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I Am Legend (novel)

I Am Legend is a 1954 post-apocalyptic horror novel by American writer Richard Matheson. It was influential in the development of the zombie-vampire genre and in popularizing the concept of a worldwide apocalypse due to disease; the novel was a success and was adapted into the films The Last Man on Earth, The Omega Man, I Am Legend. It was an inspiration behind Night of the Living Dead. Robert Neville appears to be the sole survivor of a pandemic that has killed most of the human population and turned the remainder into "vampires" that conform to their stereotypes in fiction and folklore: they are blood-sucking, pale-skinned, nocturnal, though otherwise indistinguishable from normal humans. Implicitly set in Los Angeles, the novel details Neville's life in the months and years after the outbreak as he attempts to comprehend and cure the disease. Swarms of vampires surround his house nightly and try to find ways to get inside, which includes the females exposing themselves and his vampire neighbor relentlessly shouting for him to come out.

Neville survives by barricading himself inside his house every night. Weekly dust storms ravage the city, during the day, when the vampires are inactive, Neville drives around to search them out in order to kill them with wooden stakes and to scavenge for supplies. Neville's past is revealed through flashbacks. After bouts of depression and alcoholism, Neville determines there must be some scientific reasons behind the vampires' origins and aversions, so he sets out to investigate, he obtains books and other research materials from a library and through gradual research discovers the root of the disease is a Bacillus strain of bacteria capable of infecting both deceased and living hosts. His experiments with microscopes reveal that the bacteria are deadly sensitive to garlic and sunlight. One day, a injured dog finds its way to his street, filling Neville with amazed joy. Desperate for company, Neville painstakingly earns the nervous dog's trust with food and brings it into the home. Despite his efforts, the sickly dog dies a week and Neville, robbed of all hope, resignedly returns to learning more about the vampires.

Neville's continued experiments on incapacitated vampires help him create new theories. He believes vampires are affected by mirrors and crosses because of "hysterical blindness", the result of previous psychological conditioning of the infected. Driven insane by the disease, the infected now react as they believe they should when confronted with these items, their reaction is constrained to the beliefs of the particular person. Neville additionally discovers more efficient means of killing the vampires, other than just driving a stake into their hearts; this includes exposing vampires to direct sunlight or inflicting wide, oxygen-exposing wounds anywhere on their bodies so that the bacteria switch from being anaerobic symbionts to aerobic parasites consuming their hosts when exposed to air, which gives the appearance of the vampires liquefying. However, the bacteria produce resilient "body glue" that seals blunt or narrow wounds, making the vampires bulletproof. With his new knowledge, Neville is killing such large numbers of vampires in his daily forays that his nightly visitors have diminished significantly.

Neville further believes the pandemic was spread not so much by direct vampire bites as by bacteria-bearing mosquitos and dust storms in the cities following a recent war. The inconsistency of Neville's results in handling vampires leads him to realize that there are in fact two differently-reacting types of vampires: those conscious and living with a worsening infection and those who have died but been reanimated by the bacteria. After three years, Neville sees a terrified woman in broad daylight. Neville is suspicious after she recoils violently in the presence of garlic, but they win each other's trust; the two comfort each other romantically and he explains some of his findings, including his theory that he developed immunity against the infection after being bitten by an infected vampire bat years ago. He wants to know if the woman, named Ruth, is infected or immune, vowing to treat her if she is infected, she reluctantly allows him to take a blood sample but knocks him unconscious as he views the results.

When Neville wakes, he discovers a note from Ruth confessing that she is indeed a vampire sent to spy on him and that he was responsible for the death of her husband, another vampire. The note further suggests that only the undead vampires are pathologically violent but not those who were alive at the time of infection and who still survive due to chance mutations in their bacteria; these living-infected have overcome their disease and are attempting to build a new society. They have developed medication. Ruth warns Neville that her feelings for him are true but that her people will attempt to capture him and that he should try to escape the city. However, assuming he will be treated by the new society, Neville stays at his house until infected members arrive and violently dispatch the undead vampires outside his house with fiendish glee. Realizing the infected attackers may intend to

534th Air Defense Group

The 534th Air Defense Group is a disbanded United States Air Force organization. Its last assignment was with the 4706th Air Defense Wing at Kinross Air Force Base, Michigan where it was inactivated in 1955; the group was activated as a support unit for a combat group at the end of World War II in Italy and redeployed to the United States where it was inactivated in 1945. The group was activated once again in 1953, when ADC established it as the headquarters for a dispersed fighter-interceptor squadron and the medical and administrative squadrons supporting it, it was replaced in 1955 when ADC transferred its mission and personnel to the 507th Fighter Group in a project that replaced air defense groups commanding fighter squadrons with fighter groups with distinguished records during World War II. The group was activated as the 534th Air Service Group shortly after VE Day in a reorganization of Army Air Forces support groups in which the AAF replaced Service Groups that included personnel from other branches of the Army and supported two combat groups with Air Service Groups including only Air Corps units.

