The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
Fabian Molina is a Swiss politician of the Social Democratic Party and a member of the National Council. Fabian Molina joined the SP in 2006. From 2007 to 2009, he was a board member of SP Illnau-Effretikon. At the same time, in 2008, he founded the social democratic youth wing Illnau-Effretikon. In 2009, he was elected Co-President of the Juso Canton Zurich. In 2010, he was elected to the municipal council of Illnau-Effretikon, where he served until his resignation in 2016. In 2015, he was a candidate for the Swiss National Council on the list of SP in the Canton of Zurich. On national level, Fabian Molina presided the Juso Switzerland from March 2014 and announced his resignation as a president in June 2016 at Juso Switzerland's 2016 annual meeting and expressed a desire for a female successor. In August 2017, he joined the Zurich Cantonal Council for the Pfäffikon constituency. On March 15 2018, he moved up as National Council after his predecessor Tim Guldimann's resignation. Molina was Youth Secretary at the Swiss national labour union Unia from 2011 to 2014.
He is a member of Amnesty International, Group Switzerland without Army, Public Eye, Solidar Suisse. From early 2017 to 2018, Molina held a position as a research assistant at the Swiss non-governmental organisation Swissaid. A prominent figure in national media, he has raised regular attention both in national and international press, he called for instance to hoist the multi-coloured Peace Flag instead of the Swiss Flag on August 1, 2014, Switzerland's national day in order to commemorate 100 years of the general mobilization for World War I. In 2015, in cooperation with other political groups and his Juso took the referendum against the new Intelligence Service Act. Furthermore, he took a leading role in the vote on the popular initiative "Stop Speculation on Food Crops" that came to a popular vote on February 2, 2016 and was rejected. Raised in Illnau-Effretikon, he attended the Kantonsschule Büelrain in Winterthur from 2006 to 2010. After graduating from high school in 2011, he began his studies in history and philosophy at the University of Zurich.
Molina's father was a left-wing activist in Chile in the 1970s and sought refuge in Switzerland after 13 prison stays under General Augusto Pinochet’s authoritarian rule. Fabian Molina has referred to his father's political persecution as a driving force in his political convictions and activism. Official website Biography of Fabian Molina on the website of the Swiss Parliament
Canton of Zürich
The canton of Zürich is a Swiss canton in the northeastern part of the country. With a population of 1,504,346, it is the most populated canton in the country.. Its capital is the city of Zürich; the official language is German. The local Swiss German dialect, called Züritüütsch, is spoken. In English the name of the canton and its capital is written without an umlaut; the Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee comprises 11 of total 56 Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Zürichsee in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich. Located on Zürichsee lakeshore, there are Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld, Rapperswil-Jona/Hombrechtikon–Feldbach, Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum, Erlenbach–Winkel, Meilen–Rorenhaab, Wädenswil–Vorder Au, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai, Grosser Hafner and Kleiner Hafner; because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. On the small area of about 40 square kilometres around Zürichsee, there the settlements Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg on Greifensee and Wetzikon–Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore.
As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed as a Class object in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance. Zurihgauuia was a subdivision of Turgowe in the Duchy of Alamannia, consisting of the territory between Reuss and Töss. From the 740s, substantial portions of Zürichgau were owned by the Abbey of St. Gall. In c. 760, an administrative re-organisation under counts Ruthard and Warin exempted the castle town of Zürich from comital rule. A county of Zürichgau was established under Louis the Pious, for a count Ruadker, in 820. Zürichgau remained a nominally separate territory in the 9th century but was ruled by the same count as Thurgau. In 915, Zürichgau together with Thurgau fell to the Bucharding dukes of Swabia. In the late 10th century, the county of Zürich was ruled by the Nellenburger, during 1077–1172 by the Lenzburger. By the 13th century, Zürichgau was divided between the Habsburgs and the Kyburger, who held the territory west and east of Lake Zürich, respectively.
