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Hypertext

Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are activated by a mouse click, keypress set or by touching the screen. Apart from text, the term "hypertext" is sometimes used to describe tables and other presentational content formats with integrated hyperlinks. Hypertext is one of the key underlying concepts of the World Wide Web, where Web pages are written in the Hypertext Markup Language; as implemented on the Web, hypertext enables the easy-to-use publication of information over the Internet.'Hypertext' is a recent coinage.'Hyper-' is used in the mathematical sense of extension and generality rather than the medical sense of'excessive'. There is no implication about size— a hypertext could contain only 500 words or so.'Hyper-' refers to structure and not size. The English prefix "hyper-" comes from the Greek prefix "ὑπερ-" and means "over" or "beyond".

It signifies the overcoming of the previous linear constraints of written text. The term "hypertext" is used where the term "hypermedia" might seem appropriate. In 1992, author Ted Nelson – who coined both terms in 1963 – wrote: By now the word "hypertext" has become accepted for branching and responding text, but the corresponding word "hypermedia", meaning complexes of branching and responding graphics and sound – as well as text – is much less used. Instead they use the strange term "interactive multimedia": this is four syllables longer, does not express the idea of extending hypertext. Hypertext documents can either be dynamic. Static hypertext can be used to cross-reference collections of data in documents, software applications, or books on CDs. A well-constructed system can incorporate other user-interface conventions, such as menus and command lines. Links used in a hypertext document replace the current piece of hypertext with the destination document. A lesser known feature is StretchText, which expands or contracts the content in place, thereby giving more control to the reader in determining the level of detail of the displayed document.

Some implementations support transclusion, where text or other content is included by reference and automatically rendered in place. Hypertext can be used to support complex and dynamic systems of linking and cross-referencing; the most famous implementation of hypertext is the World Wide Web, written in the final months of 1990 and released on the Internet in 1991. In 1941, Jorge Luis Borges published "The Garden of Forking Paths", a short story, considered an inspiration for the concept of hypertext. In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex. A Memex would hypothetically store - and record - content on reels of microfilm, using electric photocells to read coded symbols recorded next to individual microfilm frames while the reels spun at high speed, stopping on command; the coded symbols would enable the Memex to index and link content to create and follow associative trails. Because the Memex was never implemented and could only link content in a crude fashion — by creating chains of entire microfilm frames — the Memex is now regarded not only as a proto-hypertext device, but it is fundamental to the history of hypertext because it directly inspired the invention of hypertext by Ted Nelson and Douglas Engelbart.

In 1963, Ted Nelson coined the terms'hypertext' and'hypermedia' as part of a model he developed for creating and using linked content. He worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System in 1967 at Brown University, it was implemented using the terminal IBM 2250 with a light pen, provided as a pointing device. By 1976, its successor FRESS was used in a poetry class in which students could browse a hyperlinked set of poems and discussion by experts and other students, in what was arguably the world’s first online scholarly community which van Dam says "foreshadowed wikis and communal documents of all kinds". Ted Nelson said in the 1960s that he began implementation of a hypertext system he theorized, named Project Xanadu, but his first and incomplete public release was finished much in 1998. Douglas Engelbart independently began working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968.

In December of that year, Engelbart demonstrated a'hypertext' interface to the public for the first time, in what has come to be known as "The Mother of All Demos". The first hypermedia application is considered to be the Aspen Movie Map, implemented in 1978; the Movie Map allowed users to arbitrarily choose which way they wished to drive in a virtual cityscape, in two seasons as well as 3-D polygons. In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system somewhat like a wiki but without hypertext punctuation, not invented until 1987; the early 1980s saw a number of experimental "hyperediting" functions in word processors and hypermedia programs, many of whose features and terminology were analogous to the World Wide Web. Guide, the first significant hypertext system for personal computers, was developed by Peter J. Brow

Neil Cicierega

Neil Stephen Cicierega is an American Internet artist, actor, singer, musician and animator. He is the creator of the genre of Flash animation known as "Animutation", has released several albums as a musician under the name Lemon Demon and has released a series of mashup albums under his own name. Cicierega was born in Massachusetts. Cicierega's father was a programmer, so Cicierega was surrounded by computers growing up. At a young age, Cicierega began using a program named Klik & Play, a simplistic game developing program. By the fourth grade, Cicierega's parents began homeschooling him along with his sister. Cicierega continued making amateur games and began creating digital music to feature in his games. Soon, Cicierega began sharing his music on the Internet through the music sharing website MP3.com under the name Trapezoid. Additionally, in his earlier years, he began composing MIDI music fragments that he has referenced in his future works, of which have been published on his personal YouTube channel.

