IBook is a line of laptop computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1999 to 2006. The line targeted entry-level and education markets, with lower specifications and prices than the PowerBook, Apple's higher-end line of laptop computers, it was the first mass consumer product to offer Wi-Fi network connectivity, branded by Apple as AirPort. The iBook had three different designs during its lifetime; the first, known as the "Clamshell", was inspired by the design of Apple's popular iMac line at the time. It was a significant departure from previous portable computer designs due to its shape, bright colors, incorporation of a handle into the casing, lack of a display closing latch, lack of a hinged cover over the external ports and built-in wireless networking. Two years the second generation abandoned the original form factor in favor of a more conventional, rectangular design. In October 2003, the third generation was introduced, adding a PowerPC G4 chip, USB 2.0 and a slot-loading drive.
They were popular in education, with Henrico County Public Schools being the first of many school systems in the United States to distribute one to every student. Apple replaced the iBook line with the MacBook in May 2006 during Apple's transition to Intel processors. In the late 1990s, Apple was trimming its product line from the bewildering variety of intersecting Performa, Quadra, LC, Power Macintosh and PowerBook models to a simplified "four box" strategy: desktop and portable computers, each in both consumer and professional models. Three boxes of this strategy were in place: The newly introduced iMac was the consumer desktop, the Blue and White G3 filled the professional desktop box, the PowerBook line served as the professional portable line; this left only the consumer portable space empty, leading to much rumor on the Internet of potential designs and features. Putting an end to this speculation, on July 21, 1999, Steve Jobs unveiled the iBook G3 during the keynote presentation of Macworld Conference & Expo, New York City.
Like the iMac, the iBook G3 had a PowerPC G3 CPU, no legacy Apple interfaces. USB, modem ports and an optical drive were standard; the ports were left uncovered along the left side, as a cover was thought to be fragile and unnecessary with the iBook's new interfaces, which lacked the exposed pins of earlier connectors. When the lid was closed, the hinge kept it shut, so there was no need for a latch on the screen; the hinge included. Additional power connectors on the bottom surface allowed multiple iBook G3s to be charged on a custom-made rack; the iBook G3 was the first Mac to use Apple's new "Unified Logic Board Architecture", which condensed all of the machine's core features into two chips, added AGP and Ultra DMA support. The iBook was the first mainstream computer sold with integrated wireless networking. On the iBook's introduction, Phil Schiller, Apple's VP of Marketing, held an iBook while jumping off a height as data from the computer was transferred to another in order to demonstrate the wireless networking capability.
The display bezel contained the wireless antenna, which attached to an optional internal wireless card. Lucent helped create this wireless capability. Apple released the AirPort Wireless Base Station at the same time. There was heated debate over many things such as the aesthetics, weight and pricing. To provide sufficient impact protection, the iBook was larger and heftier than the PowerBook of the time, yet had lower specifications. Standard features like PC card slots were absent, so were speculated features such as touch screens and an ultra-long battery life; the iBook gained the label "Barbie's toilet seat", due to the distinctive design. This same design made the iBook G3 unmistakable in movies and television shows; the iBook was a commercial success. The line continually received processor, hard disk upgrades and new colors. FireWire and video out were added; the design was discontinued in May 2001, in favor of the new "Dual USB" iBooks. The design was influenced by Apple's consumer desktop, the iMac.
In fact, one of the marketing slogans for the iBook was "iMac to go." The clamshell design echoed the eMate 300. Apple continued its trend of using transparent colored plastics for the shell, released the iBook clamshell series in several colors, starting with Blueberry and Tangerine adding Indigo and Key Lime colors. However, unlike the iMac, the iBook did not feature pinstripes. Steve Jobs announced that the Key Lime color, "a little less conservative, a little more fun", was exclusive to the online Apple Store; this resulted in some crowd members booing, to which Jobs replied: "Don't you like buying on the Apple Online Store?"Compared to follow-up iBook and PowerBook notebook computers, the Clamshell iBook proved to be the more reliable model. The original iBook is on exhibition at the Yale University Art Gallery. Vestiges of design ideas first adopted in the iBook G3 can still be seen today: moving interface ports from the back to the sides and leaving them uncovered, omitting a latch for the computer's lid, providing multiple color options.