The territory of the canton of Zürich corresponds to the lands acquired by the city of Zürich after it became reichsfrei in 1218. Zürich pursued a policy of aggressive territorial expansion during the century following the revolution of the guilds in 1336. Zürich joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1351. Zürich lost the Toggenburg in the Old Zürich War of the 1440s; the northern parts up to the river Rhine came to the canton after the city of Zürich purchased Winterthur from the Habsburgs in 1468. In 1651, Zürich purchased Rafzerfeld from the counts of Sulz. At this point all of the territory of the modern canton was owned by Zürich. In the 18th century, the "inner bailiwicks" were under direct administration of city officials, while the "outer bailiwicks" were ruled by the reeves of Kyburg, Grüningen, Eglisau, Andelfingen, Wädenswil, Knonau; the city of Winterthur retained far-reaching autonomy. Zürichgau, the name of the medieval pagus, was in use for the territories of the city of Zürich during the 15th and 16th century.
Under the short-lived Helvetic Republic, the canton of Zürich became a purely administrative division. In 1803, some former possessions of Zürich to the west gained independence as part of the Canton of Aargau. In 1804 the Kantonspolizei Zürich was established as Landjäger-Corps des Kantons Zürich. A cantonal constitution was replaced in 1831 by a radical-liberal constitution; the Züriputsch, an armed uprising of the conservative rural population against the radical-liberal order, led to the dissolution of the cantonal government, a provisional conservative government was installed by colonel Paul Carl Eduard Ziegler. Under the threat of intervention of the other radical-liberal cantons of the Confederacy, the provisional government declared that the 1831 constitution would remain in effect. In a tumultuous session on 9 September 1839, the cantonal parliament declared its dissolution In the so-called Septemberregime, the newly elected cantonal government replaced all cantonal officials with conservatives, but it was again ousted by a radical-liberal election victory in 1844.
Alfred Escher was a member of the new cantonal parliament of 1844. The radical-liberal era of 1844–1868 was dominated by the so-called System Escher, a network of liberal politicians and industrialists built by Alfred Escher. Escher governed the canton in monarchical fashion, was popularly dubbed Alfred I. or Tsar of All Zürich. Escher controlled all cantonal institutions, at first with little political opposition, expunging all trace of the conservative takeover of 1839. Under Escher, the city of Zürich rose to the status of economic and financial center it still retains. Opposition against the dominance of Sytstem Escher increased after 1863. Th
Swiss Reformed Church
The Swiss Reformed Church is the Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basel, Bern, St. Gallen, to cities in southern Germany and via Alsace to France. Switzerland is the birthplace of the Reformed tradition as it was Zwingli who first preached it in 1519. Since 1920, the Swiss Reformed Churches have been organized in 26 member churches of the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches; as of 2017, 2,150,387 people are registered members of a Reformed cantonal church. The Reformation spread into the cities of Switzerland, composed of loosely connected cantons. Breakthrough began in the 1520s in Zurich under Zwingli, in Bern in 1528 under Berchtold Haller, in Basel in 1529 under Johannes Oecolampadius. After the early death of Zwingli in 1531, the Reformation continued; the French-speaking cities Neuchâtel and Lausanne changed to the Reformation ten years under William Farel and John Calvin coming from France. The Zwingli and Calvin branches had each their theological distinctions, but in 1549 under the lead of Bullinger and Calvin they came to a common agreement in the Consensus Tigurinus, 1566 in the Second Helvetic Confession.
The German Reformed ideological center was Zurich, the French speaking Reformed movement bastion was Geneva. A distinctive feature of the Swiss Reformed churches in the Zwinglian tradition is their almost symbiotic link to the state, only loosening in the present. In cities where the Reformed faith became leading theology, several confessions were written, some of them: The 67 Articles of Zurich Theses of Berne 1528 Berne Synodus 1532 Confession of Geneva 1537 Second Helvetic Confession written by Bullinger in 1566In the mid 19th century, opposition to liberal theology and interventions by the state led to secessions in several cantonal churches. One of these secessionist churches still exists today, the Evangelical Free Church of Geneva, founded in 1849, while a couple of others have reunited with the Swiss Reformed Church in 1943 and 1966. An important issue to liberal theologians was the Apostles' Creed, they questioned its binding character. This caused a heated debate; until the late 1870s, most cantonal reformed churches stopped prescribing any particular creed.
