HBO is an American premium cable and satellite television network owned by the namesake unit Home Box Office, Inc. a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. The program which featured on the network consists of theatrically released motion pictures and original television shows, along with made-for-cable movies and occasional comedy and concert specials. HBO is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, having been in operation since November 8, 1972. In 2016, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.93 billion, compared to the US$1.88 billion it accrued in 2015. HBO has 130 million subscribers worldwide as of 2016; the network provides seven 24-hour multiplex channels, including HBO Comedy, HBO Latino, HBO Signature, HBO Family. It launched the streaming service HBO Now in April 2015 and has over 2 million subscribers in the United States as of February 2017; as of July 2015, HBO's programming is available to 36,493,000 households with at least one television set in the United States, making it the second largest premium channel in the United States.
In addition to its U. S. subscriber base, HBO distributes content in at least 151 countries, with 130 million subscribers worldwide. HBO subscribers pay for an extra tier of service that includes other cable- and satellite-exclusive channels before paying for the channel itself. However, a regulation imposed by the Federal Communications Commission requires that cable providers allow subscribers to get just "limited" basic cable and premium services such as HBO, without subscribing to expanded service. Cable providers can require the use of a converter box—usually digital—in order to receive HBO. HBO provides its content through digital media. HBO maintains near-ubiquitous distribution in hotels across the United States through agreements with DirecTV, Echostar, SONIFI Solutions, Satellite Management Services, Inc. Telerent Leasing Corporation, Total Media Concepts and World Cinema as well as cable providers that maintain hospitality service arrangements with individual hotels and local franchises of national hotel/motel chains.
Since June 2018, through a content partnership with Enseo, HBO Go is distributed to some Marriott International hotels around the U. S.. Many HBO programs have been syndicated to other networks and broadcast television stations, a number of HBO-produced series and films have been released on DVD. Since HBO's more successful series air on over-the-air broadcasters in other countries, HBO's programming has the potential of being exposed to a higher percentage of the population of those countries compared to the United States; because of the cost of HBO, many Americans only view HBO programs through DVDs or in basic cable or broadcast syndication—months or years after these programs have first aired on the network—and with editing for both content and to allow advertising, although several series have filmed alternate "clean" scenes intended for syndication runs. In 1965, Charles Dolan—who had done pioneering work in the commercial use of cables and had developed Teleguide, a closed-circuit tourist information television system distributed to hotels in the New York metropolitan area—won a franchise to build a cable television system in the Lower Manhattan section of New York City.
The new system, which Dolan named "Sterling Information Services", became the first urban underground cable televisi
Carol Christine Hilaria Pounder, known professionally as CCH Pounder, is a Guyanese American actress who has appeared in numerous plays, made-for-television films and television miniseries and has made guest appearances on notable television shows. From 1994 to 1997, she played Dr. Angela Hicks in the medical drama ER. From 2002 to 2008, she starred as Detective Claudette Wyms in the FX police drama The Shield. In 2009, she appeared as Mo'at in James Cameron's film Avatar, she starred in recurring roles as Mrs. Irene Frederic on the series Warehouse 13 and DA Thyne Patterson on the FX series Sons of Anarchy. Since 2014, she has portrayed medical examiner Dr. Loretta Wade on NCIS: New Orleans. Pounder was born in Georgetown, British Guiana, daughter of Ronald Urlington Pounder and of Betsy Enid Arnella, she was educated in England and moved to the U. S. in 1970, where she attended Ithaca College. Pounder made her acting debut in the film All That Jazz. Pounder started her professional career in New York City theater, where she appeared in The Mighty Gents, by playwright Richard Wesley, Open Admissions on Broadway.
