Heritage Documentation Programs
Heritage Documentation Programs is a division of the U. S. National Park Service responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey, Historic American Engineering Record, Historic American Landscapes Survey; these programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, written reports, are archived in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. In 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency, it was founded as a constructive make-work program for architects and photographers left jobless by the Great Depression. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of America's architectural heritage. By creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement.
Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, many contributors to which joined the HABS program. Notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher; the Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10, 1969, by NPS and the American Society of Civil Engineers. HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts. Since the advent of HAER, the combined program is called "HABS/HAER". Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, or as part of college-credit classwork. Eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, the Historic American Landscapes Survey, to systematically document historic American landscapes. A predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940; that project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, which supervised the collection of records.
The permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since been expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph and magazine. As a branch of the United States Government, its created works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures. Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places Notes Further reading "HAER: 30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 25. 1999. JSTOR i40043493. "Documenting Complexity: The Historic American Engineering Record and America's Technological History". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology.
23. 1997. JSTOR i4004348. Lindley, John; the Georgia Collection: Historic American Buildings Survey. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0613-4. Witcher, T. R.. "Fifty Years of Preservation: The Historic American Engineering Record". Civil Engineering. National Park Service−NPS: official Heritage Documentation Programs website
Brandon Road Lock and Dam
The Brandon Road Lock and Dam is a lock and dam complex along the Des Plaines River in Joliet, Illinois. The complex was built from 1927 to 1933 in conjunction with the construction of the Illinois Waterway, which allowed for barge travel between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River; the lock and dam are used to regulate water levels on the river between Lockport and Joliet. The lock at the complex has four Tainter gates, with a 34 foot drop; the dam includes concrete and earthen segments. The complex includes a disused junction lock for the Illinois and Michigan Canal, a drawbridge carrying Brandon Road over the river, the control station for the lock, a modern pump house, it is considered one of Joliet's worst bridges considering it is closed more than it is open due to mechanical issues. The complex was added to the National Register of Historic Places as the Brandon Road Lock and Dam Historic District on March 10, 2004
Grafton is the oldest city in Jersey County, United States. It is located near the confluence of the Mississippi Rivers; as of the 2010 U. S. census, the city had a total population of 674. Prior to the Great Flood of 1993, Grafton had enjoyed a stable population of nearly 1,000 residents. Grafton is a part of the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. Founded in 1832 by James Mason, Grafton is the oldest city in Jersey County. Described as having "a post office, one store, one tavern, a number of families" in 1834, the area was being settled as early as 1812 when a blockhouse was built at the confluence for protection; the city was named after Mason's birthplace of Massachusetts. Grafton was incorporated on May 16, 1907. Grafton’s population reached its peak at 10,000 in the 1850s with employment opportunities coming from the local stone quarries, boat building and commercial fishing. At one point, there were five quarries around Grafton that employed nearly 2,000 men; the local limestone was used to build the Eads Bridge in St. Louis, government buildings in Rock Island, the Jersey County Courthouse in Jerseyville.
The Shafer’s Wharf Historic District was one of the largest commercial fishing centers along the Mississippi River in the late 19th century. The Old Boatworks, located south of Main Street, once housed a paint house and a machine shop where paddle wheelers and PT boats were built. Today, the Old Boatworks building hosts many antique and craft stalls and is open on the fourth weekend of each month from May through October; the Great Flood of 1993 caused significant damage to many of Grafton's structures, as well as causing a third of the city's residents to move out of the city. The effects of the flood are still present, as the city has not yet reached the population it had before the flood. Grafton is located at 38°58′16″N 90°26′13″W. According to the 2010 census, Grafton has a total area of all land; the city's climate reflects most Midwest cities, located in the transitional zone between the humid continental climate type and the humid subtropical climate type, with neither large mountains nor large bodies of water to moderate its temperature.
Spring is the wettest season and produces severe weather ranging from tornadoes to snow or ice storms. Summers are hot and humid, the humidity makes the heat index rise to temperatures feeling well above 100 °F. Fall is mild with lower humidity and can produce intermittent bouts of heavy rainfall with the first snow flurries forming in late November. Winters can be cold at times with temperatures below freezing; as of the census of 2000, there were 609 people, 265 households, 174 families residing in the city. The population density was 150.2 people per square mile. There were 293 housing units at an average density of 72.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.01% White, 0.16% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.99% of the population. There were 265 households out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families.
