Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
The Ipatiev Monastery —sometimes translated into English as Hypatian Monastery—is a male monastery, situated on the bank of the Kostroma River just opposite the city of Kostroma. It was founded around 1330 by a Tatar convert, Prince Chet, whose male-line descendants include Solomonia Saburova and Boris Godunov and dedicated to St. Hypatios of Gangra. In 1435, Vasily II concluded a peace with his cousin Vasily Kosoy there. At that time, the cloister was a notable centre of learning, it was here that Nikolay Karamzin discovered a set of three 14th-century chronicles, including the Primary Chronicle, now known as the Hypatian Codex. During the Time of Troubles in Russia, the Ipatiev Monastery was occupied by the supporters of False Dmitriy II in the spring of 1609. In September of that same year, the monastery was captured by the Muscovite army after a long siege. On March 14, 1613, the Zemsky Sobor announced that Mikhail Romanov, in this monastery at the time, would be the Russian tsar. Most of the monastery buildings date from the 17th centuries.
The Trinity Cathedral is famous for its elaborately painted interior. The church of the Nativity of the Mother of God was rebuilt by the celebrated Konstantin Thon at the request of Tsar Nicholas I to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the House of Romanov; the Soviet authorities demolished it in 1932, but it was rebuilt in 2013. The main entrance from the riverside was designed by Konstantin Thon. A private house of Mikhail Romanov was restored on the orders of Tsar Alexander II, though the authenticity of the reconstruction was questioned by Konstantin Pobedonostsev; the Ipatiev Monastery was disbanded after the October Revolution in 1917. It has been a part of the historical and architectural preservation, but the authorities decided to return it to the Russian Orthodox Church, despite strong opposition from museum officials. In September 2002 one of the most prominent museum exhibits, the large wooden church from Spas-Vezhi village, was destroyed by fire. Media related to Ipatiev Monastery at Wikimedia Commons
The Tale of Bygone Years is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110 compiled in Kiev about 1113. The work’s name originates from the opening sentence of the text, which reads: “These are the narratives of bygone years regarding the origin of the land of Rus’, the first princes of Kiev, from what source the land of Rus’ had its beginning.” The work is considered to be a fundamental source in the interpretation of the history of the East Slavs. The Chronicle's content is known to us today from several surviving editions and codices that have been revised over the years and evince a slight degree of variation from each other; the historical period covered in the Tale of Bygone Years begins with biblical times, in the introductory portion of the text, concludes with the year 1117 in the Chronicle's third edition. Russian philologist and founder of the science of textology, Aleksey Shakhmatov, was the first one to discover early on that the chronology of the Russian Primary Chronicle opens with an error.
The Chronicle has it that “In the year 6360, the fifteenth of the indiction, at the accession of the Emperor Michael, the land of Rus’ was first named.” However, John Skylitzes' accounts of the Byzantine history show that Emperor Michael III did not begin his reign in 852 but rather a decade earlier, on January 20, 842. Because of the work's several identified chronological issues and numerous logical incongruities that have been pointed out by historians over the years, the Chronicle's value as a reliable historical source has been placed under strict scrutiny by the contemporary experts in the field. Tradition long regarded the original compilation as the work of a monk named Nestor, his compilation has not survived. Nestor worked at the court of Sviatopolk II of Kiev, shared Sviatopolk's pro-Scandinavian policies. Nestor's Pan-Scandinavian attitude was confirmed by a Polish historian and archaeologist Wladyslaw Duczko, who argued that one of the central aims of the Chronicle’s narrative is to “give an explanation how the Rurikids came to power in the lands of the Slavs, why the dynasty was the only legitimate one and why all the princes should terminate their internal fights and rule in peace and brotherly love.”
The early part of the RPC features many anecdotal stories, among them: those of the arrival of the three Varangian brothers, the founding of Kiev the murder of Askold and Dir, ca. 882 the death of Oleg in 912, the "cause" of, reported foreseen by him the thorough vengeance taken by Olga, the wife of Igor, on the Drevlians, who had murdered her husband. In the year 1116, Nestor's text was extensively edited by the hegumen Sylvester who appended his name at the end of the chronicle; as Vladimir Monomakh was the patron of the village of Vydubychi where Sylvester's monastery was situated, the new edition glorified Vladimir and made him the central figure of narrative. This second version of Nestor's work is preserved in the Laurentian codex. A third edition followed two years and centered on the person of Vladimir's son and heir, Mstislav the Great; the author of this revision could have been Greek, for he corrected and updated much data on Byzantine affairs. This latest revision of Nestor's work is preserved in the Hypatian codex.
