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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hypnotherapy

Hypnotherapy is a type of complementary medicine in which hypnosis is used to create a state of focused attention and increased suggestibility during which positive suggestions and guided imagery are used to help individuals deal with a variety of concerns and issues. The United States' Federal Dictionary of Occupational Titles describes the job of the hypnotherapist: "Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior patterns: Consults with client to determine nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic state by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degree of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client, using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client's problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning." GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77" The form of hypnotherapy practiced by most Victorian hypnotists, including James Braid and Hippolyte Bernheim employed direct suggestion of symptom removal, with some use of therapeutic relaxation and aversion to alcohol, etc.

In the 1950s, Milton H. Erickson developed a radically different approach to hypnotism, which has subsequently become known as "Ericksonian hypnotherapy" or "Neo-Ericksonian hypnotherapy." Erickson made use of an informal conversational approach with many clients and complex language patterns, therapeutic strategies. This divergence from tradition led some of his colleagues, including Andre Weitzenhoffer, to dispute whether Erickson was right to label his approach "hypnosis" at all; the founders of neuro-linguistic programming, a method somewhat similar in some regards to some versions of hypnotherapy, claimed that they had modelled the work of Erickson extensively and assimilated it into their approach. Weitzenhoffer disputed. In the 2000s, hypnotherapists began to combine aspects of solution-focused brief therapy with Ericksonian hypnotherapy to produce therapy, goal-focused rather than the more traditional problem-focused approach. A solution-focused hypnotherapy session may include techniques from NLP.

Cognitive behavioural hypnotherapy is an integrated psychological therapy employing clinical hypnosis and cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of CBT in conjunction with hypnotherapy may result in greater treatment effectiveness. A meta-analysis of eight different researches revealed "a 70% greater improvement" for patients undergoing an integrated treatment to those using CBT only. In 1974, Theodore X. Barber and his colleagues published a review of the research which argued, following the earlier social psychology of Theodore R. Sarbin, that hypnotism was better understood not as a "special state" but as the result of normal psychological variables, such as active imagination, appropriate attitudes, motivation. Barber introduced the term "cognitive-behavioral" to describe the nonstate theory of hypnotism, discussed its application to behavior therapy; the growing application of cognitive and behavioral psychological theories and concepts to the explanation of hypnosis paved the way for a closer integration of hypnotherapy with various cognitive and behavioral therapies.

Many cognitive and behavioral therapies were themselves influenced by older hypnotherapy techniques, e.g. the systematic desensitisation of Joseph Wolpe, the cardinal technique of early behavior therapy, was called "hypnotic desensitisation" and derived from the Medical Hypnosis of Lewis Wolberg. David Lesser was the originator of what is today known by the term "curative hypnotherapy", it was he who first saw the possibility of finding the causes of people's symptoms by using a combination of hypnosis, IMR and a method of specific questioning that he began to explore. Rather than try to override the subconscious information as Janet had done, he realised the necessity- and developed the process- to correct the wrong information. Lesser's understanding of the logicality and simplicity of the subconscious led to the creation of the methodical treatment used today and it is his work and understanding that underpins the therapy and is why the term "Lesserian" was coined and trademarked; as the understanding of the workings of the subconscious continues to evolve, the application of the therapy continues to change.

The three most influential changes have been in Specific Questioning to gain more accurate subconscious information. Hypnotherapy expert Dr Peter Marshall, former Principal of the London School of Hypnotherapy and Psychotherapy Ltd. and author of A Handbook of Hypnotherapy, devised the Trance Theory of Mental Illness, which provides that people suffering from depression, or certain other kinds of neuroses, are living in a trance and so the hypnotherapist does not need to induce them, but rather to make them understand this and help lead them out of it. Clinicians choose hypnotherapy to address a wide range of circumstances.

Regius Professor of History (Cambridge)

Regius Professorship of History is one of the senior chairs in history at the University of Cambridge. It was founded in 1724 by George I as the Regius Professorship of Modern History; the Regius Professorship was intended by George I to teach contemporary European history, to correct "the prejudice that has accrued to the... University from this Defect, Persons of Foreign Nations being employed in the Education and Tuition of Youth". Two modern language instructors were required to be paid for out of the Professor's salary, set at £400 per year, at the time nearly equal to the stipends of all other Cambridge professors put together; the University, in accepting the benefaction, agreed that the professorship would ensure "our Nobility and Gentry will be under no Temptation of sending for persons from foreign Countries to be entrusted with the education of their children." However, the practice of appointing language instructors died out by 1724, Regius Professors instead retaining the whole stipend for themselves, in 1861 this requirement was formally dropped.