It was designed to support a single combat group. Its 960th Air Engineering Squadron provided maintenance, beyond the capability of the combat group, its 784th Air Materiel Squadron handled all supply matters, its Headquarters & Base Services Squadron provided other support; the group provided support for one combat group in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations. It returned to the United States for inactivation, it was disbanded in 1948. During the Cold WarThe group was reconstituted and redesignated as the 534th Air Defense Group, activated at Kinross Air Force Base in 1953 with responsibility for air defense of the North Central United States, but without an operational squadron until April, when the 438th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, flying Lockheed F-94B Starfires armed with 20 mm cannon. was activated. The 438th FIS upgraded to Mighty Mouse rocket armed Northrop F-89D Scorpions in December 1953; the group replaced the 91st Air Base Squadron as USAF host base unit at Kinross. Assigned three squadrons to perform its support responsibilities.

The 534th was inactivated and replaced by 507th Fighter Group, in 1955 as result of Air Defense Command's Project Arrow, designed to bring back on the active list the fighter units which had compiled memorable records in the two world wars. The 534th was disbanded once again in 1984. Activated as 534th Air Service Group on 21 May 1945Inactivated on 17 October 1945 Disbanded on 8 October 1948Reconstituted and redesignated 534th Air Defense Group on 21 January 1953Activated on 16 February 1953 Inactivated on 18 August 1955 Disbanded on 27 September 1984 Unknown, 21 May 1945 - 17 October 1945 4706th Defense Wing, 16 February 1953 – 18 August 1955 Italy, 21 May 1945 - 1945 Pyote Army Air Field, TX, 1945 - 17 October 1945 Kinross Air Force Base, MI, 16 February 1953 – 18 August 1955 Northrop F-89D Scorpion, 1953-1955 Lockheed F-94B Starfighter, 1953 Aerospace Defense Command Fighter Squadrons F-89 Scorpion units of the United States Air Force F-94 Starfire units of the United States Air Force This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

Buss, Lydus H. Sturm, Thomas A. Volan, McMullen, Richard F. History of Continental Air Defense Command and Air Defense Command July to December 1955, Directorate of Historical Services, Air Defense Command, Ent AFB, CO, John M; the Development of Tactical Services in the Army Air Forces. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Cornett, Lloyd H. A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946–1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. Further Reading Grant, C. L; the Development of Continental Air Defense to 1 September 1954, USAF Historical Study No. 126 Leonard, Barry. History of Strategic Air and Ballistic Missile Defense. Vol I. 1945-1955. Fort McNair, DC: Center for Military History.

ISBN 978-1-4379-2131-1

Hans Baldauf

Hans Baldauf FAIA LEED AP, is an American architect with interests in sustainable food culture and traditional market halls. His work includes farm-to-table restaurants and food halls. In 2014 he served on the board of directors for the Center for Urban Education about Sustainable Agriculture. Over the past two decades he has written about, lectured on and restored buildings designed by the early pioneers of California's Beaux-Arts movement. Baldauf obtained a Bachelor of Arts in History and Letters from Yale in 1981; as an undergraduate he and five other students organized a attended conference that examined the economic and cultural problems affecting New Haven, Connecticut. The Third Bay Tradition and the work of Kent Bloomer in particular shaped his artistic development. In his senior thesis, Hans focused on the interplay between public and private property reflected in the architectural layout of Sea Ranch, California, he went on to obtain a Master of Architecture degree from Yale in 1988, soon afterward began the design phase of The Sea Pine House in Sea Ranch while working as a professional architect for Tom Beeby's firm in Chicago.