Because the original of the chronicle as well as the earliest known copies are lost, it is difficult to establish the original content of the chronicle. The two main sources for the chronicle's text as it is known presently are the Laurentian Codex and the Hypatian Codex; the Laurentian Codex was compiled in what are today Russian lands by the Nizhegorod monk Laurentius for the Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich in 1377. The original text he used was a codex compiled for the Grand Duke Mikhail of Tver in 1305; the account continues until 1305, but the years 898–922, 1263–83 and 1288–94 are missing for reasons unknown. The manuscript was acquired by the famous Count Musin-Pushkin in 1792 and subsequently presented to the National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg; the Hypatian Codex dates to the 15th century. It was written in what are today Ukrainian lands and incorporates much information from the lost 12th-century Kievan and 13th-century Halychian chronicles; the language of this work is the East Slavic version of Church Slavonic language with many additional irregular east-slavisms.
Whereas the Laurentian text traces the Kievan legacy through to the Muscovite princes, the Hypatian text traces the Kievan legacy through the rulers of the Halych principality. The Hypatian codex was rediscovered in Kiev in the 1620s, a copy was made for Prince Kostiantyn Ostrozhsky. A copy was found in Russia in the 18th century at the Ipatiev Monastery of Kostroma by the Russian historian Nikolai Karamzin. Numerous monographs and published versions of the chronicle have been made, the earliest known being in 1767. Aleksey Shakhmatov published a pioneering textological analysis of the narrative in 1908. Dmitry Likhachev and other Soviet scholars revisited his findings, their ver
The Rus' people are understood in English-language scholarship as ethnically or ancestrally Scandinavian people trading and raiding on the river-routes between the Baltic and the Black Seas from around the eighth to eleventh centuries CE. Thus they are referred to in English-language research as "Viking Rus'"; the scholarly consensus is that Rus' people originated in what is coastal Middle Sweden around the eighth century and that their name has the same origin as Roslagen in Sweden. Basing themselves among Slavic and Finnic peoples in the upper Volga region, they formed a diaspora of traders and raiders exchanging furs and slaves for silk and other commodities available to the east and south. Around the ninth century, on the river routes to the Black Sea, they had an unclear but significant role in forming the principality of Kievan Rus assimilating with local Slavic populations, they extended their operations much further east and south, among the Turkic Bulgars and Khazars, on the routes to the Caspian Sea.
By around the eleventh century, the word Rus' was associated with the principality of Kiev, the term Varangian was becoming more common as a term for Scandinavians traveling the river-routes. Little, however, is certain about them; this is to a significant extent because, although Rus' people were active over a long period and vast distances, textual evidence for their activities is sparse and never produced by contemporary Rus' people themselves. It's believed that writing was brought to the Rus by the Slavs for religious reasons, which arrived to the area much than they did; the word Rus' in the primary sources does not always mean the same thing as it does when used by today's scholars. Meanwhile, archaeological evidence and researchers' understanding of it is accumulating only gradually; as a trading diaspora, Rus' people intermingled extensively with Finnic and Turkic peoples and their customs and identity seem correspondingly to have varied over time and space. The other key reason for dispute about the origins of Rus' people is the likelihood that they had a role in ninth- to tenth-century state formation in eastern Europe, making them relevant to what are today seen as the national histories of Russia, Sweden, Belarus and Baltic states.
This has engendered fierce debate as different political interest groups promote their own stories as to who the Rus' were, in the belief that the politics of the ancient past legitimize policies in the present. The etymology and semantic history of the word Rus' has been a contentious topic, on which debate is ongoing; this is because of a widespread assumption that by identifying the linguistic origin of the name Rus', scholars can identify the origins of the people whom it described. This assumption has, been criticized in twenty-first-century scholarship. According to the prevalent theory, the name Rus', like the Finnish name for Sweden, is derived from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen or Roden, as it was known in earlier times; the name Rus' would have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden: Ruotsi and Rootsi. The earliest Slavonic-language narrative account of Rus' history is the Primary Chronicle and adapted from a wide range of sources in Kiev at the start of the thirteenth century.
