History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty
The history of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty spanned the period of Ottoman Egypt, the Khedivate of Egypt under British patronage, the nominally independent Sultanate of Egypt and Kingdom of Egypt, ending with the Revolution of 1952 and the formation of the Republic of Egypt. The process of Muhammad Ali's seizure of power was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluks, Albanian mercenaries, it lasted from 1803 to 1807 with the Albanian Muhammad Ali Pasha taking control of Egypt in 1805, when the Ottoman Sultan acknowledged his position. Thereafter, Muhammad Ali was the undisputed master of Egypt, his efforts henceforth were directed to the maintenance of his practical independence. Ottoman-Saudi war in 1811–18 was fought between Egypt under the reign of Muhammad Ali and the Wahabbis of Najd who had conquered Hejaz from the Ottomans; when Wahabis captured Mecca in 1802, the Ottoman sultan ordered Muhammad Ali of Egypt to start moving against Wahabbis to re-conquer Mecca and return the honour of the Ottoman Empire.
Acknowledging the sovereignty of the Ottoman Sultan, at the commands of the Ottoman Porte, in 1811 Muhammad Ali dispatched an army of 20,000 men under the command of his son Tusun, a youth of sixteen, against the Saudis in the Ottoman–Saudi War. After a successful advance this force met with a serious repulse at the Battle of Al-Safra, retreated to Yanbu. In the end of the year Tusun, having received reinforcements, again assumed the offensive and captured Medina after a prolonged siege, he next took Mecca, defeating the Saudi beyond the latter and capturing their general. But some mishaps followed, Muhammad Ali, who had determined to conduct the war in person, left Egypt in the summer of 1813—leaving his other son Ibrahim in charge of the country, he encountered serious obstacles in Arabia, predominantly stemming from the nature of the country and the harassing mode of warfare adopted by his adversaries, but on the whole his forces proved superior to those of the enemy. He deposed and exiled the Sharif of Mecca and after the death of the Saudi leader Saud he concluded a treaty with Saud's son and successor, Abdullah I in 1815.
Following reports that the Turks, whose cause he was upholding in Arabia, were treacherously planning an invasion of Egypt, hearing of the escape of Napoleon from Elba and fearing danger to Egypt from France or Britain, Muhammad Ali returned to Cairo by way of Kosseir and Kena, reaching the capital on the day of the Battle of Waterloo. Tusun returned to Egypt on hearing of the military revolt at Cairo, but died in 1816 at the early age of twenty. Muhammad Ali, dissatisfied with the treaty concluded with the Saudis, with the non-fulfillment of certain of its clauses, determined to send another army to Arabia, to include in it the soldiers who had proved unruly; this expedition, under his eldest son Ibrahim Pasha, left in the autumn of 1816. The war was arduous but in 1818 Ibrahim captured the Saudi capital of Diriyah. Abdullah I, their chief, was made prisoner and with his treasurer and secretary was sent to Istanbul, where, in spite of Ibrahim's promise of safety and of Muhammad Ali's intercession in their favor, they were put to death.
At the close of the year 1819 Ibrahim returned having subdued all opposition in Arabia. While the process had begun in 1808, Muhammad Ali's representative at Cairo had completed the confiscation of all the lands belonging to private individuals, while he was absent in Arabia; the former owners were forced to accept inadequate pensions instead. By this revolutionary method of land nationalization Muhammad Ali became proprietor of nearly all the soil of Egypt. During Ibrahim's engagement in the second Arabian campaign, the pasha turned his attention to further strengthening the Egyptian economy, his control over it, he created state monopolies for the chief products of the country, created a number of factories. In 1819 he began digging the new Mahmoudiyah Canal to Alexandria, named after the reigning Sultan of Turkey; the old canal had long fallen into decay, the necessity of providing a safe channel between Alexandria and the Nile was much felt. The conclusion of the commercial Treaty of Balta Liman in 1838 between Turkey and Britain, negotiated by Sir Henry Bulwer, struck the death knell to the system of monopolies, though its application regarding Egypt was delayed for some years, included foreign intervention.