29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 31.2% from 45 to 64, 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,706, the median income for a family was $44,250. Males had a median income of $35,000 versus $22,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,989. About 9.4% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.3% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over. Grafton’s main industry today is tourism; the city is at the center of the region’s bald eagle watching area and proudly calls itself "The Winter Home of The Bald Eagle."
Main Street is lined with restaurants, some antique and wine shops, various other attractions, which makes Grafton a popular stopping place for bicyclists on the Sam Vadalabene Bike Trail or for visitors in search of fall foliage color and bald eagles. During the warmer months, visitors can take advantage of the two rivers with boating and parasailing activities. There are two river ferries in the Grafton area that provide transportation to St. Charles County and Calhoun County. Five miles west of Grafton is Pere Marquette State Park, Illinois' largest and most popular state park. Grafton has experienced some economic growth within the past decade, including some new housing and restaurants, the new Grafton Elementary School, the Grafton Harbor marina, a completed lighthouse located along the Mississippi River. Grafton has seven sites that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Grafton Historic District, Grafton Bank, the John and Amelia McClintock House, Ruebel Hotel, the Slaten-LaMarsh House, the Paris Mason Building were all added in 1994.
The Charles Brainerd House was added to the Register in 1998. Grafton uses a city council form of government and consists of a mayor and six aldermen from three wards; the city's current mayor is Tom Thompson. Grafton is served by the public K-12 Jersey Commu
T.J. O'Brien Lock and Dam
Thomas J. O'Brien Lock & Dam is a lock on the Calumet River on the south side of Chicago; the dam is 326 river miles from the Mississippi-Illinois confluence. The up-river side of the dam is at Lake Michigan's level, 577 feet above sea level; the lock dimensions are 1,000 by 110 feet. Illinois Waterway Lock and dams Chicago Harbor Lock, located on the Chicago River
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a U. S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering and construction management agencies. Although associated with dams and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works throughout the world; the Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, provides 24% of U. S. hydropower capacity. The corps' mission is to "Deliver vital military engineering services. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment, dredging for waterway navigation. Design and construction of flood protection systems through various federal mandates. Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army, Air Force, Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve and other Defense and Federal agencies. Environmental regulation and ecosystem restoration.
The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants. Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington's first chief engineer. One of his first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill; the Continental Congress recognized the need for engineers trained in military fortifications and asked the government of King Louis XVI of France for assistance. Many of the early engineers in the Continental Army were former French officers. Louis Lebègue Duportail, a lieutenant colonel in the French Royal Corps of Engineers, was secretly sent to America in March 1777 to serve in Washington's Continental Army. In July 1777 he was appointed colonel and commander of all engineers in the Continental Army, in November 17, 1777, he was promoted to brigadier general; when the Continental Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers in May 1779 Duportail was designated as its commander.
In late 1781 he directed the construction of the allied U. S.-French siege works at the Battle of Yorktown. From 1794 to 1802 the engineers were combined with the artillery as the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers; the Corps of Engineers, as it is known today, came into existence on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act whose aim was to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers... that the said Corps... shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a military academy." Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer. The General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey canal routes; that same year, Congress passed an "Act to Improve the Navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" and to remove sand bars on the Ohio and "planters, sawyers, or snags" on the Mississippi, for which the Corps of Engineers was the responsible agency.
Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes, it was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes. In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey; the survey, based in Detroit, Mich. was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids. The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852. In the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U. S. Naval officers; the Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War. Many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War.
Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard; the versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges and batteries, the destruction of enemy supply lines, the construction of roads; the Union forces were not the only ones to employ the use of engineers throughout the war, on 6 March 1861, once the South had seceded from the Union, among the different acts passed at the time, a provision was included that called for the creation of a Confederate Corps of Engineers. The progression of the war demonstrated the South's disadvantage in engineering expertise. To overcome this obstacle, the Confederate Congress passed legislation that gave a company of engineers to every division in the field. One of the main projects for the Army Corps of Engineers was constructing railroads and bridges, which Union forces took advantage of because railroads and bridges provided access to resources and industry.
