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ITV (TV network)

ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London. It was launched in 1955 as Independent Television, under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority, to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television companies that operate regional television services and share programmes between each other to be shown on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen regional franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.

With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.

Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.

That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.

All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programmi

Spirit Racing

Spirit Racing was a racing car constructor and racing team from the United Kingdom. Founded in 1981, it participated in the 1982 European Formula Two Championship in Formula One between 1983 and 1985, before competing in the 1988 F3000 season before folding at the end of the year. In 26 F1 races, its best finish was seventh at the 1983 Dutch Grand Prix. Spirit Racing was founded in August 1981 by ex-March employees Gordon Coppuck and John Wickham with backing from Bridgestone and Honda, who were keen to re-enter Formula One as an engine supplier; the initial plan was to participate in the 1982 European Formula Two Championship, so ex-McLaren designer John Baldwin was hired to produce the Spirit 201 chassis with Coppuck, to be powered by a naturally-aspirated 2-litre Honda V6 engine. With sponsorship from Marlboro and capable drivers in Stefan Johansson and Thierry Boutsen, the car was an immediate success, taking pole position in eight of the 13 rounds of the championship, while Boutsen won three times and challenged for the title before losing out in the final round to the March of Corrado Fabi.

Before the F2 championship was over, Honda had built prototypes for a turbocharged Formula One engine. After a dummy unit was sent to Spirit, the team modified one of its 201 chassis to meet F1 regulations, began a testing programme with the new engine in November 1982 at Silverstone, with plans to join the F1 World Championship midway through the 1983 season. Honda were anxious to keep a low profile – much as they had been when they had first entered F1 two decades earlier – and so the team avoided testing at the same time as other F1 teams, while taking its programme to Willow Springs and Riverside in California; when the decision was made to enter one car into the World Championship, Johansson was chosen as the driver – he was seen as a faded talent having made a disappointing F1 debut for Shadow in 1980, whereas Boutsen was seen as a star of the future. After a further test at Jacarepaguá, the team made its competitive F1 debut in April 1983, at the non-championship Race of Champions at Brands Hatch.

In a field of 13 cars, Johansson set the second-fastest time in free practice, but suffered engine problems in qualifying and started 12th. He retired early with a punctured radiator following a collision with the Theodore of Roberto Guerrero. Following this, the team resumed its testing programme, with sessions at Silverstone, Brands Hatch and Donington Park, before making its World Championship debut in July at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone. Driving a further revision of the F2 car, the 201C, Johansson qualified 14th out of 29 cars despite continued engine problems, ran in the early stages before retiring with a broken fuel pump; the team continued in the championship until the penultimate race of the season, the European Grand Prix at Brands Hatch. Johansson tended to qualify ahead of most of the naturally-aspirated cars, finished seventh at Zandvoort, but mechanical problems continued to blight the car. In the meantime, the team was building its first purpose-designed F1 car, the 101, but at the same time, Honda were showing concern at the lack of progress and were being courted by Williams, who offered a record of success.

Following a disastrous weekend for Spirit at Monza, where the 101 was presented but not driven and Johansson suffered another early retirement, the Japanese company decided to supply its engines to Williams only, Spirit thus missed the final race of the season at Kyalami. Spirit decided to continue in 1984 with Hart turbocharged engines. Twice world champion Emerson Fittipaldi and moneyed Italian Fulvio Ballabio were slated to drive; however Fittipaldi left to find a drive in Indycars after finding the machine uncompetitive and Ballabio was refused a Super Licence. Instead Mauro Baldi found funds and was nominated as the team's sole driver, Johansson being released as he could not find the funding to continue; the 101 was a neat but underpowered car and Baldi struggled to move away from the rear of the grid. Jean-Louis Schlesser had planned to take over from the third race before the threat of litigation from RAM saw Baldi stay until Huub Rothengatter took over; when the Dutchman's money ran out Baldi found enough funds to complete the season.

The team's best result was 8th place, scored by Baldi on Rothengatter once. The 101 chassis was updated again for 1985 and Baldi continued to drive. Allen Berg had arranged a deal to take over the seat in the season. Money was tighter and after three rounds Wickham decided to take up an offer from Toleman to buy out the team's tyre contract and folded the F1 outfit. Wickham promised to be back with a new car in 1986 but that never happened. Spirit resurfaced in Formula 3000 in 1988, running Bertrand Gachot, Steve Kempton and Paolo Barilla with some success, but Wickham left the outfit midway through the season and the team folded at the end of the year

Lisandro Formation

The Lisandro Formation, alternatively known as the Cerro Lisandro Formation, is a Late Cretaceous geologic formation with outcrops in the Neuquén, Río Negro and Mendoza Provinces of Argentina. It is the youngest formation within the lowest section of the Neuquén Group; that subgroup was treated as a formation, the Lisandro Formation was known as the Lisandro Member. The type locality of the Lisandro Formation is the hill known as Cerro Lisandro in Neuquén Province; this formation conformably overlies the Huincul Formation, it is in turn overlain by the Portezuelo Formation, a part of the Río Neuquén Subgroup. The Lisandro Formation varies between 35 and 75 metres thick, the thinnest of the three formations in its subgroup, it is composed of siltstones and claystones, red in color, which have been interpreted as a swampy to fluvial environment. The red Lisando Formation rocks are easy to distinguish from the greenish or yellowish deposits of the Huincul Formation. Not many dinosaurs are represented in the Lisandro Formation.

Fossils documented from this formation are: freshwater bivalve molluscs fish turtles crocodilians an abelisauroid theropod at least one bird ornithopods a titanosaur sauropod Quetecsaurus rusconii List of fossil sites Bajo Barreal Formation, contemporaneous formation of the Golfo San Jorge Basin Mata Amarilla Formation, contemporaneous formation of the Austral Basin List of dinosaur bearing rock formations Fossa Mancini, E.. C. Yussen de Campana. 1938. Una reunión de geólogos de YPF y el problema de la terminología estratigráfica. Boletín de Informaciones Petroleras 15. 1–67. Leanza, H. A.. E. Novas, M. S. De la Fuente. 2004. Cretaceous terrestrial beds from the Neuquén Basin and their tetrapod assemblages. Cretaceous Research 25. 61–87. Accessed 2019-02-16. Sánchez, María Lidia. 2006. Paleoambientes sedimentarios del Cretácico Superior de la Formación Plottier, Departamento Confluencia, Neuquén. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina 61. 3–18. Accessed 2019-02-16