Another notable addition to the economic progress of the country was the development of cotton cultivation in the Nile Delta starting in 1822. The cotton seed for the new crop had been brought from the Sudan by Maho Bey, with the organization of the new irrigation and industry, Muhammad Ali was able to extract considerable revenue in a few years time. Other domestic efforts were made to promote the study of medicine. Muhammad Ali showed much favor, to European merchants, on whom he was dependent for the sale of his monopoly exports, under his influence the port of Alexandria again rose into importance, it was under Muhammad Ali's encouragement that the overland transit of goods from Europe to India via Egypt was resumed. The Pasha attempted to reorganize his troops along European lines, but this led to a formidable mutiny in Cairo. Muhammad Ali's life was endangered, he sought refuge by night in the citadel, while the soldiers committed many acts of plunder; the effects of the revolt were reduced by gifts to the insurgent's leaders.
The conscription portion of the Nizam-ı Cedid (New
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Turkish Sudan known as Turkiyya, describes the rule of the Eyalet and Khedivate of Egypt over what is now Sudan and South Sudan. It lasted from 1820, when Muhammad Ali Pasha started his conquest of Sudan, to the fall of Khartoum in 1885 to Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi. Although a part of present-day northern Sudan was nominally an Egyptian dependency during the Mamluk and Ottoman periods, previous Egyptian rulers had demanded little more from the Sudanese Kashif than the regular remittance of tribute. After Muhammad Ali crushed the Mamluks in Egypt, a party of them fled south. In 1811 these Mamluks established a state at Dunqulah as a base for their slave trading. In 1820 the Sultan of Sennar informed Muhammad Ali that he was unable to comply with the demand to expel the Mamluks. In response Muhammad Ali sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan, clear it of Mamluks, incorporate it into Egypt, his forces received the submission of the Kashif, dispersed the Dunqulah Mamluks, conquered Kurdufan, accepted Sannar's surrender from the last Funj sultan, Badi VII.
However, the Arab Ja'alin tribes offered stiff resistance.'At-Turkiyyah' was the general Sudanese term for the period of Egyptian and Anglo-Egyptian rule, from the conquest in 1820 until the Mahdist takeover in the 1880s. Meaning both'Turkish rule' and'the period of Turkish rule' it designated rule by notionally Turkish-speaking elites or by those they appointed. At the top levels of the army and administration this meant Turkish-speaking Egyptians, but it included Albanians, Levantine Arabs and others with positions within the Egyptian state of Muhammad Ali and his descendants; the term included Europeans such as Emin Pasha and Charles George Gordon, who were employed in the service of the Khedives of Egypt. The'Turkish connection' was that the Khedives of Egypt were nominal vassals of the Ottoman Empire, so all acts were done, notionally, in the name of the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul; the Egyptian elite may be described as'notionally' Turkish speaking because while Ismail Pasha, who conquered Egypt, spoke Turkish and could not speak Arabic, Arabic became used in the army and administration in the following decades, until under the Khedive Ismail Arabic was made the official language of government, with Turkish being confined only to correspondence with the Sublime Porte.
The term at-turkiyyah ath-thaniya meaning'second Turkiyyah' was used in Sudan to denote the period of Anglo-Egyptian rule. Under the new government established in 1821, Egyptian soldiers lived off the land and exacted exorbitant taxes from the population, they destroyed many ancient Meroitic pyramids searching for hidden gold. Furthermore, slave trading increased, causing many of the inhabitants of the fertile Al Jazirah, heartland of Funj, to flee to escape the slave traders. Within a year of Muhammad Ali's victory, 30,000 Sudanese were conscripted and sent to Egypt for training and induction into the army. So many perished from disease and the unfamiliar climate that the survivors could be used only in garrisons in Sudan; as Egyptian rule became more secure, the government became less harsh. Egypt expected the country to be self-supporting. Farmers and herders returned to Al Jazirah. Muhammad Ali won the allegiance of some tribal and religious leaders by granting them a tax exemption. Egyptian soldiers and Sudanese jahidiyah, supplemented by mercenaries, manned garrisons in Khartoum, Al Ubayyid and at several smaller outposts.
