Saint Anthony Falls
Saint Anthony Falls or the Falls of Saint Anthony, located northeast of downtown Minneapolis, was the only natural major waterfall on the Upper Mississippi River. The natural falls were replaced by an overflow spillway after it partially collapsed in 1869. Later, in the 1950s and 1960s, a series of locks, from 1880 to about 1930, Minneapolis was the Flour Milling Capital of the World. These locks were built as part of the Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Navigation Project, the area around the falls is designated the St. Anthony Falls Historic District and features a 1. 8-mile self-guided walking trail with signs explaining the areas past. Before European exploration, the falls held cultural and political significance for native tribes who frequented the area, the falls was an important and sacred site to the Mdewakanton Dakota and they called the Mississippi River, river of the falls. Dakota associated the falls with legends and spirits, including Oanktehi, god of waters and evil, the rocky islet where the woman had pointed her canoe towards doom thus was named Spirit Island which was once a nesting ground for eagles that fed on fish below the falls.
Dakota camped on Nicollet Island upstream of the falls to fish, since the cataract had to be portaged, the area became one of the natural resting and trade points along the Mississippi between Dakota and Anishinaabe peoples. The Anishinaabe term was recorded as kakabikah, Hennepin named them the Chutes de Saint-Antoine or the Falls of Saint Anthony after his patron saint, Anthony of Padua. Later explorers to document the falls include Jonathan Carver and Zebulon Montgomery Pike, by the 1860s, industrial waste had filled the area and marred the falls majesty. The districts archaeological record is one of the historic sites in Minnesota. The National Register of Historic Places is facilitated by the National Park Service, a Heritage Trail plaque nearby says, For untold generations of Indian people the Mississippi River was an important canoe route. To pass around the falls, the Dakota and Ojibway used a portage trail. Starting at a landing below the now occupied by the steam plant. From here it followed the east bank along what is now Main Street to a point well above the falls, geologists say that the falls first appeared roughly 10,000 years ago several miles downstream at the confluence of the glacial River Warren.
Estimates are that the falls were about 180 feet high when the River Warren Falls receded past the confluence of the Mississippi River, over the succeeding 10,000 years, the falls moved upstream to its present location. The water churning at the bottom of the falls ate away at the soft sandstone, from its origins near Fort Snelling, St. Anthony Falls relocated upstream at a rate of about 4 feet per year until it reached its present location in the early 19th century. Tributaries such as Minnehaha Creek begot their own waterfalls as the Mississippi River valley was cut into the landscape, when Father Louis Hennepin documented the falls he estimated the falls height to be 50 or 60 feet. Later explorers described it as being in the range of 16 to 20 feet high, the discrepancy may have been due to scope, as the current total drop in river level over the series of dams is 76 ft
In physics, energy is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on – or to heat – the object, and can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Mass and energy are closely related, for example, with a sensitive enough scale, one could measure an increase in mass after heating an object. Living organisms require available energy to stay alive, such as the humans get from food. Civilisation gets the energy it needs from energy resources such as fuels, nuclear fuel. The processes of Earths climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant energy Earth receives from the sun, the total energy of a system can be subdivided and classified in various ways. It may be convenient to distinguish gravitational energy, thermal energy, several types of energy, electric energy. Many of these overlap, for instance, thermal energy usually consists partly of kinetic.
Some types of energy are a mix of both potential and kinetic energy. An example is energy which is the sum of kinetic. Whenever physical scientists discover that a phenomenon appears to violate the law of energy conservation. Heat and work are special cases in that they are not properties of systems, in general we cannot measure how much heat or work are present in an object, but rather only how much energy is transferred among objects in certain ways during the occurrence of a given process. Heat and work are measured as positive or negative depending on which side of the transfer we view them from, the distinctions between different kinds of energy is not always clear-cut. In contrast to the definition, energeia was a qualitative philosophical concept, broad enough to include ideas such as happiness. The modern analog of this property, kinetic energy, differs from vis viva only by a factor of two, in 1807, Thomas Young was possibly the first to use the term energy instead of vis viva, in its modern sense.
Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis described kinetic energy in 1829 in its modern sense, the law of conservation of energy was first postulated in the early 19th century, and applies to any isolated system. It was argued for years whether heat was a physical substance, dubbed the caloric, or merely a physical quantity. In 1845 James Prescott Joule discovered the link between mechanical work and the generation of heat and these developments led to the theory of conservation of energy, formalized largely by William Thomson as the field of thermodynamics
Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Hubei province, China. The Three Gorges Dam is the worlds largest power station in terms of installed capacity, in 2014 the dam generated 98.8 terawatt-hours and had the world record, but was surpassed by Itaipú Dam that set the new world record in 2016 producing 103.1 TWh. Except for the locks, the dam project was completed and fully functional as of July 4,2012, the ship lift was complete in December 2015. Each main water turbine has a capacity of 700 MW, the dam body was completed in 2006. Coupling the dams 32 main turbines with two generators to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW. As well as producing electricity, the dam is intended to increase the Yangtze Rivers shipping capacity, China regards the project as monumental as well as a success socially and economically, with the design of state-of-the-art large turbines, and a move toward limiting greenhouse gas emissions.
However, the dam flooded archaeological and cultural sites and displaced some 1.3 million people, the dam has been controversial both domestically and abroad. A large dam across the Yangtze River was originally envisioned by Sun Yat-sen in The International Development of China and he stated that a dam capable of generating 30 million horsepower was possible downstream of the Three Gorges. In 1932, the Nationalist government, led by Chiang Kai-shek, in 1939, Japanese military forces occupied Yichang and surveyed the area. A design, the Otani plan, was completed for the dam in anticipation of a Japanese victory over China. In 1944, the United States Bureau of Reclamation chief design engineer, John L. Savage, surveyed the area, Some 54 Chinese engineers went to the U. S. for training. In the case of water craft, groups of craft would be lifted together for efficiency. Some exploration, economic study, and design work was done, after the 1954 Yangtze River Floods, in 1956, Mao Zedong authored Swimming, a poem about his fascination with a dam on the Yangtze River.
In 1958, after the Hundred Flowers Campaign, some engineers who spoke out against the project were imprisoned, during the 1980s, the idea of a dam reemerged. The National Peoples Congress approved the dam in 1992, out of 2,633 delegates,1,767 voted in favour,177 voted against,664 abstained, Construction started on December 14,1994. The dam was expected to be operational in 2009, but additional projects, such as the underground power plant with six additional generators. The ship lift was completed in 2015, the dam had raised the water level in the reservoir to 172.5 m above sea level by the end of 2008 and the designed maximum level of 175 m by October 2010. Made of concrete and steel, the dam is 2,335 m long, the project used 27. 2×10^6 m3 of concrete, used 463,000 T of steel, and moved about 102. 6×10^6 m3 of earth
An ore is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals that can be economically extracted from the rock. The ores are extracted from the earth through mining, they are refined to extract the valuable element. The grade or concentration of an ore mineral, or metal, as well as its form of occurrence, will directly affect the costs associated with mining the ore. The cost of extraction must thus be weighed against the value contained in the rock to determine what ore can be processed. Metal ores are generally oxides, silicates, or native metals that are not commonly concentrated in the Earths crust, the ores must be processed to extract the metals of interest from the waste rock and from the ore minerals. Ore bodies are formed by a variety of geological processes, the process of ore formation is called ore genesis. An ore deposit is an accumulation of ore and this is distinct from a mineral resource as defined by the mineral resource classification criteria.
An ore deposit is one occurrence of a particular ore type, Ore deposits are classified according to various criteria developed via the study of economic geology, or ore genesis. Stratiform arkose-hosted and shale-hosted copper, typified by the Zambian copperbelt and this identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work. This is because the distribution of ores is unequal and dislocated from locations of peak demand. Other, commodities do not have international clearing houses and benchmark prices and this generally makes determining the price of ores of this nature opaque and difficult. Such metals include lithium, niobium-tantalum, bismuth and rare earths, most of these commodities are dominated by one or two major suppliers with >60% of the worlds reserves. The London Metal Exchange aims to add uranium to its list of metals on warrant, the World Bank reports that China was the top importer of ores and metals in 2005 followed by the USA and Japan.
Economic geology Mineral resource classification Ore genesis Petrology Froth Flotation Extractive metallurgy DILL, the “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits and geology from aluminum to zirconium, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 100, Issue 1-4, June 2010, Pages 1-420
History of India
Evidence of anatomically modern humans in the Indian subcontinent is recorded as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period and this civilisation collapsed at the start of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilisation. The era saw the composition of the Vedas, the texts of Hinduism. The Vedic Civilisation extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas, in one of these kingdoms, Gautama Buddha and Mahavira propagated their Shramanic philosophies during the fifth and sixth century BCE. Most of the subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th, from the 3rd century BCE onwards Prakrit and Pali literature in the north and the Tamil Sangam literature in southern India started to flourish. Wootz steel originated in south India in the 3rd century BCE and was exported to foreign countries, various parts of India were ruled by numerous dynasties for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out.
