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Islamic schools and branches

This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam. The best known split, into Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Kharijites, was political at first but acquired theological and jurisprudential dimensions. There are three traditional types of schools in Islam: schools of jurisprudence, Sufi orders and schools of theology; the article summarizes major denominations and movements that have arisen in the modern era. The original difference between Sunnis and Shias is over who the true first successor to Muhammad is. Shias believe Ali ibn Abi Talib is the true successor to Muhammad, while Sunnis consider Abu Bakr to hold that position; the Khawarij broke away from both the Shias and Sunnis during the First Fitna and subsequently opposed both the Shias and the Sunnis violently. In addition, there are several differences within Shia Islam. Sunni Islam is separated into four main schools of jurisprudence, Hanafi, Shafi'i, Hanbali; these schools are named after Abu Hanifa, Malik bin Anas, al-Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, respectively.

Shia Islam, on the other hand, is separated into three major sects: Twelvers and Zaydis. The vast majority of Shias are Twelvers to the extent that the term "Shia" refers to Twelvers by default; the Twelver Shias are notably the only sect of Muslims that complies with the saying of Muhammad that he would have twelve successors, a saying accepted by both Shia and Sunni Muslims. All mainstream Twelver Shia Muslims follow the same school of the Jafari school of thought. All four founders of the Sunni schools of thought gained knowledge, either directly or indirectly, through Jafar as-Sadiq. Zaydis known as Fivers, follow the Zayidi school of thought. Isma'ilism is another offshot of Shia Islam that split into Nizari Ismaili and Musta’li Ismaili, Mustaali was divided into Hafizi and Taiyabi Ismailis. Tayyibi Ismailis known as "Bohras", are split between Da'udi Bohras, Sulaymani Bohras, Alavi Bohras. Kharijites were divided into five major branches: Sufris, Najdat and Ibadis. Of these, Ibadis are the only surviving branch of Kharijites.

In addition to the aforementioned groups, new schools of thought and movements like Quranist Muslims, African American Muslims emerged independently. Sunni Islam known as Ahl as-Sunnah wa'l-Jamā'h or Ahl as-Sunnah, is the largest denomination of Islam; the word Sunni comes from the word sunnah, which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Sahaba and the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. The Sunnis believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor to lead the Muslim ummah before his death, however they approve of the private election of the first companion, Abu Bakr. Sunni Muslims regard the first four caliphs as "al-Khulafā'ur-Rāshidūn" or "The Rightly Guided Caliphs." Sunnis believe that the position of caliph may be attained democratically, on gaining a majority of the votes, but after the Rashidun, the position turned into a hereditary dynastic rule because of the divisions started by the Umayyads and others. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, there has never been another caliph as recognized in the Muslim world.

In recent times, followers of the classical Sunni schools of jurisprudence and kalam on one hand and Islamists and Salafis such as Wahhabis and Ahle Hadith, who follow a literalist reading of early Islamic sources, on the other, have laid competing claims to represent orthodox Sunni Islam. Anglophone Islamic currents of the former type are sometimes referred to as "traditional Islam". In South Asia the Barelvi and Deobandi schools represent further schism within classical Sunni Islam. Islamic modernism is a significant development. Shia Islam is the second-largest denomination of Islam, comprising 10–20% of the total Muslim population. Although a minority in the Muslim world, Shia Muslims constitute the majority of the Muslim populations in Iran, Lebanon and Azerbaijan as well as significant minorities in Syria, eastern Africa, south Asia and Saudi Arabia and other parts of the Persian Gulf. In addition to believing in the authority of the Quran and teachings of Muhammad, Shia believe that Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt, including his descendants known as Imams, have special spiritual and political authority over the community and believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, was the first of these Imams and was the rightful successor to Muhammad, thus reject the legitimacy of the first three Rashidun caliphs.