The Shaiqiyah, Arabic speakers who had resisted Egyptian occupation, were defeated and allowed to serve the Egyptian rulers as tax collectors and irregular cavalry under their own shaykhs. The Egyptians divided Sudan into provinces, which they subdivided into smaller administrative units that corresponded to tribal territories. In 1823, Khartoum had become the centre of the Egyptian domains in the Sudan and had grown into a large market town. By 1834, it was the residence of the Egyptian deputy. In 1835 Khartoum became the seat of the Hakimadar. Many garrison towns developed into administrative centers in their respective regions. At the local level and traditional tribal chieftains assumed administrative responsibilities. In the 1850s, the Egyptians revised the legal system in both Egypt and Sudan, introducing a commercial code and a criminal code administered in secular courts; the change reduced the prestige of the qadis whose sharia courts were confined to dealing with matters of personal status.
In this area, the courts lacked credibility in the eyes of Sudanese Muslims because they conducted hearings according to the Hanafi school of law rather than the stricter Maliki school traditional in the area. The Egyptians undertook a mosque-building program and staffed religious schools and courts with teachers and judges trained at Cairo's Al Azhar University; the government favored the Khatmiyyah, a traditional religious order, because its leaders preached cooperation with the regime. But Sudanese Muslims condemned the official orthodoxy as decadent because it had rejected many popular beliefs and practices; until its gradual suppression in the 1860s, the slave trade was the most profitable undertaking in Sudan and was the focus of Egyptian interests in the country. The government encouraged economic development through state monopolies that had exported slaves and gum arabic. In some areas, tribal land, held in common, became the private property of the sheikhs and was sometimes sold to buyers outside the tribe.
Wahhabism is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. It has been variously described as "ultraconservative", "austere", "fundamentalist", or "puritan"; the term Wahhabi is used polemically and adherents reject its use, preferring to be called Salafi or muwahhid. Claiming to emphasize the principle of tawhid, for exclusivity on monotheism, dismissing other Muslims as practising shirk, it follows the theology of Ibn Taymiyyah and the Hanbali school of jurisprudence, although Hanbali leaders renounced Abd al-Wahhab's views. Wahhabism is named after Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, he started a reform movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Najd, advocating a purging of such widespread Sunni practices as the veneration of saints and the visiting of their tombs and shrines, that were practiced all over the Islamic world, but which he considered idolatrous impurities and innovations in Islam. He formed a pact with a local leader, Muhammad bin Saud, offering political obedience and promising that protection and propagation of the Wahhabi movement meant "power and glory" and rule of "lands and men".
The alliance between followers of ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud's successors proved to be a durable one. The House of Saud continued to maintain its politico-religious alliance with the Wahhabi sect through the waxing and waning of its own political fortunes over the next 150 years, through to its eventual proclamation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, afterwards, on into modern times. Today Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab's teachings are the official, state-sponsored form of Sunni Islam in Saudi Arabia. With the help of funding from Saudi petroleum exports, the movement underwent "explosive growth" beginning in the 1970s and now has worldwide influence; the US State Department has estimated that over the past four decades concerns in Riyadh have directed at least $10bn to select charitable foundations toward the subversion of mainstream Sunni Islam by the harsh intolerance of Wahhabism. The "boundaries" of Wahhabism have been called "difficult to pinpoint", but in contemporary usage, the terms Wahhabi and Salafi are used interchangeably, they are considered to be movements with different roots that have merged since the 1960s.
