The Ibadi movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya known as the Ibadis, is a school of Islam dominant in Oman. It is found in parts of Algeria, Tunisia and East Africa; the movement is said to have been founded around the year 650 CE or about 20 years after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, predating both the Sunni and Shia denominations. Modern historians trace back the origins of the denomination to a moderate current of the Khawarij movement; the school derives its name from ʿAbdu l-Lāh ibn Ibāḍ of the Banu Tamim. Ibn Ibad was responsible for breaking off from the wider Kharijite movement around the time that Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad ruler, took power. However, the true founder was Jābir ibn Zayd of Oman. Ibadi theology developed in Basra, Iraq; the Ibadis opposed the rule of the third caliph in Islam, Uthman ibn Affan, but unlike the more extreme Kharijites the Ibadis rejected the murder of Uthman as well as the Kharijite belief that all Muslims holding differing viewpoints were infidels.
The Ibadis were among the more moderate groups opposed to the fourth caliph and wanted to return Islam to its form prior to the conflict between Ali and Muawiyah I. Due to their opposition to the Umayyad Caliphate, the Ibadis attempted an armed insurrection starting in the Hijaz region in the 740s. Caliph Marwan II led a 4,000 strong army and routed the Ibadis first in Mecca in Sana'a in Yemen, surrounded them in Shibam in western Hadhramaut. Problems back in their heartland of Syria forced the Umayyads to sign a peace accord with the Ibadis, the sect was allowed to retain a community in Shibam for the next four centuries while still paying taxes to Ibadi authorities in Oman. For a period after Marwan II's death, Jabir ibn Zayd maintained a friendship with Umayyad general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, who supported the Ibadis as a counterbalance to more extreme Kharijites. Ibn Zayd ordered the assassination of one of Al-Hajjaj's spies, in reaction many Ibadis were imprisoned or exiled to Oman, it was during the 8th century.
The position was an elected one, as opposed to Shi'a dynasties where rule was inherited. These imams exerted political and military functions. By the year 900, Ibadism had spread to Sind, Hadhramaut, Oman proper, the Nafusa Mountains, Qeshm; the last Ibadis of Shibam were expelled by the Sulayhid dynasty in the 12th century. In the 14th century, historian Ibn Khaldun made reference to vestiges of Ibadi influence in Hadhramaut, though the sect no longer exists in the region today. Despite predating all Sunni and Shia schools by several decades, the Ibadis and their beliefs remain a mystery to outsiders, both non-Muslims and other Muslims. Ibadis have claimed, with justification, that while they read the works of both Sunnis and Shias the learned scholars of those two sects never read Ibadi works and repeat myths and false information when they address the topic of Ibadism without performing proper research; the isolated nature of Oman granted the Ibadi denomination, secretive by nature, the perfect environment to develop in isolation from the Islamic mainstream.
Ibadis were cut off from the Kharijite sect because of Ibn Ibaḍ's criticism of their excesses and his rejection of their more extreme beliefs. The spread of Ibadism in Oman represents the triumph of theology over tribal feudalism and conflict. Ibadis have been referred to as tolerant Puritans or as political quietists because of their preference to solve differences through dignity and reason rather than with confrontation, as well as their tolerance for practising Christians, Hindus and Jews sharing their communities. Muscat, Oman presently has churches and gurudwaras. Ibadism's movement from Hijaz to Iraq and further out made Ibadi historian al-Salimi once write that Ibadism is a bird whose egg was laid in Medina, hatched in Basra and flew to Oman. Ibadis state, with reason, that their school predates that of mainstream Islamic schools, Ibadism is thus considered to be an early and orthodox interpretation of Islam. Ibāḍīs have several doctrinal differences with other denominations of Islam, chief among them: God will not show himself to Muslims on the Day of Judgment, a belief shared with Shias.
Sunnis believe. The Quran was created by God at a certain point in time; this belief is shared with the Mutazila and Shi’a, whereas Sunnīs hold the Quran to be co-eternal with God, as exemplified by the suffering of Ahmad ibn Hanbal during the miḥnah. Like the Mutazila and Shias, but unlike Salafis, they interpret anthropomorphic references to God in the Qur'an symbolically rather than literally, their views on predestination are like the Ashari Sunnis. It is unnecessary to have one leader for the entire Muslim world, if no single leader is fit for the job, Muslim communities can rule themselves; that is different from the Shia belief of Imamah. It is not necessary for the ruler of the Muslims to be descended from the Quraysh tribe, the tribe of the Muslim prophet Muhammad; that is different from Shias. They believe it is acceptable to conceal one's beliefs under certain circumstances, analogous to the Shia taqiyya. Ibadis agree with Sunnis, regarding Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab as rightly-guide
The Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works Limited, is a major defense contractor and military corporation situated in the West Wharf in Karachi, Sindh in Pakistan. The KESW Ltd. is the oldest and the only shipyard in Pakistan, catering for shipbuilding, ship repair and general heavy engineering. It has built numerous cargo ships, oil tankers and support vessels, landing craft, naval vessels and submarines for the Pakistani Navy; the current Managing Director KS&EW is Rear Admiral Ather Saleem. It was established in mid fifties as a project of Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation and was incorporated as a public limited company in 1957, managed by a Board of Directors and a Managing Director; the shipyard is located at west wharf in Karachi. It is equipped with a large shipbuilding hall, three block fabrication areas, three shipbuilding berths, two dry docks, a machine shop, a grit blasting and painting facility, a 7881 tons capacity ship lift and transfer system, 13 parking stations. A contract was signed on 22 January 2013 between the Ministry of Defence Production, Pakistan and STM, Turkey to construct a 17000 ton fleet tanker for the Pakistani Navy.