She moved to Los Angeles in 1982. Pounder starred in the film Bagdad Café, has made smaller appearances in many other successful films, she has focused on her television career. In the early 1980s, Pounder first appeared in guest roles on Hill Street Blues, on several popular shows before landing a long-running recurring role as Dr. Angela Hicks on ER, from 1994 to 1997. In the midst of this she co-starred in the Tales From the Crypt feature film Demon Knight, she returned to guest appearances on other shows, including The Practice, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, The West Wing, the short-lived sitcom Women in Prison. From 2002 to 2008, she starred as Detective Claudette Wyms in the FX police drama The Shield. For this role she was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series in 2005 and an NAACP Image Award, she had been nominated for an Emmy in 1995 and in 1997. She has lent her voice to several video games and animated projects, including Aladdin and the King of Thieves, True Crime: Streets of LA, Gargoyles as Desdemona and Coldfire, most Justice League Unlimited as government agent Amanda Waller, a role she reprised for the animated movie adaption of the comic book Superman/Batman: Public Enemies as well as the video game Batman: Arkham Origins, its companion/sequel Batman: Arkham Origins Blackgate, another animated film that takes place in continuity with the games, Batman: Assault on Arkham.
Pounder was one of the readers for the HBO film Unchained Memories: Readings from the Slave Narrative, directed by Ed Bell and Thomas Lennon. She appeared on the Syfy series Warehouse 13 until its finale on May 19, 2014. Pounder was one of the stars of Fox's cancelled 2009 sitcom Brothers. Pounder was nominated for the Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series for her appearance in the BBC/HBO series The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency. She co-starred in The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones. In Disney's "The Lion Guard" she voices the wise old Turtle. In October 2018 she made an appearance in the London production of Wicked; as one of the founders of Artists for a New South Africa, Pounder has energized awareness of post-apartheid and HIV/AIDS issues. In an interview, she said about the pandemic: "When it's this massive disease, it's affecting things in five thousand different ways, it requires great strength and power—and there is power in numbers. So we need to involve as many people as we can, like we do with ANSA.
I call it my little engine. It is a tiny organization with a huge outreach. We use actors and artists with the biggest voices so they can use every opportunity to talk about AIDS." In 1997, CCH Pounder was winner of the prestigious Caribbean American Heritage Award for Excellence in the Arts presented by leading Caribbean American advocacy organization Institute of Caribbean Studies based in Washington DC. CCH Pounder on IMDb
Jason Paul London is an American actor, best known for his role as Randall "Pink" Floyd in director Richard Linklater's film Dazed and Confused. London was born in San Diego, the son of Debbie London, a waitress, Frank London, a sheet metal worker, he was raised in Wanette, in DeSoto, Texas. His identical twin brother Jeremy is an actor. In 2003, the two acted together in an episode of 7th Heaven titled "Smoking". Jeremy was Jason's stunt double in The Man in the Moon. In November 2010, London became engaged to actress Sofia Karstens, they married on July 16, 2011 at the home of his wife's parents and Judith Karstens, in North Hero, Vermont. London has enjoyed moderate success starring as a rebellious, edgy young addict in feature films such as Broken Vessels and $pent, he starred as Jason in the NBC miniseries Jason and the Argonauts. He starred in Poor White Trash playing sleazy ladies' man Brian Ross. London portrayed Mark, the local newspaper editor, in the Hallmark Channel television movie, The Wishing Well, which starred Jordan Ladd and Ernest Borgnine.
Jason London on IMDb Jason London at the TCM Movie Database Jason London at AllMovie
Craig T. Nelson
Craig Theodore Nelson is an American actor. He is known for his roles as Hayden Fox in the television series Coach, Deputy Ward Wilson in the 1980 film Stir Crazy, Steven Freeling in the 1982 film Poltergeist, the warden in My Name is Earl, Mr. Incredible in the 2004 film The Incredibles and its 2018 sequel, he starred as Zeek Braverman in the television series Parenthood. Nelson was born Craig Theodore Nelson in Spokane, Washington, on April 4, 1944, he was the son of Vera Margaret, a dancer, Armand Gilbert Nelson, a businessman. Nelson attended Lewis and Clark High School, where he played several sports, including football and basketball. After high school, Nelson studied at Central Washington University. After flunking out of Central Washington University, Nelson went to Yakima Valley College and was inspired to study acting by his drama teacher, Mr. Brady. From Yakima, he went on to study drama at the University of Arizona on a scholarship. In 1969, Nelson moved to Hollywood to pursue an acting career.
