ITV Granada is a regional television company in North West England. It is the largest independent television-franchise producing company in the UK, accounting for 25% of the total broadcasting output of the ITV network. Granada Television was founded by Sidney Bernstein at Granada Studios on Quay Street in Manchester and is the only surviving company of the original four Independent Television Authority franchisees from 1954, it covers Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and parts of Derbyshire and North Yorkshire. In 2009, the Isle of Man was transferred to ITV Granada from ITV Border. Broadcasting by Granada Television began on 3 May 1956 under the North of England weekday franchise, the fifth franchise to go to air, it was marked by a distinctive northern identity, used stylised letter "G" logo forming an arrow pointing north with the tagline "Granada: from the North". Granada plc merged with Carlton Communications to form ITV plc in 2004 after a duopoly had developed over the previous decade.
The Granada name, as with those of the other former regional licence holders, has disappeared except for the regional news bulletins and weeknightly regional news magazine. The North West region is regarded as ITV's most successful franchise. Nine Granada programmes were listed in the BFI TV 100 in 2000; some of its most notable programmes include Sherlock Holmes, Coronation Street, Seven Up!, The Royle Family, The Jewel in the Crown, Brideshead Revisited, World in Action, University Challenge and The Krypton Factor. Notable employees have included Paul Greengrass, Michael Apted, Mike Newell, Jeremy Isaacs, Andy Harries, Russell T Davies, Leslie Woodhead, Tony Wilson and Dan Walker. Granada Television, a subsidiary of Granada Ltd, originated in Granada Theatres Ltd, which owned cinemas in the south of England, it was founded in Dover in 1930 by his brother Cecil. The company was incorporated as Granada Ltd in 1934 and listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1935, it is named after the Spanish city of Granada.
In the 1950s the Bernsteins became involved in commercial television, a competitor to the cinema chains, through the launch of ITV. Bernstein bid for the North of England franchise, which he believed would not affect the company's southern-based cinema chain. In 1954, the Independent Television Authority awarded Granada the North of England contract for Monday to Friday, with ABC serving the same area on weekends; the companies used the ITA's Winter Hill and Emley Moor transmitters covering Lancashire and the West and East Ridings of Yorkshire, including the major conurbations around Liverpool, Leeds, Bradford and Doncaster. The North and London were the two biggest regions. Granada preferred the North because of its tradition of home-grown culture, because it offered a chance to start a new creative industry away from the metropolitan atmosphere of London … the North is a knit, industrial society. Compare this with London and its suburbs—full of displaced persons. And, of course, if you look at a map of the concentration of population in the North and a rainfall map, you will see that the North is an ideal place for television".
Bernstein selected a base from Manchester. Granada executive Victor Peers believed Manchester was the preferred choice before executives toured the region to find a suitable site. Granada Studios, designed by architect Ralph Tubbs, was built on a site on Quay Street in Manchester city centre belonging to Manchester City Council, which the company bought for £82,000. Transmissions began in Lancashire on 3 May 1956, Yorkshire six months later; the opening night featured Meet The People hosted by comedian Arthur Askey. Reynolds had to sober up. Although referred to as Channel 3, Granada Television began broadcasting on Channel 9 V. H. F. in black and white from the Winter Hill transmitter on weekdays from 3 May 1956, with Associated British Corporation Television broadcasting in the North & Midlands at weekends. 625 lines U. H. F. Channel 59 from Winter Hill and started broadcasting in colour in the autumn of 1969. Most ITV franchisees viewed their territories as stopgaps before winning a coveted London franchise.
In contrast, Granada determined to develop a strong northern identity – northern voices, northern programmes, northern idents with phrases such as Granada from the north, From the north—Granada and Granadaland. Bernstein refused to employ anyone not prepared to live in or travel to Manchester and Jeremy Isaacs called him a'genial tyrant' as a result. I think. Bernstein decided to build new studios rather than hiring space or converting old buildings, an approach favoured by the other ITV companies and by the BBC at its original Manchester studios; the investment in new studios in 1954 contributed to Granada struggling financially, the company was close to insolvency by late 1956. All four ITA franchisees were expected to make losses in the first few years of operation, but Granada's was a significant sum of £175,000; when it first became profitable, it had the lowest profits of the quartet. Granada sought the help of Associated-Rediffusion, the London weekday station, which agreed to underwrite Granada's debts in exchange for a percentage of its profits, withou
Pierre Michon is a French writer. His first novel, Small lives, is regarded as a genuine masterpiece in contemporary French literature, he has won several prizes for Small lives and for The Origin of the World as well as for his body of work. His novels and stories have been translated into German, Italian, Greek, Polish, Czech, Norwegian and English. 1984: Small Lives. Translated by Jody Gladding and Elizabeth Deshays for Archipelago Books, 2008. 1988: Life of Joseph Roulin. Translated by Wyatt Mason for Mercury House and included in Masters and Servants, 1997. 1997: L'empereur d'Occident. 1990: Masters and Servants. Translated by Wyatt Mason for Mercury House, 1997. 1991: Rimbaud the Son. Translated by Jody Gladding and Elizabeth Deshays for Yale University Press, 2013. 1996: The Origin of the World. Translated by Wyatt Mason for Mercury House, 2002. 1996: The King of the Wood. Translated by Wyatt Mason for Mercury House and included in Masters and Servants, 1997. 1997: Trois auteurs. 1997: Winter Mythologies.