The Kit of Material was provided by STM and the construction, outfitting took place at KS&EW. The construction of the vessel started on 27 November 2013 and it was launched on 19 August 2016; this is the largest warship built in Pakistan till date. In the 1990s KS&EW constructed two Agosta 90B submarines for the Pakistani Navy; these were built under a transfer of technology from France. The technology was related to construction of the pressure hull and out-fitting of the submarine; the third submarine, PNS Hamza, was constructed with MESMA AIP unit, while the first two will be retro-fitted during their next overhauls with a "plug" containing a MESMA AIP unit. The submarine's hull will be cut and the plug inserted; the second MESMA unit was shipped in June 2011. The next submarine project will see KS&EW jointly involved with Chinese company CSOC in the design and construction of 8 submarines equipped with air-independent propulsion; these will be designed to Pakistani specifications and four will be built at a CSOC shipyard in China, while four will be constructed by KS&EW.
It is believed that little upgrading of facilities is required because much of the current infrastructure meets the requirements. The preliminary negotiations were reported to be completed in March 2011, it was earlier believed that the project would involve China's Type-041 Yuan class submarine, mentioned by Admiral Noman Bashir, Chief of Naval Staff, several times since 2009. Al-Abbas - first one was built in 1967 for Muhammadi Steamship Company Limited. MV Lalazar - A 13,300 DWT Cargo Vessel was built for National Shipping Corporation, Pakistan. Delivered on 20th Nov 1974. MV Hetian - A 13,160 DWT Cargo Vessel was built for China National Machinery Import & Export Corporation, China, in 1978. MV Islamabad - MV Islamabad is the largest general cargo and container ship built at KS&EW with 17,200 DWT; the ship is in service with Pakistan National Shipping Corporation. You Ti 20 - A 17,000 TDW Bulk Carrier You Yi 20 was built in 1992 for China National Machinery Import & Export Corporation. PNS Aslat of the F-22P Zulfiquar class frigate PNS Dehshat of the Azmat class missile boat PNS Jurrat & PNS Quwwat of the Jurrat class missile boat PNS Jalalat & PNS Shujaat of the Jalalat II class missile boat PNS Larkana & PNS Rajshahi of the Larkana class Gunboat Maritime Patrol Vessels for Pakistan Maritime Security Agency.
Both commissioned. PNS Mujahid of the Tripartite-class minehunter PNS Hamza & PNS Saad of Agosta 90B class submarine class PNS Moawin - 17,000 Tons Fleet Tanker PNS Bhit Shah - Split-Hopper Barge PNS Kalmat & PNS Gwader - Coastal Tankers PNS Madadgar & PNS Rasadgar - Small Tanker Cum Utility Ship Defence industry of Pakistan List of shipbuilders and shipyards Official website Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works - Profile
Mazzino Montinari was an Italian scholar of Germanistics. A native of Lucca, he became regarded as one of the most distinguished researchers on Friedrich Nietzsche, harshly criticized the edition of The Will to Power, which he regarded as a forgery, in his book The will to power does not exist. After the end of fascism in Italy, Montinari became an active member of the Italian Communist Party, with which he was occupied with the translation of German writings. During 1953, when he visited East Germany for research, he witnessed the Uprising of 1953. After the suppression of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, he drifted away from orthodox Marxism and his career in party organizations, he did however keep his membership in the Italian Communist Party and stayed true to the aims of socialism. At the end of the 1950s, with Giorgio Colli, his teacher in the 1940s, Montinari began to prepare an Italian translation of Nietzsche's works. After reviewing the contemporary collection of Nietzsche's works and the manuscripts in Weimar and Montinari decided to begin a new, critical edition.
This edition became the scholarly standard, was published in Italian by Adelphi in Milan, in French by Éditions Gallimard in Paris, in German by Walter de Gruyter and in Dutch by Sun. Of particular help for this project was Montinari's ability to decipher Nietzsche's nearly unreadable handwriting, which before had only been transcribed by Peter Gast. In 1972, Montinari and others founded the international journal Nietzsche-Studien, to which Montinari would remain a significant contributor until his death. Through his translations and commentary on Nietzsche, Montinari demonstrated a method of interpretation based on philological research that would forgo hasty speculations, he saw value in placing Nietzsche in the context of his time, to this end, Colli and he began a critical collection of Nietzsche's correspondence. Montinari died in Florence in 1986. Reading Nietzsche, trans. Greg Whitlock, University of Illinois Press, 2003, ISBN 0-252-02798-1 "'The Will to Power' does not exist" edited by Paolo D'Iorio The Stanford University Press is in the midst of publishing'the first complete and annotated English translation' of Nietzsche's works, which will be based on the Colli-Montinari edition.
Biography of Mazzino Montinari