However, Wahhabism has been called "a particular orientation within Salafism", or an ultra-conservative, Saudi brand of Salafism. Estimates of the number of adherents to Wahhabism vary, with one source giving a figure of fewer than 5 million Wahhabis in the Persian Gulf region; the majority of Sunni and Shia Muslims worldwide disagree with the interpretation of Wahhabism, many Muslims denounce them as a faction or a "vile sect". Islamic scholars, including those from the Al-Azhar University denounce Wahhabism with terms such as "Satanic faith". Wahhabism has been accused of being "a source of global terrorism", inspiring the ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, for causing disunity in Muslim communities by labelling Muslims who disagreed with the Wahhabi definition of monotheism as apostates and justifying their killing, it has been criticized for the destruction of historic shrines of saints and other Muslim and non-Muslim buildings and artifacts. Some definitions or uses of the term Wahhabi Islam include: "a corpus of doctrines", "a set of attitudes and behavior, derived from the teachings of a severe religious reformist who lived in central Arabia in the mid-eighteenth century" "pure Islam", that does not deviate from Sharia law in any way and should be called Islam and not Wahhabism.
"a misguided creed that fosters intolerance, promotes simplistic theology, restricts Islam's capacity for adaption to diverse and shifting circumstances" "a conservative reform movement... the creed upon which the kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded, has influenced Islamic movements worldwide" "a sect dominant in Saudi Arabia and Qatar" with footholds in "India and elsewhere", with a "steadfastly fundamentalist interpretation of Islam in the tradition of Ibn Hanbal" an "eighteenth-century reformist/revivalist movement for sociomoral reconstruction of society", "founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab". Originally a "literal revivification" of Islamic principles that ignored the spiritual side of Islam, that "rose on the wings of enthusiasm and longing and sank down into the lowlands of pharisaic self-righteousness" after gaining power and losing its "longing and humility" "a political trend" within Islam that "has been adopted for power-sharing purposes", but cannot be called a sect because "It has no special practices, nor special rites, no special interpretation of religion that differ from the main body of Sunni Islam" (Abdallah Al Obeid, the former dean of the Islamic University of Medina and member of the Saudi Con
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha was an Ottoman Albanian commander who rose to the rank of Pasha, became Wāli, self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military and cultural spheres that he instituted, he ruled Levantine territories outside Egypt. The dynasty that he established would rule Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt and Sudan until the 1952 coup d'état led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. Muhammad Ali was born in Kavala, in Macedonia, Rumeli Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, today a city in Greece, he was born to an Albanian family whose origins were from Korçë. He was the second son of a tobacco and shipping merchant named Ibrahim Agha, who served as an Ottoman commander of a small unit in Kavala, his mother was the daughter of the "Ayan of Kavala" Çorbaci Husain Agha. When his father died at a young age, Muhammad was raised by his uncle with his cousins.
As a reward for Muhammad Ali's hard work, his uncle gave him the rank of "Bolukbashi" for the collection of taxes in the town of Kavala. After Muhammad's promising success in collecting taxes, he gained Second Commander rank under his cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent of Albanian mercenaries, sent to re-occupy Egypt following General Napoleon Bonaparte's withdrawal, he married Ali Agha's daughter, Emine Nosratli, a wealthy widow, his maternal Cousin, because her Mother Kadriye and his Mother Zeynep were sisters, both daughters of Çorbaci Husain Agha. In 1801, his unit was sent, as part of a much larger Ottoman force, to re-occupy Egypt following a brief French occupation that threatened the way of life in Egypt; the expedition landed at Aboukir in the spring of 1801. One of his trusted army commanders was Miralay Mustafa Bey, who had married Muhammad's sister Zubayda and was the Ancestor of the Yakan family; the French withdrawal left a power vacuum in Egypt. Mamluk power had been weakened, but not destroyed, Ottoman forces clashed with the Mamluks for power.