It has therefore been influential on modern history-writing, but it is much than the time it describes, historians agree it reflects the political and religious politics of the time of Mstislav I of Kiev. However, the chronicle does include the texts of a series of Rus'–Byzantine Treaties from 911, 945, 971; the Rus'–Byzantine Treaties give a valuable insight into the names of the Rus'. Of the fourteen Rus' signatories to the Rus'–Byzantine Treaty in 907, all had Norse names. By the Rus'–Byzantine Treaty in 945, some signatories of the Rus' had Slavic names while the vast majority had Norse names; the Chronicle presents the following origin myth for the arrival of Rus' in the region of Novgorod: the Rus' were a group of Varangians'who imposed tribute upon the Chuds, the Slavs, the Merians, the Ves', the Krivichians'. The tributaries of the Varangians drove them back beyond the sea and, refusing them further tribute, set out to govern themselves. There was no law among them. Discord thus ensued among them, they began to war one against the other.
They said to themselves, "Let us seek a prince who may rule over us, judge us according to the Law". They accordingly went overseas to the Varangian Russes: these particular Varangians were known as Russes, just as some are called Swedes, others Normans and Gotlanders, for they were thus named; the Chuds, the Slavs, the Krivichians and the Ves' said to the people of Rus', "Our land is great and rich, but there is no order in it. Come to rule and reign over us", thus they selected three brothers, with their kinsfolk, who took with them all the Russes and migrated. The oldest, located himself in Novgorod. On account of these Varangians, the district of Novgorod became known as the land of Rus'; the Primary Chronicle claims, they conquered Kiev and created the state of Kievan Rus' (which, most historians agree, was precede
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages. The first written use of the name "Slavs" dates to the 6th century, when the Slavic tribes inhabited a large portion of Central and Eastern Europe. By that century, nomadic Iranian ethnic groups living on the Eurasian Steppe had been absorbed by the region's Slavic population. Over the next two centuries, the Slavs expanded southwest toward the Balkans and the Alps and northeast towards the Volga River. It's still a matter of controversy where the original habitat of the Slavs was, but scholars believe it was somewhere in Eastern Europe. In the past not much attention was paid to the origin of the Slavic people. Beginning in the 9th century, the Slavs converted to Christianity. By the 12th century, they were the core population of a number of medieval Christian states: East Slavs in the Kievan Rus', South Slavs in the Bulgarian Empire, the Kingdom of Croatia, Banate of Bosnia and the Grand Principality of Serbia, West Slavs in the Great Moravia, the Kingdom of Poland, Duchy of Bohemia and Principality of Nitra.
Main articles: Vistula Veneti, Antes and Wends Ancient Roman and Greek historical sources refer to the early Slavic peoples as Veneti and Spori in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, in the 5th and 6th centuries as Antes and Sclaveni. The 6th century Byzantine historian Jordanes, wrote in his 551 AD work Getica: "although they derive from one nation, now they are known under three names, the Veneti and Sclaveni", in reference to the Slavs. Procopius wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni and the Antae had a single name in the remote past. During the Early Middle Ages starting in the 8th century, early Slavs living on the borders of the Carolingian Empire were referred to as Wends. Early Slavic archeological findings are most associated with the Przeworsk and Zarubintsy cultures, with evidence ranging from hill forts, ceramic pots, weapons and abodes. However, in many areas archaeologists face difficulties in distinguishing Slavic and non-Slavic findings, as the early Slavic culture over the subsequent centuries was influenced by the Sarmatian culture from the east, by the various Germanic cultures in the west.
The Proto-Slavic homeland is the area of Slavic settlement in Central and Eastern Europe during the first millennium AD, with its precise location debated by archaeologists and historians. Theories attempting to place Slavic origin in the Near East have been discarded. None of the proposed homelands reaches the Volga River in the east, over the Dinaric Alps in the southwest or the Balkan Mountains in the south, or past Bohemia in the west. Frederik Kortlandt has suggested that the number of candidates for Slavic homeland may rise from a tendency among historians to date "proto-languages farther back in time than is warranted by the linguistic evidence"; the existence of an "original home" is sometimes rejected as arbitrary, because the earliest origin sources "always speak of origins and beginnings in a manner which presupposes earlier origins and beginnings". According to historical records, the Slavic homeland would have been somewhere in central Europe along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.