The professorship's field of modern history was intended to encompass all post-classical history, beginning from the fall of Rome. However, for the first few decades of the professorship's existence, only ancient history was studied in the University, so the Regius Professorship of Modern History was little more than a sinecure. However, by the time an independent History undergraduate examination was established in the 19th century, the professorship had more duties to fulfil. Under the original understanding of modern history, the Regius Professorship was several times held by academics specialising in the middle ages. However, by the 21st century, the meaning of modern history had shifted to refer either to the history of the modern period following the middle ages, or of the late modern period following the early modern period. In 2010, the Queen in Council approved the removal of the word modern from the title to reflect this change in usage, on the recommendation of the Faculty of History and the University.

The appointment is by Royal Warrant on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of the day. Traditionally the Patronage Secretary at Number 10 Downing Street'took soundings' in Cambridge and put two names before the Prime Minister, of which one was forwarded to the monarch. In 2008, Prime Minister Gordon Brown devolved the appointment of all the Regius Professorships onto appointments committees at their respective universities. Samuel Harris 1724 Shallet Turner 1735 Lawrence Brockett 1762 Thomas Gray 1768 John Symonds 1771 William Smyth 1807 Sir James Stephen 1849 Rev'd Charles Kingsley 1860 Sir John Seeley KCMG 1869 John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton KCVO 1895 John Bury 1902 George Trevelyan OM CBE 1927 Sir George Clark 1943 Sir James Butler 1947 Rev'd M. David Knowles OSB 1954 Sir Herbert Butterfield 1963 Rev'd William Owen Chadwick OM KBE 1968 Sir Geoffrey Elton 1983 Patrick Collinson CBE 1988 Quentin Skinner 1996 Sir Richard J. Evans 2008 Sir Richard J. Evans 2010 Sir Christopher Clark 2014 Regius Professor of History

Croatian Partisans

The Croatian Partisans the National Liberation Movement in Croatia, were part of the anti-fascist National Liberational Movement in the Axis-occupied Yugoslavia, the most effective anti-Nazi resistance movement led by Yugoslav revolutionary communists during the Second World War. NOP was under the leadership of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and supported by many others, with Croatian Peasant Party members contributing to it significantly. NOP units were able to temporarily or permanently liberate large parts of Croatia from occupying forces. Based on the NOP, the Federal Republic of Croatia, referred to by Winston Churchill as "the Croatian miracle" was founded as a constituent of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. In April 1941, the Croatian people found itself once again in a position of solving the issue of Croatian survival in the swirling of international warfare. Vladko Maček, leader of HSS and at the time de facto political leader of Croats, estimated that the Croatian state had no real possibility for surviving as part of Nazi Germany's war reconstruction of Europe so he refused to declare an independent Croatian state within the Axis system.

Convinced that the Axis powers would lose the war and that their totalitarian system was not aligned with HSS's ideas of liberal democracy and peacemaking, Maček tried in all ways, including entering the Yugoslav government-in-exile, to preserve the changes, made within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and to protect the Croatian people from bloodshed. However, when the war reached Croatian territory, prevented by Ustashe police control, Maček opted for a policy of waiting to see how the things would turn, left the political scene and handed it over to the Ustashe and the Communists. Nazi-puppet state, Independent State of Croatia proclaimed by Slavko Kvaternik in the name of Ustasha leader Ante Pavelić on 10 April 1941 appeared as a discontinuity in relation towards the approximation of the basic line of Croatian political orientation and a failure of the aspiration of the Croatian people to have an independent state because NDH's existence was directly linked to the will and destiny of Nazi Germany.