Cicierega was first known for a series of dadaist or surrealist Flash animations he termed "Animutation". Animutations feature arbitrary, nonsensical scenes and pop culture imagery and are set to novelty or foreign music from the Japanese version of Pokémon. Cicierega's Potter Puppet Pals is a comedy series, it originated as a pair of Flash animations on Newgrounds in 2003, resurfaced in the form of a series of live action puppet shows released onto YouTube and PotterPuppetPals.com, starting in 2006. The central characters of the Harry Potter series are portrayed by puppets; the most successful Potter Puppet Pals video, The Mysterious Ticking Noise has over 188 million views. Cicierega has done puppetry live at Harry Potter-themed events. Since 2003, Cicierega has released 9 full-length albums under his musical project Lemon Demon. In 2005, he and animator Shawn Vulliez released a Flash animated music video "Ultimate Showdown of Ultimate Destiny" on Newgrounds; the song was included in the 2006 album Dinosaurchestra.

An updated recording of the song was released to the Rock Band Network in 2010. In April 2009, Cicierega released his first four albums as free downloads on his site "neilcic.com", however they are now hosted on "lemondemon.com". In January 2016, Cicierega announced Spirit Phone, a full-length Lemon Demon album released on February 29, 2016. On July 10, 2018, it was announced that copies of the album on CD, cassette tape and vinyl would be sold through Needlejuice Records, who would distribute remastered versions of Lemon Demon's Christmas EP I Am Become Christmas, as well as Nature Tapes. Cicierega has created mashup music under his own name, he released two mashup albums, Mouth Sounds and Mouth Silence, as free downloads in 2014, a third, Mouth Moods, in 2017. Songs used in these mashups include Smash Mouth's "All Star", Barenaked Ladies's "One Week", or in the case of Mouth Silence, Third Eye Blind's "Semi Charmed Life". Cicierega created the darkly satirical "Windows 95 Tips and Tweaks" blog, located at http://windows95tips.com.

In the blog's telling, Windows 95 is a brooding, evil presence bent on dominating humanity. Most of the posts are faked error messages, with disturbing messages like "Windows needs a lock of your hair to continue," but presented in the exact graphical style of Windows 95; the blog has received favorable press attention. On February 26, 2015, Cicierega announced his first point-and-click adventure game, Icon Architect 1.0. On February 5, 2018, Cicierega released Monster Breeder. On August 8, 2015, Cicierega married illustrator Ming Doyle, they live in Somerville, Massachusetts. On December 31, 2018, the couple announced on Twitter that they had a daughter named Darcy in March of that year. Cicierega has a younger sister named Emmy, a storyboard artist who notably worked on the Disney animated series Gravity Falls, she is working on DuckTales. Outsmart Microwave This CD Dimes Circa 2000 OC ReMix: Monkey Island 2: LeChuck's Revenge "Monkey Brain Soup for the Soul" Clown Circus Live From The Haunted Candle Shop Hip to the Javabean Damn Skippy Dinosaurchestra View-Monster Almanac 2009 Live I Am Become Christmas EP Nature Tapes EP Spirit Phone Mouth Sounds Mouth Silence Mouth Moods Parody music Harry Potter fandom Comedy rock Official website Official YouTube channel Mouth Sounds, Mouth Silence Mouth Moods each on Internet Archive

Brotherhood Church

The Brotherhood Church is a Christian anarchist and pacifist community. An intentional community with Quaker origins has been located at Stapleton, near Pontefract, since 1921; the church can be traced back to 1887 when a Congregationalist minister called John Bruce Wallace started a magazine called "The Brotherhood" in Limavady, Northern Ireland. Wallace was influenced by the views of Edward Bellamy. In 1891 Wallace moved to London and took over a derelict church in Southgate Road, naming it "The Brotherhood Church." The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party used the building in 1907 for their 5th Congress. Subsequent communities were established by a Tolstoyan named John Coleman Kenworthy in Croydon, Surrey, in 1894 and Purleigh, Essex, in 1896. Residents at Croydon and Purleigh included Vladimir Chertkov. However, both these communities ceased shortly after they were established, as Kenworthy fell out with Chertkov and argued with Aylmer Maude over the English translation of Tolstoy's works.