The Prague-Penkova-Kolochin complex of cultures during the sixth and seventh centuries AD is accepted to reflect the expansion of Slavic speakers at the time. Core candidates are cultures within the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine. According to Polish historian Gerard Labuda, the ethnogenesis of Slavic people is the Trzciniec culture from about 1700 to 1200 BC; the Milograd culture hypothesis posits that the pre-Proto-Slavs originated in the seventh century BC–first century AD culture of northern Ukraine and southern Belarus. According to the Chernoles culture theory, the pre-Proto-Slavs originated in the 1025–700 BC culture of northern Ukraine and the third century BC–first century AD Zarubintsy culture. According to the Lusatian culture hypothesis, they were present in north-eastern Central Europe in the 1300–500 BC culture and the second century BC–fourth century AD Przeworsk culture; the Danube basin hypothesis, postulated by Oleg Trubachyov and supported by Florin Curta and Nestor's Chronicle, theorizes that the Slavs originated in central and southeastern Europe.
The latest attempt of locating the place of Slavic origin using genetics, after studying paternal lineages of all existing modern Slavic populations, placed the earliest known homeland of Slavs within the area of the middle Dnieper basin in nowadays Ukraine. Proto-Slavic began to evolve from Proto-Indo-European, the reconstructed language from which a number of languages spoken in Eurasia originated. Slavic languages share a number of features with Baltic languages, which may indicate a common Proto-Balto-Slavic phase in the development of the two of the Indo-European linguistic branches. Frederik Kortlandt places the territory of this common langua
A manuscript was, any document, written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way. More the term has come to be understood to further include any written, typed, or word-processed copy of an author's work, as distinguished from its rendition as a printed version of the same. Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in codex format. Illuminated manuscripts are enriched with pictures, border decorations, elaborately embossed initial letters or full-page illustrations. A document should be at least 75 years old to be considered a manuscript; the traditional abbreviations are MS for manuscript and MSS for manuscripts, while the forms MS. ms or ms. for singular, MSS. mss or mss. for plural are accepted.
The second s is not the plural. Before the invention of woodblock printing in China or by moveable type in a printing press in Europe, all written documents had to be both produced and reproduced by hand. Manuscripts were produced in form of scrolls or books. Manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on papyrus, on paper. In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived. In India, the palm leaf manuscript, with a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the 19th century. Paper spread from China via the Islamic world to Europe by the 14th century, by the late 15th century had replaced parchment for many purposes; when Greek or Latin works were published, numerous professional copies were made by scribes in a scriptorium, each making a single copy from an original, declaimed aloud. The oldest written manuscripts have been preserved by the perfect dryness of their Middle Eastern resting places, whether placed within sarcophagi in Egyptian tombs, or reused as mummy-wrappings, discarded in the middens of Oxyrhynchus or secreted for safe-keeping in jars and buried or stored in dry caves.
Manuscripts in Tocharian languages, written on palm leaves, survived in desert burials in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of the Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum; the manuscripts that were being most preserved in the libraries of antiquity are all lost. Papyrus has a life of at most a century or two in moist Italian or Greek conditions. All books were in manuscript form. In China, other parts of East Asia, woodblock printing was used for books from about the 7th century; the earliest dated example is the Diamond Sutra of 868. In the Islamic world and the West, all books were in manuscript until the introduction of movable type printing in about 1450. Manuscript copying of books continued for a least a century. Private or government documents remained hand-written until the invention of the typewriter in the late 19th century; because of the likelihood of errors being introduced each time a manuscript was copied, the filiation of different versions of the same text is a fundamental part of the study and criticism of all texts that have been transmitted in manuscript.
In Southeast Asia, in the first millennium, documents of sufficiently great importance were inscribed on soft metallic sheets such as copperplate, softened by refiner's fire and inscribed with a metal stylus. In the Philippines, for example, as early as 900AD, specimen documents were not inscribed by stylus, but were punched much like the style of today's dot-matrix printers; this type of document was rare compared to the usual leaves and bamboo staves. However, neither the leaves nor paper were as durable as the metal document in the hot, humid climate. In Burma, the kammavaca, Buddhist manuscripts, were inscribed on brass, copper or ivory sheets, on discarded monk robes folded and lacquered. In Italy some important Etruscan texts were inscribed on thin gold plates: similar sheets have been discovered in Bulgaria. Technically, these are all inscriptions rather than manuscripts; the study of the writing, or "hand" in surviving manuscripts is termed palaeography. In the Western world, from the classical period through the early centuries of the Christian era, manuscripts were written without spaces between the words, which makes them hard for the untrained to read.