The borders of NDH included Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of Syrmia, but not Međimurje and large parts of Dalmatia. With Treaties of Rome, NDH was proclaimed the kingdom, the crown was offered to a member of the Italian ruling dynasty, Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta as Tomislav II. NDH's constitution was based on a totalitarian ideology that developed under the influence of Nazism and Fascism. Racial laws were soon enacted and concentration camps established in which thousands of Jews, Romanis and Serbs were killed. Dissatisfaction of the Croatian people with Ustasha rule started immediately with the beginning of these persecutions. NDH wasn't independent in relation towards German and Italian occupation authorities and with large parts of its territory being controlled by Chetniks and growing Partisan movement; the significance of the regime and the German and Italian influence did not leave much room for independent activity in any area of social life. With the Lorković–Vokić plot in summer of 1944, high-ranking Ustasha officials unsuccessfully tried to preserve NDH by taking power and switching sides to the Allies.

Communist activity was aimed at preserving Yugoslavia and its transformation into a federal multiethnic communist state. That is why the KPJ's basic political position was the gathering of all political groups and people ready to provide resistance to the occupying forces and collaborators. In Croatian territories, that meant to win over the Croatian population that had until followed the HSS and to stop the strengthening of the Chetnik movement among the Serbian population and unite them into a broad anti-fascist movement. First Armed Anti-fascist Resistance Unit in Europe was founded by a group of Croats in the forest of Žabno near Sisak on 22 June 1941 under the leadership of Vlado Janić-Capo. Partisans in Croatia wore three-cornered caps like International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War, called Titovka, their goal was and foremost, to liberate Croatia from the German and Italian occupation and terror, conducted by the Ustaše regime against Jews, Serbs and others who did not accept their principles.

Soon afterward, Croatian partisans founded a Croatian Main Staff led by Andrija Hebrang, a part of the Supreme Staff of the Yugoslav Partisans under the command of Josip Broz Tito. Of all the other main staffs in the territory of Yugoslavia, Croatian was the strongest and most developed operational-territorial body of the Partisan forces, both in terms of the number of staff and the duties that it had. Following the unsuccessful uprising in Serbia in 1941, the center of gravity for the resistance moved to Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Partisan warfare was effective in the early period of war - avoiding a direct conflict with much stronger military force, using tactics of guerrilla warfare and propaganda. With sudden attacks on the traffic infrastructure and ambushes, they have hindered the main supply of the German army, as well as the overall NDH's functioning. With Germany's weakening and the Italian surrender, the movement grew in power and got statehood attributes with the foundation of the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia, led by Croatian poet Vl

EXOC3

Exocyst complex component 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EXOC3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and functions of exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be conserved in higher eukaryotes. At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery; the complex is essential for the biogenesis of epithelial cell surface polarity. EXOC3 has been shown to interact with DLG3 and EXOC4

Miracle Marketplace

Miracle Marketplace is a shopping mall in Miami, United States, which opened in March 1989. It is located at 3301 Coral Way, just a few blocks east of Douglas Road, east of Coral Gables; the mall opened in 1989 as Miracle Center. At the time, it included several chain retail tenants, a movie theatre owned by General Cinema Corporation and three chain restaurants: Chili's, TGI Friday's and Fuddruckers, it was designed by Architectonica International in a 1980s Post-Modern style. It had large trapezoidal "clouds" affixed to the façade which were subsequently removed by the new owners when the building was renovated in the mid-2000s. By 1996, most of the mall's inline tenants had closed due to lack of business, its developers announced plans to reconstruct the first level as a marketplace with local vendors. At this point, the complex was renamed The Village at Paseos. In 2000, after the Village at Paseos concept failed to generate business, Swerdlow Group bought the mall and renovated it as office space.

The offices all closed after the end of the dot-com bubble. The only tenant that remained from the previous mall at the time was a Bally Total Fitness. Talisman Companies announced plans to rebuild it as a power center. Initial plans included DSW Shoe PetSmart, Office Max and Ulta as possible tenants; the three-story, 260,000-square-foot Miracle Marketplace reopened in 2009. Among its tenants are Marshalls, Nordstrom Rack, PetSmart, DSW Shoe Warehouse and Bed Bath & Beyond