During this period of turmoil Muhammad Ali used his loyal Albanian troops to work with both sides, gaining power and prestige for himself. As the conflict drew on, the local populace grew weary of the power struggle. In 1801, he allied with Egypt's Grand Imam of al-Azhar. During the infighting between the Ottomans and Mamluks between 1801 and 1805, Muhammad Ali acted to gain the support of the general public. In 1805, a group of prominent Egyptians led by the ulema demanded the replacement of Wāli Ahmad Khurshid Pasha by Muhammad Ali, the Ottomans yielded. In 1809, Ali exiled Makram to Damietta. According to Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti, Makram had discovered Muhammad Ali's intentions to seize power for himself. Sultan Selim III could not oppose Muhammad Ali's ascension. By appearing as the champion of the people Muhammad Ali was able to forestall popular opposition until he had consolidated his power; the Mamluks still posed the greatest threat to Muhammad Ali. They controlled Egypt for more than 600 years, over that time they extended their rule systematically south along the Nile River to Upper Egypt.
Muhammad Ali's approach was to eliminate the Mamluk leadership move against the rank and file. Muhammad Ali invited the Mamluk leaders to a celebration at the Cairo Citadel in honour of his son, Tusun Pasha, to lead a military expedition into Arabia; the event was held on March 1, 1811. When the Mamluks had gathered at the Citadel, were surrounded by Muhammad Ali's troops, he had his troops kill them. After the leaders were killed, Muhammad Ali dispatched his army throughout Egypt to rout the remainder of the Mamluk forces. Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw as the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire, he summed up his vision for Egypt as follows: I am well aware that the Empire is heading by the day toward destruction... On its ruins I will build a vast kingdom... up to the Euphrates and the Tigris. Sultan Selim III had recognized the need to reform and modernize the Ottoman Empire the military, along European lines to ensure that his state could compete.
Selim III, faced stiff local opposition from an entrenched clergy and military apparatus from the Janissaries, the Ottoman infantry formed from the devshirme system. Selim III was deposed and killed in 1808. Muhammad Ali, recognized the need to modernize, unlike Selim, he had dispatched his chief rivals, giving him a free hand to attempt reforms similar to those first begun by Selim III. Muhammad Ali's goal was for Egypt to leave the Ottoman Empire and be ruled by his own hereditary dynasty. To do that, he had to reorganize Egyptian society, streamline the economy, train a professional bureaucracy, build a modern military, his first task was to secure a revenue stream for Egypt. To accomplish this, Muhammad Ali'nationalized' all the iltizam lands of Egypt, thereby owning all the production of the land, he accomplished the state annexation of property by raising taxes on the'tax-farmers' who had owned the land throughout Egypt. The new taxes were intentionally high and when the tax-farmers could not extract the demanded payments from the peasants who worked the land, Muhammad Ali confiscated their properties.
The other major source of revenue Muhammad Ali created was a new tax on waqf endowments, which were tax-free
Fuad I of Egypt
Fuad I was the Sultan and King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel, he substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad. Fuad was born in Giza Palace in the seventh son of Isma'il the Magnificent, he spent his childhood with his exiled father in Naples. He got his education from the military academy in Italy, his mother was Farial Kadin. Prior to becoming sultan, Fuad had played a major role in the establishment of Cairo University, he became the university's first rector in 1908, remained in the post until his resignation in 1913. He was succeeded as rector by then-minister of Justice Hussein Rushdi Pasha. In 1913, Fuad made unsuccessful attempts to secure the throne of Albania for himself, which had obtained its independence from the Ottoman Empire a year earlier.
At the time and Sudan was ruled by his nephew, Abbas II, the likelihood of Fuad becoming the monarch in his own country seemed remote. This, the fact that the Muhammad Ali dynasty was of Albanian descent, encouraged Fuad to seek the Albanian throne. Fuad served as President of the Egyptian Geographic Society from 1915 until 1918. Fuad came under consideration as a candidate for the Albanian throne, but he was bypassed in favour of a Christian ruler, he ascended the throne of the Sultanate of Egypt upon the death of his brother Hussein Kamel in 1917. In the aftermath of the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt, recognised it as a sovereign state on 28 February 1922. On 15 March 1922, Fuad issued a decree changing his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt. In 1930, he attempted to strengthen the power of the Crown by abrogating the 1923 Constitution and replacing it with a new constitution that limited the role of parliament to advisory status only.