Extant copies of these early manuscripts written in Greek or Latin and dating from the 4th century to the 8th century, are classified according to their use of either all upper case or all lower case letters. Hebrew manuscripts, such as the Dead Sea scrolls make no such differentiation. Manuscripts using all upper case letters are called majuscule, those using all lower case are called minuscule; the majuscule scripts such as uncial are written with much more care. The scribe lifted his pen between each stroke, producing an unmistakable effect of regularity and formality. On the other hand, while minuscule scripts can be written with pen-lift, they may be cursive, that is, use little or no pen-lift
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic known as Old Church Slavic or Old Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. It is referred to as Paleo-Slavic or Palaeo-Slavic, not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, it is abbreviated to OCS. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs, it is thought to have been based on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica. It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for Church Slavonic traditions, some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day; as the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
The language was standardized for the mission of the two apostles to Great Moravia. For that purpose and his brother Methodius started to translate religious literature to Old Church Slavonic based on the Slavic dialects spoken in the hinterland of their hometown, Thessaloniki, in today's Greece; as part of the preparation for the mission, in 862/863, the Glagolitic alphabet was created and the most important prayers and liturgical books, including the Aprakos Evangeliar, the Psalter, Acts of the Apostles, were translated. The language and the alphabet were taught at the Great Moravian Academy and were used for government and religious documents and books between 863 and 885; the texts written during this phase contain characteristics of the Slavic vernaculars in Great Moravia. In 885, the use of Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by Pope Stephen V in favour of Latin. Students of the two apostles, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the First Bulgarian Empire.
There it was taught at two literary schools: the Preslav Literary School and the Ohrid Literary School. The Glagolitic alphabet was used at both schools, though the Cyrillic script was developed early on at the Preslav Literary School where it superseded Glagolitic; the texts written during this era exhibit certain linguistic features of the vernaculars of the First Bulgarian Empire. Old Church Slavonic spread to other South-Eastern and Eastern European Slavic territories, most notably Croatia, Bohemia, Lesser Poland, principalities of the Kievan Rus' while retaining characteristically South Slavic linguistic features. Texts written in each of those territories began to take on characteristics of the local Slavic vernaculars and, by the mid-11th century, Old Church Slavonic had diversified into a number of regional varieties; these local varieties are collectively known as the Church Slavonic language. Apart from the Slavic countries, Old Church Slavonic has been used as a liturgical language by the Romanian Orthodox Church, as well as a literary and official language of the princedoms of Wallachia and Moldavia, before being replaced by Romanian during the 16th to 17th centuries.
Church Slavonic maintained a prestigious status in Russia, for many centuries – among Slavs in the East it had a status analogous to that of Latin in Western Europe, but had the advantage of being less divergent from the vernacular tongues of average parishioners. Some Orthodox churches, such as the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Orthodox Church and Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric, as well as several Eastern Catholic Churches, still use Church Slavonic in their services and chants today. Old Church Slavonic was written with the Glagolitic alphabet, but Glagolitic was replaced by Cyrillic, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire by a decree of Boris I of Bulgaria in the 9th century; the local Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet, known as Bosančica, was preserved in Bosnia and parts of Croatia, while a variant of the angular Glagolitic alphabet was preserved in Croatia. See Early Cyrillic alphabet for a detailed description of the script and information about the sounds it expressed.
For Old Church Slavonic, the following segments are reconstructible. A few sounds are given in Slavic transliterated form rather than in IPA, as the exact realisation is uncertain and differs depending on the area that a text originated from; the letter щ is not shown in the table. In Bulgaria, it represented the sequence /ʃt/, it is transliterated as št for that reason. Farther west and north, it was /c/ or /tɕ/ like in modern Macedonian and Serbian/Croatian. /dz/ appears in early texts, becoming /z/ on. The distinction between l, n and r, on one hand, palatal l', n' and r', on the other, is not always indicated in writing; when it is, it is shown by a palatization diacritic over the letter: л҄ н҄ р҄. Accent is not indicated in writing and must be inferred from languages and from reconstructions of Proto-Slavic; the pronunciation of yat differed by area. In Bulgaria it was a relatively