The Shia Islamic faith includes many different groups. There are various Shia theological beliefs, schools of jurisprudence, philosophical beliefs, spiritual movements; the Twelvers believe in twelve Imams and are the only school to comply with Hadith of the Twelve Successors, where Muhammad stated that he would have twelve successors. Ismailism, including the Nizārī, Mustaali, Dawoodi Bohra, Hebtiahs Bohra, Sulaimani Bohra and Alavi Bohra sub-denominations; the Zaidiyyah come from the followers of Zayd ibn Ali. The Alawites are a distinct religion. Twelver Shia scholars did not consider Alawites as Shia Muslims while condemning their heretical beliefs. Ibn Taymiyyah pointed out that Alawites were not Shi'ites; the Druze are a distinct traditional religion that developed in the 11th century as an offsh

List of damselflies of the world

This is a list of damselflies arranged into families. Amphipteryx agrioides Amphipteryx longicaudatus Devadatta argyoides Devadatta ducatrix Devadatta multinervosa Devadatta podolestoides Pentaphlebia gamblesi Pentaphlebia stahli Rimanella arcana See List of damselflies of the world See List of damselflies of the world Chorismagrion risi See List of damselflies of the world Coryphagrion grandis Dicterias atrosanguinea Heliocharis amazona Diphlebia coerulescens Diphlebia euphoeoides Diphlebia hybridoides Diphlebia lestoides Diphlebia nymphoides Philoganga loringae Philoganga montana Philoganga robusta Philoganga vetusta See List of damselflies of the world Hemiphlebia mirabilis See List of damselflies of the world See List of damselflies of the world Lestoidea barbarae Lestoidea brevicauda Lestoidea conjuncta Lestoidea lewisiana See List of damselflies of the world Nubiolestes diotima Perilestes attenuatus Perilestes bispinus Perilestes fragilis Perilestes gracillimus Perilestes kahli Perilestes minor Perilestes solutus Perissolestes aculeatus Perissolestes castor Perissolestes cornutus Perissolestes flinti Perissolestes guianensis Perissolestes klugi Perissolestes magdalenae Perissolestes paprzyckii Perissolestes pollux Perissolestes remotus Perissolestes remus Perissolestes romulus See List of damselflies of the world See List of damselflies of the world See List of damselflies of the world See List of damselflies of the world Anomisma abnorme Mecistogaster amalia Mecistogaster amazonica Mecistogaster asticta Mecistogaster buckleyi Mecistogaster jocaste Mecistogaster linearis Mecistogaster lucretia Mecistogaster martinezi Mecistogaster modesta Mecistogaster ornata Mecistogaster pronoti Megaloprepus caerulatus Microstigma anomalum Microstigma maculatum Microstigma rotundatum Pseudostigma aberrans Pseudostigma accedens See List of damselflies of the world Thaumatoneura inopinata

Austria–Kosovo relations

Austria–Kosovo relations refer to the bilateral relations of Austria and Kosovo. Kosovo has an embassy in Vienna and Austria has an embassy in Pristina. Austria was one of the first countries to recognise Kosovo's independence on 28 February 2008; as a European Union member, Austria supports Kosovo in its euro-integration path. On 25 March 2011 Austrian Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger stated that "Austria intends to increase its efforts to gain recognition for Kosovo's independence by all of the EU countries, Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger said Friday, commenting on his visit to Kosovo... Kosovo needs to show the sceptical countries within the EU that it is doing what is necessary to protect its minorities". Austria has 606 troops serving in Kosovo as peacekeepers in the NATO led Kosovo Force. Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Kosovo Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia; the Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 withdrew their recognition

Laser fence

A laser fence or laser wall is a mechanism to detect objects passing the line of sight between the laser source and the detector. Stronger lasers can be used to injure entities passing the laser beam. In fiction, laser fences may have the ability to stop intruders by injuring them. A laser fence mechanism detects objects passing the line of sight between a laser source and detector. Stronger lasers can be used to injure entities passing the laser beam, as in a mosquito laser. Fictional uses of laser fences extend the concept so that fences may have the ability to prevent intruders by blocking or injuring them. Lasers are used to keep birds from eating blueberries by being perceived as a predator; the European Commission is funding research into a laser fence to scare away other pests. The Indian Border Security Force has implemented a laser wall system—called LASER Wall—along some parts of its border to stop intrusion. In the 1992 film Fortress, prisoners are kept secured by laser walls. Laser walls appear in videogames.