This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or Golden Age of India, Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianised kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Southern India saw the rise of imperial powers from the middle of the fifth century, most notable being the Chalukya, Pallava, Pandyan. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, the early medieval period Indian mathematics influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world and the Hindu numerals were introduced. The 15th century saw the emergence of Sikhism, in the 16th century, Mughals came from Central Asia and gradually covered most of India. From the late 18th century to the century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company of the British Empire. James Mill, in his The History of British India, distinguished three phases in the history of India, namely Hindu and British civilisations and this periodisation has been influential, but has been criticised for the misconceptions it gave rise to.
Another influential periodisation is the division into ancient, classical and modern periods, according to Thapar, a periodisation could be based on significant social and economic changes, which are not strictly related to a change of ruling powers. Tools crafted by proto-humans that have dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. The ancient history of the region some of South Asias oldest settlements. The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the Palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley, soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India and Nepal. The first confirmed semi-permanent settlements appeared 9,000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, early Neolithic culture in the Indian subcontinent is represented by the Bhirrana findings in Haryana, India as well as Mehrgarh findings in Balochistan, Pakistan. The Edakkal Caves are pictorial writings believed to date to at least 6,000 BCE, from the Neolithic man, the Stone Age carvings of Edakkal are rare and are the only known examples from South India
An elevator or lift is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables or counterweight systems like a hoist, in agriculture and manufacturing, an elevator is any type of conveyor device used to lift materials in a continuous stream into bins or silos. Several types exist, such as the chain and bucket elevator, grain auger screw conveyor using the principle of Archimedes screw, or the chain, languages other than English may have loanwords based on either elevator or lift. Because of wheelchair access laws, elevators are often a requirement in new multistory buildings. The earliest known reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, some sources from historical periods mention elevators as cabs on a hemp rope powered by hand or by animals. In 1000, the Book of Secrets by al-Muradi in Islamic Spain described the use of a lifting device.
In the 17th century the prototypes of elevators were located in the buildings of England. Louis XV of France had a flying chair built for one of his mistresses at the Chateau de Versailles in 1743. Ancient and medieval elevators used drive systems based on hoists or winders, the invention of a system based on the screw drive was perhaps the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, leading to the creation of modern passenger elevators. The first screw drive elevator was built by Ivan Kulibin and installed in Winter Palace in 1793, several years another of Kulibins elevators was installed in Arkhangelskoye near Moscow. The development of elevators was led by the need for movement of raw materials including coal, the technology developed by these industries and the introduction of steel beam construction worked together to provide the passenger and freight elevators in use today. Starting in the mines, by the mid-19th century elevators were operated with steam power and were used for moving goods in bulk in mines and factories.
It elevated paying customers to a height in the center of London. Early, crude steam-driven elevators were refined in the decade, – in 1835 an innovative elevator called the Teagle was developed by the company Frost. The elevator was belt-driven and used a counterweight for extra power, the hydraulic crane was invented by Sir William Armstrong in 1846, primarily for use at the Tyneside docks for loading cargo. These quickly supplanted the steam driven elevators, exploiting Pascals law. A water pump supplied a variable level of pressure to a plunger encased inside a vertical cylinder. Counterweights and balances were used to increase the lifting power of the apparatus
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered an age in Chinese history. To this day, Chinas majority ethnic group refers to itself as the Han people and it was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods, the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han, the emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States, from the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of scholars such as Dong Zhongshu.
This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD, the Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty. The coinage issued by the government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty. The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations, the Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han launched several campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries, the territories north of Hans borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Imperial authority was seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, following Liu Bangs victory in the Chu–Han Contention, the resulting Han dynasty was named after the Hanzhong fief.