After two years in Chicago, Hans took the post of visiting assistant professor at the University of Notre Dame's Rome studies program for the 1991-1992 academic year. In addition to his teaching duties in Rome, Hans continued to supervise the construction of the Sea Pine House by flying back to California every six weeks, sending revised plan details to his contractor via fax machine. In 1992 he returned to the Bay Area, where he secured a position at the San Francisco firm Backen and Ross the same year. In 1997 Hans formed the architectural and design firm BCV alongside two other former BAR architects; the firm was chosen to design the San Francisco Ferry Building Marketplace in 1999. Prior to its restoration the ferry structure had, over the years, grown derelict--standing apart from the modern transportation infrastructure of San Francisco. Hans' vision of its redevelopment included brick arches with custom metal folding gates and a restored historic 660-foot long grand nave; the building now serves as popular market hall.

Hans continued his work on private residences with his chalet inspired project, The Crow's Nest Residence at Sugar Bowl. Located on a mountainside in the Sierra Nevada range, the property is influenced by Tyrolean homes. Between 2012 and 2015, he designed five of Belcampo Meat Company's California restaurants and butcher shops. Service Roles: The Palace of Fine Arts Restoration and Slow Food Nation In 2003, the Maybeck Foundation and the City of San Francisco created a public-private partnership to restore and preserve the Palace of Fine Arts; as Chairman of the Maybeck Foundation, Hans helped with the creation of a palace master plan, which would organize future preservation efforts. The same year, he helped to gather the San Francisco design community for the creation of several pavilions at Slow Food Nation; the Hollywood Park Master Plan designed by Hans will encompass a mixed-use community including residential and office space on the 238-acre site of the former Hollywood Race Track. The plan includes a mixed use town center.

At the center of the City of Inglewood, this development will build on the characteristics of the Los Angeles town centers that grew up throughout the basin in the 1920s and 1930s. Treasure Island will be transformed over the next 20 years as part of a transit oriented redevelopment project; the plan will locate 10,000 residents within a 10-minute walk of a new ferry terminal, is to create 200,000 sq. ft. of community and destination retail in a new Island Town Center which incorporates three historic exhibition buildings. Hans is the design architect for the civic portions of the island core. A Beaux-Arts Education: The Architectural Education of Arthur Brown, Jr. at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, France, 1897-1903, Edited by Hans Baldauf, 2011, Published by the Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley Interiors & Sources Magazine, “New Ruralism Meets New Urbanism,” by Hans Baldauf, October 19, 2009 Perspecta 26: Theater and Architecture, 1990, Edited by Hans Baldauf, Co-Editors: Baker Goodwin and Amy Reichert 2015 AIA San Francisco Community Alliance Awards Social Impact Award The Center for Urban Education about Sustainable Agriculture 2013 AIA Los Angeles Restaurant Design Award Jury Winner Belcampo Meat Co.

San Francisco, California 2009 AIA National Design Awards Honor Award for Regional and Urban Design Treasure Island Master Plan 2008 AIA California Council Design Awards Urban Design Award Treasure Island Master Plan 2006 AIA San Francisco Design Awards Merit Award, Urban Design Treasure Island Master Plan 2004 AIA San Francisco Design Awards Honor Award The Ferry Building, San Francisco, California 2004 AIA California Council Design Awards Merit Award The Ferry Building, San Francisco, California 2003 National Trust for Historic Preservation Awards National Award The Ferry Building, San Francisco, California 2003 California Heritage Awards Council Award The Ferry Building, San Francisco, California

OWL (magazine)

OWL Magazine is a popular Canadian children’s magazine founded in 1976 by Young Naturalist Foundation members Annabel Slaight and Mary-Anne Brinkmann. It was designed to make children ages 8–12 “think beyond the printed page”. A science and nature magazine – OWL stands for “Outdoors and Wild Life” – in recent years, like sister publication chickaDEE, the magazine has come to encompass a larger variety of topics. Regular features include weird news from around the world, how-to articles, science stories, a reader-driven advice column, comics The Outrageous World of Alex and Charlie and Max Finder Mystery. Memorable past features include Dr. Zed and comic strip The Mighty Mites, which left in 2002. Related OWL media has included books and videos, produced by former owner OWL Communications. In 1997, OWL was purchased by Bayard Canada, which owns a number of French-language children’s magazines, including Les Débrouillards and Les Explorateurs. OWL/TV was a half-hour television show, based on the magazine.