When he first moved to California, he took up a job as a security guard at a soap factory until finding work as a comedy writer. Nelson began his show business career as a comedian, he was an early member of The Groundlings comedy troupe. Nelson, Barry Levinson, Rudy De Luca formed their own comedy team and were regular performers at The Comedy Store. In 1973, Nelson left the comedy world, explaining "the standup comedy life was pretty unfulfilling for me" and he settled in Montgomery Creek, CA where there was no electricity and no running water. Nelson had different jobs during that time including janitor, carpenter and high school teacher, he returned to acting five years later. He was featured as a prosecuting attorney who opposes Al Pacino in the 1979 film... And Justice for All, co-written by Levinson. In 1983, Nelson appeared in Silkwood, directed by Mike Nichols and starring Meryl Streep, as the high school football coach of Tom Cruise in the drama All the Right Moves and as one of the stars of director Sam Peckinpah's final film, The Osterman Weekend.
He had featured roles in five television shows. Coach ran from 1989 with Nelson starring as college football coach Hayden Fox, he provided the voice of Bob Parr in the computer-animated superhero film, The Incredibles, returned to the role for its sequel, Incredibles 2. Nelson reprised the role again in the video games Kinect Rush: A Disney-Pixar Adventure and in the Disney Infinity video game series, except for the video game and The Incredibles: Rise of the Underminer, where he was replaced by actor Richard McGonagle. During the early 1990s, he made a guest appearance in the music video for country singer Garth Brooks's song "We Shall Be Free". On April 2, 1992, he appeared as a guest on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson, where he discussed racing, his sixteen-year-old son's desire to become an actor, how he had appeared on the show 19 years earlier with a comedy troupe called "The Third Bananas," which included Barry Levinson, Rudy DeLuca, Wally Amos. Nelson made a three-episode guest appearance on CSI: NY as a "nemesis" of Gary Sinise's Taylor.
His most recent films include 2009's The Proposal as Ryan Reynolds' skeptical father and 2010's The Company Men as a greedy CEO. From 2010 to 2015, he starred in the television show Parenthood as Ezekiel "Zeek" Braverman, the family patriarch; as well as The Book Club, released in 2018. Nelson stated in an interview with Glenn Beck that he had collected food stamps. In that same interview, he railed at taxes and the lack of fiscal responsibility in society, he stated that he was thinking about no longer paying taxes because he disapproved of public funds rescuing those struggling. "What happened to society? I go into business, I don’t make it, I go bankrupt. I’ve been on food stamps and welfare, did anybody help me out? No. No, they gave me hope, they gave me encouragement, they gave me a vision."Nelson has three children from his previous marriage to Robin McCarthy. His second wife Doria Cook-Nelson is a freelance writer, president of a martial arts association, karate instructor, tai chi teacher and a former film and television actress who had a featured role in the movie musical Mame.
Nelson is an avid racer. He first finished ninth. In 1992, he founded Screaming Eagles Racing with John Christie and entered and drove a Toyota-engined Spice SE90 in the IMSA 1994 WSC, a Lexus-engined Spice SE90 in 1995 and a Ford-engined Riley & Scott MkIII in the 1996 and 1997 championships. Craig T. Nelson on IMDb Craig T. Nelson at the Internet Broadway Database Craig T. Nelson at Internet Off-Broadway Database
Verla Eileen Regina Brennan was an American film and television actress. She made her film debut in the satire Divorce American Style, followed by a supporting role in Peter Bogdanovich's The Last Picture Show, which earned her a BAFTA award nomination for Best Supporting Actress, she gained further critical acclaim for her role as Doreen Lewis in Private Benjamin, for which she received an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress. She reprised the role for the TV adaptation, winning both a Golden Globe and Emmy for her performance. Brennan starred in the mystery comedy Clue, had a minor role in the horror film Jeepers Creepers. Brennan worked prolifically in television, receiving Emmy nominations for her guest-starring roles on Newhart, Thirtysomething and Will & Grace. Brennan was born Verla Eileen Regina Brennen on September 3, 1932, in Los Angeles, daughter of Regina "Jeanne" Menehan, a silent film actress, John Gerald Brennen, a doctor. Of Irish descent, she was raised Roman Catholic.