Chinas first imperial dynasty was the Qin dynasty, the Qin unified the Chinese Warring States by conquest, but their empire became unstable after the death of the first emperor Qin Shi Huangdi. Within four years, the authority had collapsed in the face of rebellion. Although Xiang Yu proved to be a commander, Liu Bang defeated him at Battle of Gaixia. Liu Bang assumed the title emperor at the urging of his followers and is known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu, Changan was chosen as the new capital of the reunified empire under Han
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as waste, municipal waste, plant material, sewage. Biogas is an energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint. Biogas can be produced by digestion with anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system. Biogas is primarily methane and carbon dioxide and may have small amounts of sulfide, moisture. The gases methane and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen and this energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel, it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity, Biogas can be compressed, the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles. In the UK, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel and it qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world.
Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio-methane, Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is continuous, and it generates no net carbon dioxide. Organic material grows, is converted and used and regrows in a repeating cycle. From a carbon perspective, as carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere in the growth of the primary bio-resource as is released when the material is ultimately converted to energy. A biogas plant is the name given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops. It can be produced using anaerobic digesters and these plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste. During the process, the microorganisms transform biomass waste into biogas, other internal combustion engines such as gas turbines are suitable for the conversion of biogas into both electricity and heat. The digestate is the inorganic matter that was not transformed into biogas.
It can be used as an agricultural fertiliser, there are two key processes and thermophilic digestion which is dependent on temperature. The dangers of biogas are mostly similar to those of natural gas, Biogas can be explosive when mixed in the ratio of one part biogas to 8-20 parts air. Special safety precautions have to be taken for entering an empty biogas digester for maintenance work and it is important that a biogas system never has negative pressure as this could cause an explosion
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, rain, tides and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas, electricity generation and water heating/cooling, based on REN21s 2016 report, renewables contributed 19. 2% to humans global energy consumption and 23. 7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8. 9% coming from biomass,4. 2% as heat energy,3. 9% hydro electricity and 2. 2% is electricity from wind, geothermal. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$286 billion in 2015, with countries like China, there are an estimated 7.7 million jobs associated with the renewable energy industries, with solar photovoltaics being the largest renewable employer. As of 2015 worldwide, more than half of all new electricity capacity installed was renewable, Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries.
Rapid deployment of energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation. In international public opinion there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade, for example, in Denmark the government decided to switch the total energy supply to 100% renewable energy by 2050. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. Renewable energy systems are becoming more efficient and cheaper. Their share of energy consumption is increasing. Growth in consumption of coal and oil could end by 2020 due to increased uptake of renewables, in its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth.
Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, ocean, biomass, geothermal resources, rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits. New government spending and policies helped the industry weather the financial crisis better than many other sectors. As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. Some countries have much higher long-term policy targets of up to 100% renewables, outside Europe, a diverse group of 20 or more other countries target renewable energy shares in the 2020–2030 time frame that range from 10% to 50%
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill. A water wheel consists of a wheel, with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle, vertical wheels can transmit power either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears, horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load. Water wheels were still in use well into the 20th century. Uses included milling flour in gristmills, grinding wood into pulp for papermaking, hammering wrought iron, some water wheels are fed by water from a mill pond, which is formed when a flowing stream is dammed. A channel for the water flowing to or from a wheel is called a mill race. The race bringing water from the pond to the water wheel is a headrace. In the mid to late 18th century John Smeatons scientific investigation of the water led to significant increases in efficiency supplying much needed power for the Industrial Revolution.
Water wheels began being displaced by the smaller, less expensive and more efficient turbine, developed by Benoît Fourneyron, turbines are capable of handling high heads, or elevations, that exceed the capability of practical-sized waterwheels. The main difficulty of water wheels is their dependence on flowing water, modern hydroelectric dams can be viewed as the descendants of the water wheel, as they too take advantage of the movement of water downhill. The two main functions of water wheels were historically water-lifting for irrigation purposes and as a power source, when used for water-lifting power can be supplied by either human or animal force or by the water current itself. Water wheels come in two designs, either a vertical or a horizontal axle. The latter type can be subdivided, depending on where the hits the wheel. Engineers of the Hellenistic era Mediterranean region are credited with the development of the water wheel, Mediterranean engineers of the Hellenistic and Roman periods were the first to use it for both irrigation and as a power source.
The technological breakthrough occurred in the advanced and scientifically minded Hellenistic period between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. This is seen as an evolution of the paddle-driven water-lifting wheels that had appeared in ancient Egypt by the 4th century BCE. According to John Peter Oleson, both the wheel and the hydraulic Noria appeared in Egypt by the 4th century BCE. This is supported by finds at Faiyum, where the oldest archeological evidence of a water-wheel has been found