One area where the Confederate engineers were able to outperform the Union Army was in the ability to build fortification
North Utica, Illinois
North Utica known as Utica, is a village in Utica Township, LaSalle County, Illinois. The population was 1352 at the 2010 United States Census, it is part of the Ottawa–Streator Micropolitan Statistical Area. While North Utica is the proper name for the city, advertising on nearby Interstates 80 and 39 refers to the village by its original name, Utica. In addition, people who live in the area, official Interstate signage, signs indicating the city limits all refer to the town as Utica; the town of Utica had been established on the banks of the Illinois River during the 1830s, but flooding and the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal a few miles north encouraged redevelopment of the village there as North Utica. There were 9 fatalities during a F3 tornado on April 20, 2004, which damaged the downtown business district. North Utica is located at 41°20′32″N 89°0′51″W. According to the 2010 census, North Utica has a total area of 3.471 square miles, of which 3.46 square miles is land and 0.011 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1352 people residing in the village. The population density was 389.6 people per square mile. There were 598 housing units at an average density of 172.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.52% White, 0.36% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.61% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. Hispanic. There were 598 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.93. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 9.5% from 25 to 34, 23.1% from 35 to 49, 44.1% from 50 to 64, 15.5 who were 65 years of age or older, 47.5% Male, 52.5% Female The median income for a household in the village was $43,182, the median income for a family was $54,107. Males had a median income of $37,614 versus $20,074 for females; the per capita income for the village was $23,061. About 3.7% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over.
Local attractions include Starved Rock State Park. Utica is the location of the annual Burgoo Festival on Columbus Day weekend in October; the Burgoo Festival is a fundraising event. Leo Cahill, pro football coach and executive Official website Starved Rock State Park
Starved Rock Lock and Dam
Starved Rock Lock and Dam known as Lock and Dam No. 6, is a lock and dam facility managed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers along the Illinois River, it is part of the Illinois Waterway and was constructed between 1926 and 1933. The lock and dam was added to the National Register of Historic Places as the Starved Rock Lock and Dam Historic District in 2004. Along the original Illinois Waterway, Starved Rock Lock and Dam is the southernmost facility; the lock and dam are located along the Illinois River near the north central Illinois village of Utica. The lock and dam is at river mile 231 just upstream from Plum Island; the facility is presently operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the Starved Rock Lock and Dam was constructed between 1926 and 1933 as an element of the Illinois Waterway. The Waterway was a project designed to provide a navigable channel from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River; the contract for construction of the lock and dam was awarded in 1923 but fell through when the contractor failed to show up for the contract signing.
Following a period of time during which land litigation issues were cleared, a second contract was awarded in 1926. The lock and dam was about 95 percent complete when the state of Illinois fell upon financial difficultly and the project was turned over to the federal government for completion. Under the authority of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1930 the federal government oversaw completion of Starved Rock Lock and Dam in 1933. Construction of the facility cost US$4,462,737. Starved Rock Lock and Dam features a straight-crested, reinforced concrete gravity dam 1,310 feet long; the dam consists of a controlled spillway of 714 feet. The dam is 33 feet wide at its base, 22 feet 3 inches wide at the crest of the head gate and 50 feet 6 inches wide at the crest of the spillway; the dam's height above the riverbed varies from 21 to 34 feet. The lock at Starved Rock Lock and Dam is an Ohio River Standard navigational lock of 110 by 600 feet; the lock has a drop/lift of about 18 feet. The chamber of the lock is formed by two parallel gravity section walls 38 feet tall on the north and south.
These are framed horizontally by two miter gates at the west ends of the lock. Walter Mickle Smith was hired as Chief Design Engineer for the Illinois Waterway Project by Mortimer Grant Barnes, Illinois Governor Frank O. Lowden's appointee to oversee the Waterway Project. Thus, Mickle designed the facilities at Dam. Legislation which codified the construction of the Waterway only stipulated the general design and location of the locks and dams along the Illinois River. Barnes had 20 years' experience as a civil engineer and had worked as an assistant to the engineer in charge of the construction of the Panama Canal locks when Lowden tapped him to head the project. Smith worked with Barnes on the Panama Canal project. Together the two men formed a general hydraulic and construction engineering firm. On March 10, 2004 the Starved Rock Lock and Dam was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Starved Rock Lock and Dam Historic District, it was listed as part of the Illinois Waterway Navigation System Facilities Multiple Property Submission.
Starved Rock was deemed eligible for the listing when the rest of the Illinois Waterway was determined eligible. The district has significance in three areas. According to the National Register of Historic Places' criteria, those are: engineering and maritime history; the historic district consists of structures. One building and two structures are contributing members to the historic district and two buildings are considered non-contributing members. Starved Rock Lock and Dam Historic District covers 27.95 acres. Starved Rock State Park Media related to Starved Rock Lock and Dam at Wikimedia Commons Historic American Engineering Record No. IL-127, "Starved Rock Locks & Dam", 24 photos, 46 data pages, 2 photo caption pages