Large scale public dissatisfaction compelled him to restore the earlier constitution in 1935. The 1923 Constitution granted Fuad vast powers, he made frequent use of his right to dissolve Parliament. During his reign, cabinets were dismissed at royal will, parliaments never lasted for their full four-year term but were dissolved by decree. Fuad was an instrumental force in modern Egyptian historiography, he employed numerous archivists to copy and arrange eighty-seven volumes of correspondence related to his paternal ancestors from European archives, to collect old documents from Egyptian archives into a what became the Royal Archives in the 1930s. Fuad's efforts to portray of his ancestors — his great-grandfather Muhammad Ali, his grandfather Ibrahim, his father — as nationalists and benevolent monarchs would prove to be an enduring influence on Egyptian history. Fuad married his first wife in Cairo, 30 May 1895 at the Abbasiya Palace in Cairo, 14 February 1896, Princess Shivakiar Khanum Effendi.
She was the only daughter of Field Marshal Prince Ibrahim Fahmi Ahmad Pasha. They had two children, a son, Ismail Fuad, who died in infancy, a daughter, Fawkia. Unhappily married, the couple divorced in 1898. During a dispute with the brother of his first wife, Fuad was shot in the throat, he carried that scar the rest of his life. Fuad married his second wife at the Bustan Palace in Cairo on 24 May 1919, she was Nazli Sabri, daughter of Abdu'r-Rahim Pasha Sabri, sometime Minister of Agriculture and Governor of Cairo, by his wife, Tawfika Khanum Sharif. Queen Nazli was a maternal granddaughter of Major-General Muhammad Sharif Pasha, sometime Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, a great-granddaughter of Suleiman Pasha, a French officer in Napoleon's army who converted to Islam and reorganized the Egyptian army; the couple had five children, the future King Farouk, four daughters, the Princesses Fawzia, Faiza and Fathiya. As with his first wife, Fuad's relation with his second wife was stormy.
The couple continually fought, Fuad forbidding Nazli from leaving the palace. When Fuad died, it was said that the triumphant Nazli sold all of his clothes to a local used-clothes market in revenge. Fuad died at the Qubba Palace in Cairo and was buried at the Khedival Mausoleum in the ar-Rifai Mosque in Cairo. King Fuad’s wife lived as a widow after his death, she did not have good relations with her son. After Fuad's death, she went to the United States, she changed her name to Mary Elizabeth. She got deprived of her titles in Egypt. Once named the world’s richest and most elegant woman, she possessed one of the largest jewellery collections in the world; the Fuad Muslim Library in China was named after him by the Chinese Muslim Ma Songting. Muḥammad'Ibrāhīm Fulayfil and Muḥammad ad-Dālī were ordered to Beijing by the King. Shivakiar Khanum Effendi Children Ismail Fuad Fawkia, who became the mother-in-law of Gloria Guinness Nazli Sabri Children Farouk I Fawzia Faiza Faika Fathia 26 March 1868 – 9 October 1917: His Highness Ahmed Fuad Pasha 9 October 1917 – 15 March 1922: His Highness The Sultan of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia and Darfur 15 March 1922 – 28 April 1936: His Majesty The King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia and Darfur DomesticFounder and Sovereign
Drama is a city and municipality in northeastern Greece in Macedonia. Drama is the capital of the regional unit of Drama, part of the East Macedonia and Thrace region; the town is the economic center of the municipality, which in turn comprises 60 percent of the regional unit's population. The next largest communities in the municipality are Choristi, Χiropótamos, Kallífytos, Kalós Agrós, Koudoúnia. Built at the foot of mount Falakro, in a verdant area with abundant water sources, Drama has been an integral part of the Hellenic world since the classical era. In the modern era, tobacco production and trade, the operation of the railway and improvement of the road network towards the port of Kavala, led to an increase in the population of the city and to the enhancement of commercial activity. Drama hosts the "Eleftheria", cultural events in commemoration of the city's liberation, at the end of June or beginning of July, an annual film festival in September. Archaeological finds show that in the area of the modern city there used to be an ancient Greek settlement named Dyrama or alternatively Hydrama, both meaning "rich in water".