The concepts of these fictional fences can be compared to other concepts like tractor or repulsor beams and force fields. Deus Ex: Human Revolution has laser grids which you can't get past without getting a Remote Hacking augmentation, allowing you to affect it. Monaco: What's Yours Is Mine has a hacker class which use viruses to shut down lasers. Portal 2, with laser barriers as obstacles Sly Cooper: Thieves in Time Titanfall 2 has laser fields to prevent access to areas. X-Morph: Defense uses laser fences to kill off enemies. Laser Doppler velocimetry Lidar


Steckborn is a municipality in Frauenfeld District in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland. It is located on the south-western arm of Lake Constance known in German as the Untersee; the area around Steckborn was inhabited in the second century. There are Roman remains of walls and fortifications, it is thought that the village became part of the territory of the monastery of Reichenau in the ninth century. This is the period. In 1313 Steckborn was first granted municipal rights; because all ecclesiastical authority ended with the French invasion in 1798, the dominance of Reichenau ended. Steckborn has been the district capital of its district since the founding of the canton of Thurgau in 1803; when a new tower was to be built for the church in 1833, a 17-year-old first-year apprentice, Ferdinand Stadler, was given the chance to draw up the plans. In 1848 the Cistercian convent at Feldbach was closed. In 1890 an embroidery workshop was established in the buildings of the Feldbach convent; this was to grow into the Bernina Sewing Machine Factory, now known as BERNINA International.

Steckborn has an area, as of 2009, of 8.76 square kilometers. Of this area, 3.16 km2 or 36.1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 4.07 km2 or 46.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.52 km2 or 17.4 % is settled, 0.02 km2 or 0.2 % is either lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 9.4% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 0.9% and transportation infrastructure made up 0.3%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.6% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 5.1%. Out of the forested land, 44.7% of the total land area is forested and 1.7% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 33.0% is used for growing crops, while 3.1% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water. Steckborn has a population of 3,753 As of 2008, 22.3% of the population are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has remained the same.

Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third. As of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 49.7 % female. The population was made up of 1,292 Swiss men, 441 non-Swiss men. There were 1,382 Swiss women, 327 non-Swiss women. In 2008 there were 23 live births to Swiss citizens and 6 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 42 deaths of Swiss citizens and 1 non-Swiss citizen death. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 19 while the foreign population increased by 5. There were 3 Swiss men who emigrated from Switzerland to another country, 7 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland to another country, 50 non-Swiss men who emigrated from Switzerland to another country and 16 non-Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland to another country; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 2 and the non-Swiss population change was an increase of 51 people.

This represents a population growth rate of 1.6%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Steckborn is. Of the adult population, 390 people or 11.3 % of the population are between 29 years old. 334 people or 9.7% are between 30 and 39, 612 people or 17.7% are between 40 and 49, 532 people or 15.4% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 407 people or 11.8% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 265 people or 7.7% are between 70 and 79, there are 181 people or 5.2% who are between 80 and 89, there are 23 people or 0.7% who are 90 and older. As of 2000, there were 1,402 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.3 persons per household. In 2000 there were 513 single family homes out of a total of 697 inhabited buildings. There were 64 two 35 three family buildings and 85 multi-family buildings. There were 811 persons who were part of a couple without children, 1,630 who were part of a couple with children. There were 179 people who lived in single parent home, while there are 34 persons who were adult children living with one or both parents, 6 persons who lived in a household made up of relatives, 30 who lived in a household made up of unrelated persons, 130 who are either institutionalized or live in another type of collective housing.

The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2008, was 1.22%. As of 2007, the construction rate of new housing units was 3.8 new units per 1000 residents. In 2000 there were 1,698 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was the 4 room apartment of which there were 508. There were 79 single room apartments and 223 apartments with six or more rooms; as of 2000 the average price to rent an average apartment in Steckborn was 926.39 Swiss francs per month. The average rate for a one-room apartment was 460.64 CHF, a two-room apartment was about 669.76 CHF, a three-room apartment was about 824.12 CHF and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 1750.34 CHF. The average apartment price in Steckborn was 83.0% of the national average of 1116 CHF. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SV

Brecon Free Street railway station

Brecon Free Street railway station served Brecon, in the historic Welsh county of Brecknockshire, now Powys. The Brecon and Merthyr Railway opened its first station in Watton in 1863; the Neath and Brecon Railway had a temporary station at Brecon Mount Street by 1868, but a joint station was opened at Free Street in 1871. The line and station closed in 1964; the Brecon and Merthyr Tydfil Junction Railway obtained an Act of Parliament on 1 August 1859 to construct a line between Talybont and Pant. Train services between Brecon and Pant began on 23 April 1863 but two trains per day ran from 19 March 1863, it became part of the Great Western Railway during the Grouping of 1923. A special train ran to Free Street on 2 May 1964 named the Last Train to Brecon; the line closed to passengers on 31 December 1962 and to goods on 4 May 1964. Heol Gouesnou follows the course of the railway from The Struet to the site of Brecon Free Street station. Http://