Based on a letter from Tolstoy, Kenworthy was under the impression that he had exclusive rights over some of Tolstoy's texts. Aylmer Maude, on the other hand, believed the reason for the failure of the colony was due to Kenworthy's autocratic and irresponsible behaviour. In 1897 several members, some from a Quaker background, moved to Leeds; the receipt of a legacy enabled the group to relocate to a seven and a half acre smallholding at Stapleton in 1921. Another Purleigh splinter group established the Whiteway Colony in 1898, funded by a Quaker journalist. John Bruce Wallace went on to become an early resident at Letchworth in Hertfordshire where he held religious gatherings each Sunday in the Howard Hall. After the establishment of the Brotherhood Church Wallace founded the Alpha Union Society which held many of its meetings at the built The Cloisters in Letchworth; the Stapleton Colony are vegetarian, grow much of their own organic food and attempt to live independently from the government.

They are affiliated to the Peace Pledge Union, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and War Resisters' International. Residents have included Len W. Gibson, a lifelong peace campaigner and conscientious objector. Utopian socialism Tolstoyan movement Alfred G. Higgins A History of the Brotherhood Church. Ken Weller "Don't Be a Soldier!": The Radical Anti-War Movement in North London 1914-1918 – Chapter 16: The Brotherhood Church. Warren Draper Anarchy in Albion: Utopia and the Brotherhood Church – Essay published in The Idler: The Utopia Issue No.45. Official website

Irving Township, Kandiyohi County, Minnesota

Irving Township is a township in Kandiyohi County, United States. The population was 787 at the 2000 census. Irving Township was organized in 1868. According to Warren Upham, the township was named for Washington Irving, an American author. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 36.1 square miles, of which 32.8 square miles of it is land and 3.3 square miles of it is water. Irving Township is located in Township 121 North of the Arkansas Base Line and Range 33 West of the 5th Principal Meridian; as of the census of 2000, there were 787 people, 310 households, 243 families residing in the township. The population density was 24.0 people per square mile. There were 559 housing units at an average density of 17.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.60% White, 0.38% African American, 0.51% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 0.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.13% of the population. There were 310 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.6% were married couples living together, 1.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.3% were non-families.

17.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.86. In the township the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.0 males. The median income for a household in the township was $47,188, the median income for a family was $55,781. Males had a median income of $35,313 versus $23,393 for females; the per capita income for the township was $21,715. About 5.4% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.9% of those under age 18 and 2.1% of those age 65 or over

How Was Tomorrow

How Was Tomorrow is the second album by Canadian singer-songwriters The Cash Brothers. The album features alt-country and alt-folk ballads with vocal harmonies, accompanied by acoustic and some electric guitar work. In 1997 the Andrew and Peter Cash began performing songs, they recorded their music at Chess Records, in 1999 they released an album, Raceway on their own label, Four Court Records. After the brothers had released a second album in 2000, Raceway came to the attention of Rounder Records; the album was updated and re-released in 2001 on Zoe/Rounder Records in the US and in Europe under the title How was Tomorrow. The pair toured with a backup band in Netherlands and the US in support of the album; the touring musicians were Gord Tough on electric guitar, drummer Randy Curnew, bassist Paul Taylor and keyboardist Todd Lumley. The album was well received. Reviews of the album praised the duo's harmonies, innovative guitar work and songwriting

Knox Street Historic District

The Knox Street Historic District is located along one block of that street in the Park South neighborhood of Albany, New York, United States. Its contributing properties are several groups of attached rowhouses; the area was recognized as a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. For most of the first half of the 19th century, the block of Knox that comprises most of the district was either undeveloped or used as a nursery by Scottish-born James Wilson, breeder of one of the early American-bred commercial strains of strawberry, his 1830s Federal style house on Morris Street is a contributing property, the oldest in the district and one of the oldest in Park South. The nursery remained in operation in some capacity into the early 20th century under different ownership. Most of the rowhouses were built in the 1870s and -80s by the same builder, as they are a more cohesive group than other clusters of rowhouses in Park South, they include a set with corbelled brick and projecting bays, both unusual architectural features for Albany rowhouses.