In 1920 the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches, with 24 member churches — 22 cantonal churches and 2 free churches, was formed to serve as a legal umbrella before the federal government and represent the church in international relations. Like many European Protestant denominations, several of the Swiss Reformed churches have welcomed gay and lesbian members to celebrate their civil unions within a church context; as early as 1999, the Reformed Churches in St. Gallen and Lucerne had permitted prayer and celebration services for same-sex couples to recognize their civil unions. Since the Reformed Church in Aargau has allowed for prayer services to celebrate same-sex couples. To date, seven other Swiss Reformed churches, including Bern-Jura-Solothurn, Graubünden, Ticino, Vaud, Zürich, have allowed prayer or blessing services for same-sex civil unions. Organizationally, the Reformed Churches in Switzerland remain cantonal units; the German churches are more in the Zwinglian tradition. They are governed synodically and their relation to the respective canton ranges from independent to close collaboration, depending on historical developments.
Reformed Churches in the Swiss cantons: Reformed Church of Aargau Evangelical-Reformed Church of Appenzell Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton Basel-Landschaft Evangelical-Reformed Church of the Canton Basel-Stadt Reformed Churches of the Canton Bern-Jura-Solothurn Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton Freiburg Protestant Church of Geneva Evangelical Free Church of Geneva Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Glarus Evangelical Reformed Church of Graubünden Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Lucerne Reformed Church of the Canton of Neuchâtel Evangelical-Reformed Church of Nidwalen Association of Evangelical Reformed Churches in the Canton of Obwalden Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of St. Gallen Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Schaffhausen Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Schwyz Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Solothurn Evangelical Reformed Church of Ticino Evangelical Church of the Canton of Thurgau Evangelical Reformed Church of Uri Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Vaud Evangelical Reformed Church in Valais Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zürich Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zug
The Zürich S-Bahn system is a network of rail lines, incrementally expanded to cover the ZVV area, which comprises the entire canton of Zürich and portions of neighbouring cantons, with a few lines extending into or crossing the territory of southern Germany. The network is one of many commuter rail operations in German speaking countries to be described as an S-Bahn; the entire ZVV S-Bahn network went into operation in May 1990, although many of the lines were in operation. Unusual among rapid transit services, the Zürich S-Bahn provides first class commuter travel. Before the construction of the Zürich S-Bahn, most trains to Zürich terminated at Zürich Hauptbahnhof, apart from the Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn lines which terminated at Zürich Selnau. Built as a west-facing terminus, the Hauptbahnhof acted as a terminus for trains coming from all directions, it was connected to lines to the north and northeast via the Wipkingen Tunnel and Zürich Oerlikon railway station. The Hauptbahnhof was connected via the Letten Tunnel to the Lake Zürich right-bank railway line to the southeast.
This line stopped at Stadelhofen station at the opposite side of the city centre, before passing through the single track tunnel to Letten station turning 180 degrees to reach the Hauptbahnhof. This line travelled 5 km to cover the 1.5 km distance between the Hauptbahnhof. The first step in developing Zürich's rail system which led to the establishment of the S-Bahn was the establishment of the so-called Gold Coast Express on 26 May 1968 between Zürich Stadelhofen and Rapperswil via Meilen along the wealthy north shore of Lake Zürich, popularly known as the Gold Coast; this development came about because, after World War II, there was a rapid expansion of commuting to Zürich from the former wine-growing villages along the railway line, which opened in 1894. As a result, commuters complained that the trains were overcrowded and delayed; the canton of Zürich began to develop a project to improve the railway in the 1950s. Because it was not used by either long-distance passenger or freight trains, improvements in local services were possible.
Double track sections were built between Kuesnacht and Herrliberg and between Stäfa and Uerikon, along with new stations. The main problem was finance. Development of the line would only serve local interests and would not lead to increased revenue for Swiss Federal Railways. At the time the canton and cities affected could not fund improvements to an SFR line, so the law was changed to allow local contributions; the new Gold Coast Express service operated a regular schedule every half-hour, with the total journey time for the distance of 36 kilometres reduced from the previous 60 to 40 minutes. The most striking feature of the improved railway was the three-car claret-coloured RABDe 12/12 electric multiple units; these had good acceleration and braking performance and became known as "Mirages", after the jet fighters. The modern features of the Mirages included automatically closing doors, which allowed short stops at stations and a reduction in travel time. On 30 May 1959 some voters put two proposals to the Zürich City Council.
