Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase by about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9% of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The typical cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity, since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, it has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than photovoltaic power plants and fossil fuel powered energy plants.
However, when constructed in lowland rainforest areas, where inundation of a part of the forest is necessary, they emit up to 3 to 4 times more greenhouse gases. Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique, which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand arising from the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1, USA, near Niagara Falls, began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts.
By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas. Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism, with over one million visitors. By 1920, when 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes, including flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development, federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century, was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam.
The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency. Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14 GW, but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22.5 GW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
Due to the political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential can be developed before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the h
Coelosimilia is a genus of extinct scleractinian coral from the Late Cretaceous period. The specimens were found in rocks around 70 million years old dating from the Late Cretaceous of the Mesozoic Era. Coelosimilia is similar to modern-day scleractinians, except for the composition of its calcitic, non-aragonitic skeleton, it is the only known scleractinian so far to have an calcitic skeleton. Coelosimilia is known from several specimens collected from carbonate Maastrichtian deposits located in the modern-day country of Poland. Together, these areas would have been the continental shelves of the Late Cretaceous European continent. Polish locations known to have produced specimens of the taxon include chalk-pits and quarries in Nasiłów, Lubycza Królewska and Mielnik; the specimens collected from these locations, identified as the ZPAL H. II series are in the collections of the Paleobiological Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences; the discovery and analysis of Coelosimilia has changed the previous understanding of the evolution of the Scleractinia.
Modern-day scleractinian corals have skeletons composed of a calcitic mineral. Analysis of the skeleton of Coelosimilia does not seem to support development from aragonitic compounds. Instead, the skeleton is calcitic — a type not seen in extant scleractinia, it is the first recorded instance of a scleractinian coral producing a non-aragonitic skeleton. Production of non-aragonitic skeletons by marine organisms, or the evolution of organisms capable thereof has been explained as a response to the ratio of the elements Magnesium and Calcium dissolved in seawater. Magnesium is a component of aragonite, an abundance of the element is necessary for the development of aragonitic structure-building organisms; the presence of Coelosimilia during the Late Cretaceous has been suggested as an indicator of a low ratio of Mg to Ca in Cretaceous seas. In contrast, modern-day ratios of the two elements would be more than twice the suggested Cretaceous value, at a ratio of around 5.2. This has been used as an indicator of the shifts in the ratios of the two minerals in the oceans over the geologic time scale
Ray Colcord III was an American film and television composer, known for TV series such as 227, The Facts of Life, Silver Spoons, My Two Dads, Big Brother, Boy Meets World. He is a former governor of the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, a past President of the Society of Composers & Lyricists, served on the board of directors of the Film Preservation Society and was a member of the National Film Preservation Board, he has received ASCAP, BMI, Dramalogue awards. Prior to his film and television career, Colcord worked as a session musician and an A&R representative for Columbia Records, was responsible for Aerosmith's signing, co-produced their second album, Get Your Wings, he was the first music director of the Los Angeles improvisational comedy group The Groundlings. Colcord played keyboards on the Lou Reed live album Rock n Roll Animal. Ray played keyboards on American Pie, the album by Don McLean. Colcord died on February 5, 2016 in Los Angeles at the age of 66, he had pancreatic cancer for four years.
He was survived by his wife Madeleine, to whom he was married since 1983, son Alex. Killer By Nature Resurrection Mary Journeys Below the Line: ER - The Prop Masters Journeys Below the Line: 24 - The Editing Process The King's Guard Heartwood The Paper Brigade Amityville Dollhouse: Evil Never Dies Wish Upon a Star The Sleeping Car The Devonsville Terror - Composer Dumb & Dumber - "Hip Hop Solution", "Rap me Silly", "Endangered Species", "Snow Bird Serenade" Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life - "Bouzouki Trella" Earth Girls Are Easy - "I Like'Em Big And Stupid" Dr. Demento 20th Anniversary Collection - "The Homecoming Queen's Got a Gun") Lost at Home Family Affair Big Brother Style and Substance Tales from the Tomb: Lost Sons of the Pharaohs You Wish Hiller and Diller Promised Land Devil's Food Television's Comedy Classics Real Funny Wow! The Most Awesome Acts on Earth Maybe This Time 50 Years of Soaps: An All-Star Celebration Black Sheep Boy Meets World Girl Meets World The Charmings Almost Home Where I Live Scorch The Torkelsons Dinosaurs The Julie Show The Simpsons Dead Putting Society Singer & Sons Jury Duty: The Comedy Ann Jillian Live-In Trial and Error Women in Prison My Two Dads The Charmings Sweet Surrender 227 Double Trouble Silver Spoons - Composer for second half of seasons 4 to 5 Off Your Rocker The Facts of Life - Composer for seasons 7 to 9 Official website Ray Colcord on IMDb Ray Colcord discography at Discogs