Like the magazine, it focused on nature. It aired on CBC, later on CTV. OWL Magazine site Bayard Canada site OWL at the Grand Comics Database


Joinville is the largest city in Santa Catarina, in the Southern Region of Brazil. It is the third largest municipality in the southern region of Brazil, after the much larger state capitals of Curitiba and Porto Alegre. Joinville is a major industrial and commerce center; the city has a high human development index among Brazilian municipalities, occupying the 21st national position. One study pointed to Joinville as the second best city to live in Brazil. Joinville holds the titles of "Brazilian Manchester", "City of Flowers", "City of Princess", "City of Bicycles" and "City of Dance", it is known for hosting the Joinville Dance Festival, the Bolshoi Ballet School in Brazil and Joinville Esporte Clube. In 2019, the population of Joinville was estimated at 590,466 people, the majority of whom are of Portuguese, Swiss and Italian descent; the metropolitan area is home to 1,340,997 residents according to the 2010 census by IBGE, the most populous metropolitan region of the state of Santa Catarina.

Owing to urban development and good infrastructure, Joinville has become a major center for events and business conferences. The city has one of the highest standards of living in Latin America; the area surrounding Joinville has been inhabited by the Tupí people for 7,000 years. Though it is considered a German-Brazilian city, its name is French; the city's former name was Colônia Dona Francisca, but was changed to Joinville in 1851. However, a Royal Palace was built in their honor around 1870. In 1851, the French prince, after the fall of the French monarchy, sold all his lands in Southern Brazil to the German Senator Mathias Schröder. Senator Schröder was a member of the Colonization Society of Hamburg; this society, made up of bankers and merchants, attracted immigrants to be sent to Brazil and thereby establish commercial ties between Germany and the German communities in Brazil. In 1851, the first 118 German and Swiss immigrants arrived, followed by 74 Norwegian immigrants. From 1850 to 1888, Joinville received 17,000 German immigrants, most of them Lutherans, poor peasants coming to occupy this part of Brazil.

The city of Joinville was founded by Norwegian-, Swiss- and German settlers on March 9, 1851. Immigrants from Norway made up a group of men with several professional qualifications, including carpenters, bakers, a veterinarian and physician. Many of the first Norwegian settlers became ill by dysentery and other illnesses. In the first letter home, dated to July 1851, the author explained that “only” four Norwegians were dead so far: Simon Hansen of Helgeland, Lars C. Steensem of Ytterøy, Hans Petter Luttersen of Horten, Martin Nordby of Larvik. Between 1851 -- 1852, 41 Norwegians left seven died. A monument was erected by Rio Cachoeira in the city centre in 2001, in honor of the Norwegian and German settlers. Joinville is located in the northeast of the State of Santa Catarina, close to the Atlantic coast, is crossed by the river Cachoeira, it is not too far from the borders with its capital, Curitiba. The city is surrounded by the municipalities of Garuva, São Francisco do Sul, Guaramirim, Jaraguá do Sul and Campo Alegre.

The city contains a port on Babitonga Bay, which leads to the Atlantic Ocean and provides an important route for exporting manufactured products. In 2006–07 there were public discussions about creating a Baía da Babitonga Wildlife Reserve to manage the mangroves and aquaculture in the bay; this was defeated by politicians and businesspeople who were concerned about the impact on planned projects including a port expansion. Joinville has a humid subtropical climate. In some rare cases, Joinville gets hit by South Atlantic cyclones, the most notable being Cyclone Catarina in 2004. Although Joinville lies outside the tropic zone, because of its low altitude and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean it sees little temperature variation throughout the year, with every month seeing average highs in the 20s C. Joinville is famous for its strong German-influenced culture; the city retains many aspects of German culture, in its architecture, in the local dishes, parties and in the way of life of its inhabitants.

Joinville is the host city of the Festival de Dança de Joinville, the world's largest dance event, held every year during the month of July. Joinville is the only city outside of Moscow to have a school of the Bolshoi Ballet, the renowned Russian Ballet Company; the city is home to several Lutheran churches, a Botanical Garden and a Zoo. Parks, several beaches are less than an hour's drive away from the city. Joinville is home to several museums including the "MUBI" bicycle museum; the Royal Palace, built in the mid-19th century, nowadays is a designated National Museum of Immigration History detailing the struggle and hardship German immigrants went through on their journey to Brazil in the 1800s. It has furniture and costumes dating back to the mid-19th century; every year since 1982, Joinville's Dance Festival gathers in the city thousands of professional dancers and viewers from all over the world. The festival always takes place in the second half of July; the 11 days of presentations at