After graduating from high school in California, Brennan relocated to Washington, D. C. to attend Georgetown University, where she was a member of the Bauble Society. She relocated to New York City to attend the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, where she was a roommate of Rue McClanahan. Brennan began her acting career while attending university, appearing in Georgetown's stage productions of Arsenic and Old Lace, her exceptional comic skills and romantic soprano voice propelled her from unknown to star in the title role of Rick Besoyan's off-Broadway tongue-in-cheek musical/operetta Little Mary Sunshine, earning Brennan an Obie Award, its unofficial sequel The Student Gypsy, on Broadway. She played Annie Sullivan in The Miracle Worker at the 1961 Central City, Festival, directed by Arthur Penn, who had just won a Tony for his direction of the play on Broadway, she went on to create the role of Irene Molloy in the original Broadway production of Hello, Dolly!. Brennan's work in theatre attracted attention from television producers in California.
Carl Reiner, seeking an actress to play the role of Laura Petrie on The Dick Van Dyke Show, flew her from New York to Los Angeles to audition for the part. Her feature film debut was in Divorce American Style, she soon became one of the most recognizable supporting actresses in television. Her roles were sympathetic characters, though she played a variety of other character types, including earthy and sassy, but "with a heart of gold". A year after her feature-film debut, she became a semiregular on the comedy-variety show Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, but stayed for only two months. Although her name was not recognized by the general public, she became a favorite of many directors, in particular Peter Bogdanovich, she appeared in Bogdanovich's 1971 drama The Last Picture Show as Genevieve, for which she received a BAFTA nomination for best supporting actress. In 1972, Brennan appeared in an All In The Family episode, "The Elevator Story", as Angelique McCarthy, followed by a role as brothel madam Billie in George Roy Hill's Academy Award-winning 1973 film The Sting as the confidante of con man Henry Gondorf.
In 1974, she reunited with director Bogdanovich, appearing in his adaptation of the Henry James novella Daisy Miller. Bogdanovich was the only director who made use of her musical talents when he cast her as Cybill Shepherd's crude, fun-loving maid in his 1975 musical flop At Long Last Love. Brennan worked with director Robert Moore and writer Neil Simon, appearing in Murder by Death as Tess Skeffington. Both of these movies starred James Coco, James Cromwell, Peter Falk, she had a starring role, playing the disc jockey Mutha in the 1978 movie, FM, a comedy-drama about life at a rock-music radio station. In 1980, Brennan received a Best Supporting Actress Oscar nomination for her role as Goldie Hawn's nasty commanding officer in Private Benjamin, she reprised the role in the television adaptation, for which she won an Emmy as well as a Golden Globe. She had one additional Golden Globe nomination and six Emmy nominations. Brennan received an Emmy nomination for her guest-starring role in Taxi episode "Thy Boss's Wife".
In the 1990s, she appeared in Stella with Bette Midler, Bogdanovich's Texasville, Reckless. She had a recurring role on the sitcom Blossom as the neighbor/confidante of the title character, she appeared opposite Vincent D'Onofrio in a segment of Boys Life 2, an anthology film about gay men in America. In 2001, she made a brief appearance in the horror movie Jeepers Creepers, the following year starred in the dark comedy film Comic Book Villains, with DJ Qualls. In recent years, Brennan had guest-starred in television, including recurring roles as the nosy Mrs. Bink in 7th Heaven and as gruff acting coach Zandra on Will & Grace. In 2003, director Shawn Levy cast her in a cameo role of a babysitter to Steve Martin and Bonnie Hunt's children in an updated remake of Cheaper by the Dozen. Levy was inspired to cast Brennan after seeing Private Benjamin on television. Brennan's cameo was deleted from the actual cut of the movie, however. Nonetheless, she did receive credit for her role on the deleted scenes special feature of the film's DVD.