People's Crusade

The People's Crusade was the first and most well-documented of the popular crusades. It lasted six months from April to October 1096, is categorized either as a prelude to the First Crusade, or, as a distinct part of the First Crusade to be distinguished from the "Princes' Crusade", much more well-organized, well-armed, well-funded, it is known as the Peasants' Crusade, Paupers' Crusade or the Popular Crusade as it was not part of the official Catholic Church-organised expeditions that came later. Led by Peter the Hermit with forces of Walter Sans Avoir, the untrained peasant army was destroyed by the Seljuk forces of Kilij Arslan at Civetot, northwestern Anatolia. There has been much debate over whether Peter was the real initiator of the Crusade as opposed to Pope Urban II; the expedition's independence has been used by some historians such as Heinrich Hagenmeyer to prove this. Pope Urban II planned the departure of the crusade for 15 August 1096; the peasant population had been afflicted by drought and disease for many years before 1096, some of them seem to have envisioned the crusade as an escape from these hardships.

Spurring them on had been a number of meteorological occurrences beginning in 1095 that seemed to be a divine blessing for the movement: a meteor shower, aurorae, a lunar eclipse, a comet, among other events. An outbreak of ergotism had occurred just before the Council of Clermont. Millenarianism, the belief that the end of the world was imminent, popular in the early 11th century, experienced a resurgence in popularity; the response was beyond expectations: while Urban might have expected a few thousand knights, he ended up with a migration numbering up to 100,000 Crusaders of unskilled fighters, including women and children. A charismatic monk and powerful orator named Peter the Hermit of Amiens was the spiritual leader of the movement, he was known for dressing in simple clothing. He had vigorously preached the crusade throughout northern Flanders, he claimed to have been appointed to preach by Christ himself, it is that some of his followers thought he, not Urban, was the true originator of the crusading idea.

It is believed that Peter's army was a band of illiterate, incompetent peasants who had no idea where they were going, who believed that every city of any size they encountered on their way was Jerusalem itself. While the majority were unskilled in fighting, there were some well-trained minor knights leading them, such as Walter Sans-Avoir, experienced in warfare. A list of known members of Peter's army can be found in al.. A Database of Crusaders to the Holy Land. In the late spring and summer of 1096, crusaders destroyed most of the Jewish communities along the Rhine in a series of unprecedentedly large pogroms in France and Germany in which thousands of Jews were massacred, driven to suicide, or forced to convert to Christianity. Twelve Jews were murdered in Speyer, where the Bishop saved the rest of the Jews in return for a large payment from them, but in Worms some 800 were murdered. In Mainz, over one thousand Jews were murdered, as well as more in Trier, Metz and elsewhere. Others were subjected to forced conversion.

The preacher Folkmar and Count Emicho of Flonheim were the main inciters and leaders of the massacre. The major chroniclers of the 1096 killings are Albert of Aachen. Estimates of the number of Jewish men and children murdered or driven to suicide by crusaders vary, ranging from 2,000 to 12,000. Julius Aronius put. Norman Cohn puts the number at between 4,000 and 8,000 from May to June 1096. Gedaliah ibn Yahya estimated that some 5,000 Jews were killed from April to June 1096. Edward H. Flannery's estimate is that 10,000 were murdered over the longer January-to-July period, "probably one-fourth to one-third of the Jewish population of Germany and Northern France at that time." The clergy and nobility of Europe condemned the killing of Jews, forbade it on subsequent crusades. Peter gathered his army at Cologne on 12 April 1096, planning to stop there and preach to the Germans and gather more crusaders; the French, were not willing to wait for Peter and the Germans and under the leadership of Walter Sans Avoir, a few thousand French crusaders left before Peter and reached Hungary on 8 May, passing through Hungary without incident and arriving at the river Sava at the border of Byzantine territory at Belgrade.

The Belgrade commander was taken by surprise, having no orders on what to do with them, refused entry, forcing the crusaders to pillage the countryside for food. This resulted in skirmishes with the Belgrade garrison and, to make matters worse, sixteen of Walter's men had tried to rob a market in Zemun across the river in Hungary and were stripped of their armor and clothing, hung from the castle walls; the crusaders were allowed to carry on to Niš, where they were provided with food and waited to hear from Constantinople. Peter and the remaining crusaders left Cologne about 20 April. About 40,000 Crusaders departed immediately. Another group would follow soon after; when they reached the Danube, part of the army decided to continu