All buildings in the district are brick. The rehabilitation of the properties, which had fallen into disrepair, won an award from the state Office of Parks and Historic Preservation in 2009; the district includes both sides of Knox between Dana Avenue and Morris Street, the row on the west side north of Dana, 74 Morris Street. Its boundary adheres to those property lines; this forms a rectangle with smaller identical rectangles projecting from its northwest and southwest corners. Within this 0.8-acre area are 24 buildings, all considered contributing to the district's historic character. The lot where a house once stood at the southwest corner of Knox and Morris has been converted into a small city park, the district's only open space. To the east and west are blocks with dense urban development—likewise rowhouses, though not always as architecturally consistent as those within the district. Properties to the north along Madison Avenue are part of the neighboring Washington Park Historic District.

One block to the east, along Dana and Morris, is Lark Street, the western boundary of the Center Square/Hudson–Park Historic District. Just past Myrtle Avenue, one block south of the district, is the Samuel S. Stratton Veterans Administration hospital, part of a large complex of healthcare facilities. Taller than its neighboring structures, it serves as a focal point. Except where otherwise stated, all the buildings in the district are attached brick rowhouses. None are listed individually on the Register. 131–135 Knox Street: Located at the north end of the district, these three date to 1875, shortly after Washington Park was opened. Built on 21-by-66-foot lots, they are in the Italianate style, three bays wide with raised basements. Two-over-two double-hung sash windows on the east facades have ornate cast iron sills and lintels with intricate Italianate detailing. At the rooflines are articulated projecting modillioned wooden cornices. Wooden steps with iron railings climb to a recessed entrance in the right bay of each, topped by a projecting square wooden oriel window.

137 Knox Street: One of the two free-standing houses in the district, this was built later than its northern neighbors, in 1876. Its lot is three feet deeper than theirs, it has a street-level ground floor. Its windows, which may have been altered at some point, door have similar lintels; the three first-floor windows, double-hung six-over-one sash that may reflect an early 20th-century alteration, are located on a small projecting bay with clapboard siding. The roof lacks the broad overhanging eaves, making this more of a rural-style house within the overall Italianate mode. 139, 140 and 141 Knox Street: Located on opposite sides of the street just south of Dana, these three are three-story, flat-fronted buildings of three bays each. The ground floors of 139 and 140 reflect their original purpose as storefronts; the storefront cornices have survived conversion to residential use. On all three buildings, the two-over-two sash has hoods, but the material and/or design are different on each. At the roofline is the ornate wooden cornice characteristic of the Italianate style, but 139 and 140 have it only on the facades facing Knox and not Dana.

142–158 Knox Street: This row takes up the remainder of the space along the east side of Knox between Dana and Morris. They were built in the mid-1880s and reflect aspects of the Romanesque Revival and Queen Anne styles on their basic Italianate forms. Belt courses delineate the floors within the buildings, the windows and doors are topped with articulated or segmental forms. At the roofline there is a patterned brickwork frieze and the cornice is held up with large brackets. Atop each is a centrally located pediment; the houses from 146 to 158 have an oriel in the southernmost second-story bay, above the main entrance and wooden stoop. 143–153 Knox Street: Across the street, this row occupies the majority of the block on its side. Built around the same time, these reflect a stronger Romanesque influence on the Italianate form. On all these, one of the two bays is projecting, with double windows on the facet facing the street. All windows on the facade are one-over-one sash with brownstone lintels.

A segmental arch of splayed bricks tops the double windows on the street facet of the bay. Stoops are lower than other houses on the street, lead to recessed double doors with a brownstone lintel; the cornice at the roof has a corbel at the south corner. 155 Knox Street: Bu