SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Igbo people

The Igbo people are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria. There has been much speculation about the origins of the Igbo people, as it is unknown how the group came to form. Geographically, the Igbo homeland is divided into two unequal sections by the Niger River – an eastern and a western section; the Igbo people are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. The Igbo language is a part of the Niger-Congo language family, it is divided into numerous regional dialects, somewhat mutually intelligible with the larger "Igboid" cluster. The Igbo homeland straddles the lower Niger River and south of the Edoid and Idomoid groups, west of the Ibibioid cluster. In rural Nigeria, Igbo people work as craftsmen and traders; the most important crop is the yam. Other staple crops include taro. Before British colonial rule in the 20th century, the Igbo were a politically fragmented group, with a number of centralized chiefdoms such as Nri, Aro Confederacy and Onitsha.

Frederick Lugard introduced the Eze system of "Warrant Chiefs". Unaffected by the Fulani War and the resulting spread of Islam in Nigeria in the 19th century, they became overwhelmingly Christian under colonization. In the wake of decolonisation, the Igbo developed a strong sense of ethnic identity. During the Nigerian Civil War of 1967–1970 the Igbo territories seceded as the short-lived Republic of Biafra. MASSOB, a sectarian organization formed in 1999, continues a non-violent struggle for an independent Igbo state. Large ethnic Igbo populations are found in Cameroon Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, as well as outside Africa. "Igbo" as an ethnic identity developed comparatively in the context of decolonisation and the Nigerian Civil War. The various Igbo-speaking communities were fragmented and decentralised. Since the defeat of the Republic of Biafra in 1970, the Igbo are sometimes classed as a "stateless nation"; the Igboid languages form a cluster within the Volta–Niger phylum, most grouped with Yoruboid and Edoid.

The greatest differentiation within the Igboid group is between the rest. Williamson argues that based on this pattern, proto-Igboid migration would have moved down the Niger from a more northern area in the savannah and first settled close to the delta, with a secondary center of Igbo proper more to the north, in the Awka area. Pottery dated at around 2500 BC showing similarities with Igbo work was found at Nsukka in the 1970s, along with pottery and tools at nearby Ibagwa. In the 1970s the Owerri, Orlu, Awgu and Awka divisions were determined to constitute "an Igbo heartland" from the linguistic and cultural evidence. Genetic studies have shown the Igbo to cluster most with other Niger-Congo-speaking peoples; the predominant Y-chromosmoal haplogroup is E1b1a1-M2. The Nri people of Igbo land have a creation myth, one of the many creation myths that exist in various parts of Igbo land; the Nri and Aguleri people are in the territory of the Umueri clan who trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri.

Eri's origins are unclear. He has been characterized as having first given societal order to the people of Anambra; the historian Elizabeth Allo Isichei says "Nri and Aguleri and part of the Umueri clan, a cluster of Igbo village groups which traces its origins to a sky being called Eri."Archaeological evidence suggests that Nri influence in Igboland may go back as far as the 9th century, royal burials have been unearthed dating to at least the 10th century. Eri, the god-like founder of Nri, is believed to have settled the region around 948 with other related Igbo cultures following after in the 13th century; the first Eze Nri Ìfikuánim followed directly after him. According to Igbo oral tradition, his reign started in 1043. At least one historian puts Ìfikuánim's reign much around 1225 AD; each king traces his origin back to Eri. Each king is a ritual reproduction of Eri; the initiation rite of a new king shows that the ritual process of becoming Ezenri follows the path traced by the hero in establishing the Nri kingdom.

- E. Elochukwu Uzukwu The Kingdom of Nri was a religio-polity, a sort of theocratic state, that developed in the central heartland of the Igbo region; the Nri had seven types of taboos which included human, object, behavioral and place taboos. The rules regarding these taboos were used to govern Nri's subjects; this meant that, while certain Igbo may have lived under different formal administration, all followers of the Igbo religion had to abide by the rules of the faith and obey its representative on earth, the Eze Nri. Traditional Igbo political organization was based on a quasi-democratic republican system of government. In tight knit communities, this system guaranteed its citizens equality, as opposed to a feudalist system with a king ruling over subjects; this government system was witnessed by the Portuguese who first arrived and met with the Igbo people in the 15th century. With the exception of a few notable Igbo towns such as Onitsha, which had kings called Obi, places like the Nri Kingdom and Arochukwu, which had priest kings.

Thomas Brown (Florida politician)

Thomas Brown was an American politician who served as Florida's second Governor from 1849 to 1853. He is buried at the Old City Cemetery in Tallahassee. Thomas Brown was born in Westmoreland County, United States, home to George Washington, James Monroe, others. Brown served in the War of 1812, subsequently became chief clerk of the post office at Richmond. While in that position, he invented the post office letter box. In 1828, Brown moved with his family to the Florida Territory. Brown, a Whig, became auditor of the Florida Territory in 1834, president of the legislative council in 1838, a member of the constitutional convention in 1839, a member of the first Florida House of Representatives under statehood in 1845; as governor, Brown tried to improve Florida's transportation system. He complained that Florida was making slow progress on education. On January 6, 1853, he signed the bill. East Florida Seminary in Ocala was one of the first schools to utilize this funding, but it soon closed due to the Civil War.

In 1866, EFS reopened in Gainesville, the University of Florida traces its history to this institution. Brown was inspired by the discovery of the rich muck lands of the Lake Okeechobee area and encouraged cattlemen and farmers, protected by the Florida militia, to enter the region. Brown made an effort to determine whether the Everglades should be drained. During this period, Fort Myers was developed into a full-sized village. In December 1855, Lt. George Hartsuff, on a "survey" of Seminole facilities, ran survey lines across Billy Bowlegs' prize banana garden and the Seminole Indians returned to war. Brown was an active Mason for more than 60 years, serving a long term as secretary in the Tallahassee lodge and compiling a book on Masonry. Governor Brown died in Tallahassee on August 24, 1867. In 1834, Brown built a hotel called Brown's Inn in Tallahassee, located on the west side of Adams Street, between Pensacola and Lafayette streets. In 1839 it was known as the City Hotel, in 1840 as the Adelphi, as the Morgan Hotel.

It was destroyed by fire in 1886. Thomas Brown at Find a Grave

Linus Wahlgren

Linus Carl Henrik Wahlgren is a Swedish actor. He is the son of actors Christina Schollin and Hans Wahlgren and brother to actors and singers Pernilla and Niclas Wahlgren, he has appeared in a few episodes of his sister Pernilla Wahlgrens TV-series Wahlgrens värld, broadcast on Kanal 5. 1983 – G – som i gemenskap 1994 – Bert 1997 – Rederiet 2000 – 102 Dalmatians 2001 – Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius 2001 – Atlantis: The Lost Empire 2002 – The Dog Trick 2004 – Mongolpiparen 2005 – Robots 2005 – Den utvalde 2006 – Göta Kanal 2 – Kanalkampen 2008 – Irene Huss – Guldkalven 2009 – Scener ur ett kändisskap 2010 – Solsidan 2013 - Crimes of Passion 2014 – Blå Ögon - Max Åhman in seven of the political thriller's 10 episodes 2016 - 30 Degrees in February Linus Wahlgren on IMDb