In 2004, she appeared in The Hollow as Joan Van Etten. Brennan
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Ellen Kuras is an American cinematographer whose body of work includes narrative and documentary films, music videos and commercials in both the studio and independent worlds. One of few female members of the American Society of Cinematographers, she is a pioneer best known for her work in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, she has collaborated with directors such as Michel Gondry, Spike Lee, Sam Mendes, Jim Jarmusch, Rebecca Miller, Martin Scorsese and more. She is the three-time winner of the Award for Excellence in Dramatic Cinematography at the Sundance Film Festival, for her films Personal Velocity: Three Portraits and Swoon, her first dramatic feature after getting her start in political documentaries. In 2008, she released her directorial debut, The Betrayal, which she co-directed, co-wrote, co-produced and shot, it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2009. In 2010, she won a Primetime Emmy Award for Exceptional Merit in Non-Fiction Filmmaking for the film.
Kuras grew up in New Jersey. After earning a double degree in anthropology and semiotics at Brown University, she studied photography at RISD and 8mm filmmaking in New York, with the plan to become a documentary filmmaker, she began her film career in 1987, shooting Ellen Bruno’s Samsara: Death and Rebirth in Cambodia, the first US movie filmed in Cambodia after the Vietnam War. In 1990 she won the Eastman Kodak Best Cinematography Focus Award for her work on Samsara; the film garnered accolades from the Student Academy Awards and the Sundance Film Festival where it received a Special Jury Recognition. That same year, she was asked by producer Christine Vachon to shoot her first dramatic film for director Tom Kalin; the film won her the Sundance Award for Excellence in Cinematography in 1992. This collaboration was the start of a prolific working relationship with Killer Films, which includes projects like Postcards From America and I Shot Andy Warhol. From that point she became one of the first women to establish an extensive career in cinematography, a department dominated by men.
Like some of the best cinematographers in the business, she has focused her craft on sculpting light and creating powerful images that enhance story and character, while searching for "alternative ways of seeing the world". Though she started in political documentaries, she branched out to work in every possible genre of film and TV, shooting big budget movies, independent films, concert films, successful TV movies and international commercials and music videos for musicians like Bjørk, The White Stripes and more. In 1999, she was invited to join the American Society of Cinematographers, thus becoming the fifth female members to join more than 400 male peers. Over the course of her career, she has received many accolades including the Women in Film Kodak Vision Award in 1999 and was honored at the 2006 Gotham Award for her entire body of work. In 2003 she was the first film technician to receive the prestigious NY Women In Film and TV Muse Award, which traditionally is given to actresses. In 2009 she was a special Honoree at the Santa Fe Film Festival for her leadership and work in the field of cinematography.
She has served on the juries of several important film festivals around the world. In 1997 she was invited to be on the jury of the Sundance Film Festival. In 2013, she was a member of the jury at the 63rd Berlin International Film Festival. In 2015 she was on the Jury of the Camerimage. Always eager to share her vast knowledge and professional insight, she has guest-lectured at many film schools and festival panels, including SVA, NYU, BU University of Texas at Austin, Walker Art Center, Hamptons International Film Festival, Camerimage and Woodstock Film Festival, among others. A Little Chaos The 50 Year Argument Public Speaking Away We Go The Betrayal Lou Reed's Berlin: Live at St. Ann's Warehouse Shine a Light Be Kind Rewind Neil Young: Heart of Gold Block Party No Direction Home: Bob Dylan The Ballad of Jack and Rose Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Coffee and Cigarettes Analyze That Personal Velocity: Three Portraits Blow Bamboozled Summer of Sam He Got Game 4 Little Girls I Shot Andy Warhol Angela Unzipped A Century of Women Swoon Samsara: Death and Rebirth in Cambodia 2009 – The Betrayal, with Thavisouk Phrasavath 2010 – The Betrayal – Nerakhoon, won 1998 – 4 Little Girls, nominated 1994 - A Century of Women, nominated 2008 – The Betrayal, nominated 2002 – Personal Velocity: Three Portraits, won 1995 – Angela, won 1992 – Swoon, won 2008 – The Betrayal, nominated 2002 – Personal Velocity: Three Portraits, nominated 1992 – Swoon, nominated 2005 – Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, nominated Ellen Kuras on IMDb