The first would have allocated CHF 200,000 for a study on the construction of a two-line U-bahn with lines from Enge to Kloten and from Altstetten to Tiefenbrunnen. The second motion proposed the establishment of a company to operate a Zürich U-Bahn; the city had considered such a proposal and opposed it, on the basis that Zürich was not big enough for an underground railway, it would cost too much. In a referendum on 14 February 1960, 69.8% of voters voted "no" to the proposal. Following further work and the enactment of a new transport act, the regional public transport authorities presented a new proposal for a combined regional U-Bahn and S-Bahn system, with the latter being a railway network centred on a tunnel under the city centre, which would connect to existing suburban railway lines. From Zürich Airport, an U-Bahn line would run via Glattbrugg, Hirschenwiesen, Central, Zürich Hauptbahnhof and Altstetten to Dietikon. Much of the line would have run above ground; the second part of the proposal was the "Zürichberg network", a line from Zürich Hauptbahnhof via a new tunnel under the Zürichberg to Dietlikon to the northeast.
The proposed construction of an underground station in Museumstrasse on the north side of the Hauptbahnhof was intended to ease the pressure on the Hauptbahnhof. On 20 May 1973 this proposal was rejected in a referendum, with the "no" vote as high as in the previous referendum. At the referendum, little opposition had been expressed against the proposed S-Bahn lines. Rail is a major element in Zürich's public transport system, its upgrade required close collaboration between the Canton of Zürich and Swiss Federal Railways, the owner of most of the railways; the SBB CFF FFS had insufficient resources for a substantial upgrade of commuter services. On the other hand, the canton of Zürich could not fund an alternative transport network; the first step towards cooperation came in 1978 with the establishment of a Transport Fund providing CHF 40 million annually for urban transport. The routes of today's S-Bahn were established in a debate in the cantonal Council on 19 June 1978. Alternative "eastern" and "western" options were discussed.
Under the western option the northern end of the central tunn
The S24 is a regional railway line of the Zürich S-Bahn of the Zürcher Verkehrsverbund, Zürich transportation network. The line was extended in June 2014, again in December 2015, has subsumed the previous S21 line that provided service over part of its extended route, and, itself numbered S1. S 24 Winterthur – Zürich Airport – Zürich HB – Thalwil – ZugThe line runs from Thayngen to Zug via Schaffhausen, Winterthur Hauptbahnhof, Zürich Airport, Zürich Hauptbahnhof and Thalwil; the following stations are served: Thayngen Herblingen Schaffhausen Neuhausen Andelfingen Winterthur Hauptbahnhof Effretikon Bassersdorf Zürich Airport Zurich Oerlikon Zurich Wipkingen Zurich Hauptbahnhof Zurich Wiedikon Zurich Enge Zurich Wollishofen Kilchberg Rüschlikon Thalwil Oberrieden Dorf Horgen Oberdorf Baar ZugThe S24 is now the only S-Bahn line that reverses direction in one of the Hauptbahnhof's surface-level terminal platforms rather than running through one of the station's underground platforms. Most trips are operated using RABe 514 double-decker electric multiple units.
Trains operate every half-hour between Winterthur and Zug, with alternate trains starting from Thayngen. The trip between Thayngen and Zug takes 1 hour 53 minutes. Before June 2014, S24 referred to a shorter line, running only between Zürich Hauptbahnhof and Horgen Oberdorf; this overlapped with service S21, which connected Zug. Prior to 2012, the S21 served Sihlbrugg station, situated between Baar and Horgen and permanently closed in that year. In 2014, the S24 was extended at its southern end to Zug in replacement of the S21, discontinued. At its northern end, it was extended to Zürich Oerlikon in order to provide service to Zurich Wipkingen station, which lost its previous service by lines S2, S8 and S14 when they were diverted to use the Weinberg Tunnel. In late 2015, the S24 was further extended from Zürich Oerlikon to Zürich Airport, Winterthur and Thayngen, in order to replace service by the S16, curtailed to Zürich Airport. Rail transport in Switzerland Trams in Zürich Media related to S-Bahn Zürich at Wikimedia Commons ZVV official website
The Zürich–Winterthur railway is a Swiss railway. It was opened in 1855 and runs from Zürich Hauptbahnhof via several routes to Winterthur and is a bottleneck in Swiss rail transport. All lines of the core network of the Zürich S-Bahn use parts of this line; the Zürich–Winterthur railway line is part of the route that the Zürich-Lake Constance Railway planned to build from Zürich to Romanshorn. The Swiss Northeastern Railway the successor to the Zürich-Lake Constance Railway opened the Winterthur–Romanshorn section on 18 May 1855 and the section from Winterthur to Oerlikon went into operation on 27 December; the rail link to Lake Constance was completed with the opening of the last section between Oerlikon and Zürich on 26 June 1856. The line was double track from the start, it runs from Wipkingen to Oerlikon and from there via Wallisellen and Effretikon to Winterthur. In 1902, the line became the property of the Swiss Federal Railways, which opened electrical operations on the line on 6 August 1925.