The original iBook's only customer-serviceable parts were the RAM and AirPort card, accessed via two slots under the keyboard. No other modifications were possible in-warranty. There was no PCMCIA port for additional expansion capabilities. 40 screws needed to be removed to access the hard drive. The optical drive, can be accessed far more requiring only 11 screws and one standoff to be removed. On, some users transplanted a 1024×768 LCD from the more recent white iBook into
Reedy Creek Observatory is an astronomical observatory the location for observations of near-Earth objects by John Broughton, an Australian amateur astronomer. The observatory is located at Reedy Creek, a suburb of Gold Coast, with post code 4227 located at 28°06′S 153°24′ECoordinates: 28°06′S 153°24′E, 66 metres above Sea level. Asteroid 24105 Broughton John Broughton § List of discovered minor planets Statewide Star Party – Reedy Creek Observatory, NCSU, 2014 on YouTube Dome of the Reedy Creek Observatory, image Announcement of P/2005 T5 Mention of the Shoemaker Grant, Broughton's discovery of 2004 GA1
Mogens Frey Jensen is a retired Danish amateur cyclist who competed both on the road and on track. He won, along with Gunnar Asmussen, Per Lyngemark and Reno Olsen, a gold medal at the 1968 Summer Olympics in the 4 km team pursuit and finished second individually. However, he is more famous for the way. Here, he defeated. Agostinho was first over the finish line, but was disqualified for putting his hand on Frey's handlebars, thus holding him back in the sprint. Frey won the individual pursuit event at the 1968 world championships and finished second in 1967 behind Gert Bongers. Official Tour de France results for Mogens Frey Jean de Gribaldy and 1970 Frimatic team
Arthur Walton Litz, Jr. was an American literary historian and critic who served as professor of English Literature at Princeton University from 1956 to 1993. He was the author or editor of over twenty collections of literary criticism, including various editions of Ezra Pound, James Joyce, Wallace Stevens, T. S. Elliot. Litz graduated from Princeton University in 1951 and received his DPhil from Oxford University while studying on a Rhodes Scholarship at Merton College from 1951 to 1954. After two years' service in the US Army, he became the Holmes Professor of Belles-Lettres at Princeton in 1956, where he worked until his retirement in 1994. Litz was a longtime instructor at the Bread Loaf School of English, he was named to the Eastman Visiting Professorship at Balliol College, Oxford in 1989. Litz married Marian Weller in 1958, he died of respiratory failure on June 4, 2014, aged 84, at University Medical Center of Princeton in Plainsboro, New Jersey. He is survived by six grandchildren. List of A.
Walton Litz's academic papers at Princeton University Library. Walton Litz among the former George Eastman Professors at the College
Raisinghnagar Tehsil is a tehsil of Ganganagar District, India. It is in the central-western area of the district. Raisinghnagar is the headquarters of the tehsil. Raisinghnagar Tehsil is bordered by Karanpur Tehsil to the north, by Padampur Tehsil to the north and northeast, by Suratgarh Tehsil to the east, by Vijaynagar Tehsil to the southeast and south, by Anupgarh Tehsil to the south, Bahawalnagar District of Pakistani Punjab to the west; the waters of the Bikaner Branch of the Gang Canal irrigate the farms of this tehsil. In the 2001 India census, Raisinghnagar Tehsil had 185,070 inhabitants, 97,197 males and 87,873 females, for a gender ratio of 904 females per thousand males. Punjabi and Bagri are spoken. Historical Gurudwara Buddha Johad - A large amazing gurudwara; this is a place where Bhai Sukha Singh and Mehtab Singh brought the head of Massa Rangarh and hung it on a tree on 11 August 1740. The Raisinghnagar has a famous Shiv Singh Sabha Gurdwara. Raisinghnagar Tehsil has a famous Tripura Sundari Mata Mandir, in Shri Dharam Sangh Sanskrit Mahavidhayal, village kikarwalee, Village 24 P.