Translated by Ann Jefferson for Yale University Press, 2017. 2002: Abbots. Translated by Ann Jefferson for Yale University Press, 2017. 2002: Corps du roi. 2007: Le roi vient quand il veut: propos sur la littérature. 2009: The Eleven. Translated by Jody Gladding and Elizabeth Deshays for Archipelago Books, 2013. 2002: Prix Décembre 2009: Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française 2010: Petrarca-Preis 2019: Franz Kafka Prize Pierre Michon at publisher's site Pierre Michon at remue.net Critical bibliography Pierre Michon at Mercury House
Nintoku Seamount or Nintoku Guyot is a seamount and guyot in the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. It is a large, irregularly shaped volcano. Three lava flows have been sampled at Nintoku Seamount, it is 56.2 million years old. Nintoku is positioned a 41 degrees north latitude two-thirds the way southward along the north-northeast-south-southeast Emperor seamounts extending from Meiji Seamount in the north to Kammu Seamount at the chain's southern terminus. Nintoku Seamount was named after the 16th emperor of Japan, Emperor Nintoku, by geologist Robert Dietz in 1954; the seamount occupies a central position in the Emperor Seamount chain and is thus an important point in the paleolatitude history of the Hawaiian hotspot, instrumental to proving the scientific hunch that the Hawaii hotspot was a mobile entity. The structure of the seamount is elongate, aligned north-northwest along the Emperor trend, with two prominent ridges trending southwest and south-southwest as far as 100 km from the main crater.
Nintoku Seamount is a plexus of coalesced volcanoes, much like many of the larger seamounts in this chain. The Nintoku system is, however isolated from Yomei Seamount, about 100 km to the north, Jingu Seamount, about 200 km to south, by abyssal depths. In seismic profile, the main body of the seamount rises steeply over 5,000 m in predominantly unsedimented volcanic slope to the thinly sedimented, from an Emperor point of view domed summit region between 1,200 m to 1,400 m high peak profile, which covers about 3400 square kilometers of area. From analysis of seismic reflection survey data and core material recovered by drillings at Site 432, the shipboard party of Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 55 proposed that Nintoku Seamount was in an intermediate atoll stage before subsidence removed the island below the wave base, it was further thought that a few small remnant volcanic peaks and domes still pierce the sedimentary deposits. Nintoku Seamount remained at or above sea level long enough to be completely devastated by subaerial erosion and wave action.
Reefs were not indicated in the seismic studies, but fragmented pieces of coral were recovered and documented, showing a shallow-water sediment-rich condition. The rock records indicate deposition in waters cooler than the present tropical condition. Shallow-water sedimentary deposition ceased in Paleogene times; the seamount was first drilled by Site 432, located on the northwestern edge of the summit region of Nintoku Seamount, in a sloping area mapped as terrace deposits. Although the sediment cover was estimated, based on other seamount covers, to be 80 m thick, bedrock was hit after only 42 m. Poorly recovered and preserved sedimentary deposits indicated a shallow-reef bed typical of terraced flanking reefs and banks, as well as volcanic sand. Drilling at Site 432 penetrated 32 m of volcanic rock before terminating because of hole caving and damage to the drill assembly; the site was drilled as part of Leg 197 by the Ocean Drilling Program, at site number 1205. A short bathymetric acoustic survey was conducted to find the best site for the location and structure of a core sampling.
The locale chosen was about 100 m southwest of Site 432, the location of a previous drilling by the ODP. Site 1205 was located in 1,310-metre-deep water, where previous drilling had reached volcanic rock beneath Paleocene deposits, it was elected to return to the site for a number of reasons. First, drilling at the nearby site 432 had hit reasonably unaltered and unchanged basalt with good remnant magnetic properties, key to finding the latitude of origin. Hence, deeper drilling was promised providing a time-averaged movement ratio. Second, a survey of the region showed a rock structure suitable for deep drilling, nearby sites met low levels of sedimentary cover. Thirdly, the composition of drilled volcanic rock seemed to match the volcano's "average" type, erupted during the post-shield stage of it life; this helped another project goal, to recover a suitable and datable chunk of tholeiitic lava, which appeared to be rare on the seamount. The hole was drilled in what appeared to be a large, broad sedimentary cover covering a swath of the ancient volcano's main slope.
The coring encountered volcanic rock at 42 m below the sea floor, continued to a final depth of 326 m below the sea floor. The sedimentary cover, an element found on many of the Emperor seamounts, was found to be a stack interlaced lava flows; the drilling penetrated 283 m into the seamount's volcanic rock, recovered at least 25 different hardened lava flows. It was established that Nintoku Seamount's sedimentary cap consists of sandstone and siltstone containing well-rounded to subrounded basalt blocks, volcanic ash, fossil fragments of mollusks, benthic foraminifers and coralline red algae; these observations indicate a high-rate depositional setting. Little variation was found in the density, grain size, or porosity of the volcanic rock, it was stable in composition, except for the volcanic-sedimentary cover, it is believed that this is the underlying cause of aucousically recorded layering of the upper 20