The line contains several different route and only the section from Effretikon to Winterthur has no alternative route. Zürich Hauptbahnhof and Oerlikon are connected by three tunnels. Two of them from the above-ground "old" terminus to Oerlikon. In 2014, with the commissioning of the Weinberg Tunnel, trains have run from the newly built underground station to Oerlikon. There are three connections from Oerlikon to Effretikon: via Wallisellen and the Airport; the Zürichberg line, which runs from the Hauptbahnhof via Stadelhofen to Effretikon, is, with a few exceptions, only used by S-Bahn trains. This was the first connection between Zürich Oerlikon, it still ran at that time over a ramp to the Limmat Bridge. This ran along the route now occupied by the street of Röntgenstrasse, which explains its sweeping course; because this ramp was too steep for the locomotives of the period, it built the Aussersihl Viaduct from the station approach. When it was built, it was the longest railway bridge in Switzerland at 834 metres.
After running over a short section on the old line, it reaches the bridge over the Sihlquai and the Limmat. The two bridges together are called the Wipkingen Viaduct. After the bridge, the line passes through Zürich Wipkingen station and immediately runs through Wipkingen Tunnel, after which it continues for some distance in an open cutting, where it merges with the Käferberg line and reaches Zürich Oerlikon station. Although it was planned from the beginning as a double-track line, two-track operations only started on 30 May 1860, it has been electrified since 1925 and electrical operations started on 6 August of that year. The section is used by some long-distance trains and line S24; the Käferberg line, named after the Käferberg Tunnel, is the second connection between Oerlikon and Oerlikon and the Hauptbahnhof. It was opened on 1 June 1969 as a direct connection between Oerlikon and Altstetten for freight trains. On 23 May 1982, double track was opened on the Hardturm Viaduct connecting the Hauptbahnhof to Hardbrücke station, which had only had two platform edges on the ramp to the Hardturm viaduct.
With the construction of the S-Bahn line between the Hauptbahnhof and Altstetten, two more platforms were added. Since the commissioning of the Zurich S-Bahn in 1990, S-Bahn services in the Limmat valley have stopped at Hardbrücke; the Käferberg line is used by the trains of lines S5, S6, S7 and S16. The Oerlikon–Effretikon section is the continuation of the Wipkingen line and was opened on 27 December 1855 by the Swiss Northeastern Railway; until the opening of the airport line, this section carried all long-distance traffic. It was planned from the beginning as a double-track line, with the second track going into operation between Zürich and Wallisellen on 30 May 1860 and between Wallisellen and Effretikon in 1861. Electrical operations started on 6 August 1925. In Wallisellen, the Wallisellen–Uster–Rapperswil railway branches off to Dübendorf and Rapperswil; the Zürichberg line branches off in Dietlikon. The section is used by trains on lines S3, S8, S19 and S14; the Effretikon–Winterthur section is the continuation of the route from Zürich via Oerlikon, Dietlikon and was opened in 1855 by the Northeastern Railway.
The line was doubled in 1862. In 1877, the competing Swiss National Railway built another track next to the existing double track for their line from Baden Oberstadt via Wettingen–Seebach–Kloten to Winterthur. However, due to financial problems, the SNB was compulsorily liquidated in 1878 and the Northeastern Railway took over this company. In 1880, the third track of the former SNB was dismantled. Today, a third track would be of use, because this route is a bottleneck in the link from Zurich via Winterthur to Ostschweiz and is considered the busiest in Switzerland. To increase the line capacity, there have been many different projects such as quadruplication of the line or construction of the Brütten Tunnel as a continuation of the Airport line from Bassersdorf to Winterthur. However, these efforts have so far failed because financing had not been confirmed in 2010 at the beginning of the preparation of the Strategic Development Rail Infrastructure Program; as a last resort, a three-track upgrade of the line has been completed from Winterthur station to the motorway underpass at Tössmühle.
The canton plans a station in Winterth