Some scholars associate Drama with the ancient Greek Drabescus. Hydrama was notable as the place of worship for many Gods of classical Greek mythology Apollo and Artemis. With the passage of time Dyrama became Drama. In the South Slavic languages, the city is known as Драма, itself a transliteration of the Greek name; the municipality Drama was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Drama Sidironero The municipality has an area of 840.103 km2, the municipal unit 488.830 km2. Drabescus was part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires along with the rest of Greece; the region was conquered by Ottoman Empire in 1371. In the 19th century, the town became centre of the Sanjak of Drama. In 1912 during the First Balkan War, Drama was taken from the Ottomans by Bulgarian troops. Subsequently, in 1913 as a result of the Treaty of Bucharest, following the Second Balkan War, it was incorporated into Greece along with the rest of eastern Macedonia.
Drama was occupied by Bulgarian troops in the wake of the German invasion of Greece, from 1941 to 1944 during World War II. On 29 September 1941, in response to local communist guerrilla attacks against the Bulgarians in the villages of Drama, the Bulgarian occupation forces applied harsh reprisals in Drama and several villages like Choristi, Kyrgia and Prosotsani. On 4 March 1943, after midnight, the Bulgarian military authorities rounded up the Jewish population across their zone of occupation in eastern Macedonia and Thrace; the 4,000-strong community, including 589 Jews from Drama, was carried by train into Bulgarian territory and assembled in the tobacco warehouses, which were empty at that time of year. From there, they were taken by train to the Treblinka extermination camp. None of the 589 Jews from Drama returned. In the recent past the economy of the Drama area relied on the local paper and textile-clothing industries. However, these industries have either closed down or moved across the border to Bulgaria, because of the low demands of the Bulgarian workforce, with a negative impact on the local economy and employment.
The situation worsened after 2007, when Bulgaria was admitted to the EU, local Greek businessmen moved to expand their operations there. Other sources of revenue include agriculture, consisting of tobacco plantations, small-scale mining and forestry. There have been efforts to exploit the rich local natural environment and to develop ecotourism. There is a modern ski resort on Mount Falakro. Drama hosts an annual short film festival. Since 1978, Drama hosts Drama International Short Film Festival. In 1987, the festival was recognized nationally. In 1995, it added the International competition section where short films from all over the world visiting the city every year. In 1996, the festival was included in the National Cultural Network of Cities by the Greek Ministry of Culture; the Archaeological Museum of Drama covers human presence in the regional unit of Drama from the mid Paleolithic Period with traces of life from Paleolithic hunts in the caves of the source of the Angitis, up to modern times.
The exhibition space consists of three main halls. In the first archaeological finds from the cave of Maara give witness to the presence of nomadic hunters in the area from the mid Palaeolithic period, while other finds show us about the life of settled farmers and animal rearers from Neolithic villages and the passage of the Copper Age in the city of Drama and the village of Sitagri; the reproduction of a Neolithic house with finds which describe the activities of Neolithic man and his daily activities is the main centre of interest for visitors of all ages. Bust of Dionysius, found in the area of Kali Vrysi; the same hall continues the journey through time to the Iron Age and years where the main element was the worship of Dionysius at the city of Drama itself and at Kali Vrysi and other areas of the regional unit. In the second hall architectural sculptures and coins confirm that life continued in the city and throughout the whole regional