guatemalan Ambassy in Spain, where he worked until his death on 17 June 1940. Guatemala portal Biography portal Politics portal Baudilio Palma Jorge Ubico José María Orellana Lázaro Chacón United Fruit Company