S. Gajsinghpura Road, in Raisinghnagar. Romana park Kikarwali
The Beijing Zoo is a zoological park in Beijing, the capital of the China. Founded in 1906 during the late Qing dynasty, it is the oldest zoo in China and oldest public park in northern China; the zoo is a center of zoological research that studies and breeds rare animals from various continents. The zoo occupies an area of 89 hectares, including 5.6 hectares of lakes and ponds in Xicheng District. It has one of the largest animal collections in the country; the zoo and its aquarium have over 450 species of land animals and over 500 species of marine animals. More than five million people visit the zoo each year. Like many of Beijing's parks, the zoo's grounds resemble classical Chinese gardens, with flower beds amidst natural scenery, including dense groves of trees, stretches of meadows, small streams and rivers, lotus pools, hills dotted with pavilions and historical buildings; the Beijing Zoo is well known for its collection of rare animals endemic to China including the giant pandas, which are zoo's most popular animals, The red panda, native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China, the golden snub-nosed monkey, South China tiger, white-lipped deer, Pere David's deer, crested ibis, Chinese alligator, Chinese giant salamander.
Other endangered or threatened species housed there include a Siberian tiger, Przewalski's horse, snow leopard, Tibetan gazelle, kiang. The zoo has a broad collection of megafauna such as addax, Asian black bears and African elephants, beluga whales, clouded leopards, gorillas, jaguars, lemurs, muntjac, penguins, polar bears, sea turtles, tapirs and zebras, as well as 13 of the world's 15 species of cranes; the zoo grounds housed an imperial manor during the Ming dynasty, that became part of the estate of the general Fuk'anggan during the Qing dynasty. In 1906, the Imperial Ministry for Agricultural and Commerce established an experimental farm outside of Xizhimen on land that encompassed two gardens, the Leshan and Ji, two temples, the Guangshan and Huining; the Experimental Farm consisted of an experimental farm, a botantical garden, a small managerie of 1.5 hectares. The experimental farm had five main experimental areas for grain, vegetables and flowers; the menagerie was the oldest public park in northern China.
Most of the animals were purchased by the Viceroy of Liangjiang, from Germany. The animal collection attracted great interest when the farm opened to visitors on June 16, 1908. Admission cost eight copper coins with children at half price; the Empress Dowager Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor each visited the zoo twice. The farm was known as the Wanshouyuan or the "Garden of Ten Thousand Beasts." Among the historical buildings at the zoo is Changguanlou, a Baroque-style country-palace of Empress Dowager Cixi, designed by a French architect and built in 1908. It remains one of the best preserved Western-style palaces in China. After the Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911, the zoo became a national botanical garden during the Republican period. In the 1930s, with French aid, Lamarck Hall, named after the botanist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, was built at the experimental farm and housed plant research. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese occupiers built the monkey mountain in 1942, but used the experimental farm as a storage depot.
In 1943, the Imperial Japanese Army poisoned the zoo's six lions and two leopards, purportedly to remove potential interference with air defenses. Many other animals, including the zoo's lone Asian elephant, died of starvation. By the end of the war, only ten monkeys, geese, two pigeons, emu, peacock and three parrots remained; when Beijing became the capital of the People's Republic of China in 1949, only 13 monkeys, three parrots and an emu blind in one eye remained at the zoo. The city government renamed the zoo the Beijing Agricultural Experimentation Center the Western Suburban Park and began rebuilding the zoo. In 1952, national leaders Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Ren Bishi donated their war horses to the park; the zoo sent staff to study zoo management in the Soviet Union and Poland, began to trade animals with Eastern Bloc countries, India and Japan to expand its collection. Zoo staff used some 30 species from the zoo including South China Tiger, François' langur, Chinese alligator and black bear in such trades.
The Moscow Zoo and Leipzig Zoo donated 14 species including African lion, polar bear, brown bear and Himalayan vulture. The park was renamed the Beijing Zoo in 1955. Guo Moruo, the renowned writer and president of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences wrote the calligracy for the zoo's entrance sign. Leading Chinese universities established a research presence in the zoo to study animal behavior and to breed endangered species. Giant panda was displayed at the zoo for the first time in 1955 and bred by zoo staff in 1963. New enclosures opened in the 1950s, the Lion-Tiger Mountain, Elephant House, Primate House, Reptile House, which had specimens of over 100 species including crocodiles and pythons. In 1958, the city government approved the expansion of the zoo to 21 hectares on the north bank of the Nanchang River. In 1965, when the construction of the Capital Indoor Stadium took away 4 hectares of the zoo's land to the west, the city granted the zoo 2.3 hectares near the Ming Tombs north of the city.
This land became the zoo's off-site breeding center. The zoo's development came to an abrupt halt with the onset of the Cultural Revolution in 1966 as zoo staff were purged, r