Loughborough is a town in the Charnwood borough of Leicestershire, seat of Charnwood Borough Council, home to Loughborough University. The town had a population of 57,600 in 2004, making it the second largest settlement in Leicestershire, it is close to the Nottinghamshire border and within short distances of Nottingham, East Midlands Airport and Derby. The town has the world's largest bell foundry – John Taylor Bellfounders – which made bells for the Carillon war memorial, a landmark in the Queens Park in the town, of Great Paul for St Paul's Cathedral, for York Minster; the first mention of Loughborough is in the 1086 Domesday Book. Loughborough's earliest historical reference was to "Loughburne" in the 1086 Domesday Book, it appeared in a charter from the reign of Henry II as Loughburga, in the Pipe Rolls of 1186 as Loughburc. The name means "Lough's borough or fortified place"; the first sign of industrialisation in the Loughborough district came in the early years of the 19th century, when John Heathcoat, an inventor from Derbyshire patented in 1809 an improvement to the warp loom, known as the twisted lace machine, which allowed mitts with a lace-like appearance to be made.

Heathcoat, in partnership with the Nottingham manufacturer Charles Lacy, moved his business from there to the village of Hathern, outside Loughborough. The product of this "Loughborough machine" came to be known as English bobbinet. However, the factory was attacked in 1816 by Luddites thought to be in the pay of Nottingham competitors and 55 frames were destroyed; this prompted Heathcoat to move his business to a disused woollen mill in Devon. In 1888 a charter of incorporation was obtained, allowing a corporation to be elected; the population increased from 11,000 to 25,000 in the following ten years. Among the factories established were Robert Taylor's bell foundry John Taylor & Co and the Falcon works, which produced steam locomotives motor cars, before it was taken over by Brush Electrical Machines. In 1897, Herbert Morris set up a factory in the Empress Works in Moor Lane which become one of the foremost crane manufacturers by the mid-20th century. There was strong municipal investment: a new sewage works in 1895 a waterworks in Blackbrook and a power station in Bridge Street in 1899.

The corporation took over Loughborough Gas Company in 1900. In 1841, Loughborough was the destination for the first package tour, organised by Thomas Cook for a temperance group from Leicester; as Loughborough grew larger throughout the 20th century, it began to acquire new suburbs. Thorpe Acre is located in the north-west of Loughborough; until the mid-20th century, it was a hamlet of about twenty houses or cottages, several of which survive. There is a 19th-century church and an old hostelry, The Plough Inn; the population is included in Loughborough–Garendon Ward of Charnwood Council. Many of the roads are named after famous poets. After the Second World War, part of Thorpe Acre was developed further in the 1950s for employees of Brush Engineering Works, 100 dwellings being built of no-fines concrete. In the 1960s and early 1970s, Thorpe Acre was chosen for a new estate. Two of Loughborough's secondary schools, Charnwood College and De Lisle College, are located on the edge of the estate; the suburb bounds Garendon Park, a large deer park from the 18th century.

Stonebow, at the upper end of Maxwell Drive, was built in the 1980s. Further development started in 2004, to link Maxwell Drive to Mitchell Drive, where Stonebow Primary School is located; the original Dishley, off Derby Road, was developed, with Thorpe Acre, in the 1970s. Dishley Church is now a ruin in Derby Road; the agriculturalist Robert Bakewell is buried there. Shelthorpe and surrounding area are new suburbs in the south of Loughborough. Work on the original Shelthorpe started in 1929, but was halted by World War II and resumed in 1946, it now has two rows of shops. A magnificent but overlooked piece of architecture is a group of twelve houses surrounding the crossroads at Castledine Street Extension, Woodthorpe Road, Shelthorpe Road. Fairmeadows Way and the surrounding area to the west of Shelthorpe and the south of the university date from the 1970s; the area stretches from Holywell Drive to Hazel Road. Rainbows, a children's hospice, Woodbrook Vale secondary school are on the edge of the suburb.

Grange Park is to the south of these. Construction began in 2006 after the completion of Terry Yardley Way to One Ash Roundabout. By 2018 the developers William Davis had built 1000 houses. Other developers are building to the west of Shelthorpe and the south of the university. William Davis came under fire in 2018 from residents saying they had been promised public amenities like shops and a place of worship, but were living on "a construction site" after William Davis submitted a planning application for 30 more houses on a site that could have been used for public purposes. Loughborough station is a mainline station serving the town. In 2012, Network Rail redeveloped the station increasing the length of the platforms and improving access. East Midlands Railway is the primary operator providing services on the Midland Main Line south to Leicester, Bedford and London St Pancras stations and north to Lincoln, Sheffield and York stations; the link to London provides a link to Europe via Eurostar.

Leicester and Derby stations allow transfers to CrossCountry trains running between the north-east of Scotland and the south-west of England. There were at one time three railway routes to the town: the sti