SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ilustrado

The Ilustrados constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century. Elsewhere in New Spain, the term gente, they were the middle class who were educated in Spain and exposed to Spanish liberal and European nationalist ideals. The Ilustrado class was composed of native-born intellectuals and cut across ethnolinguistic and racial lines—Indios and Mestizos, among others—and sought reform through "a more equitable arrangement of both political and economic power" under Spanish tutelage. Stanley Karnow, in his In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines, referred to the Ilustrados as the "rich Intelligentsia" because many were the children of wealthy landowners, they were key figures in the development of Filipino nationalism. The most prominent Ilustrados were Graciano López Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Antonio Luna and José Rizal, the Philippine national hero. Rizal's novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo "exposed to the world the injustices imposed on Filipinos under the Spanish colonial regime".

In the beginning and his fellow Ilustrados preferred not to win independence from Spain, instead they yearned legal equality for both Peninsulares and natives—Indios and mestizos, among others—in the economic reforms demanded by the Ilustrados were that "the Philippines be represented in the Cortes and be considered as a province of Spain" and "the secularization of the parishes."However, in 1872, nationalist sentiment grew strongest, when three Filipino priests, José Burgos, Mariano Gómez and friar Jacinto Zamora, charged with leading a military mutiny at an arsenal in Cavite, near Manila, were executed by the Spanish authorities. The event and "other repressive acts outraitings and activities, Rizal was executed on December 30, 1896, his execution propelled the Ilustrados. This prompted unity among the Ilustrados and Andrés Bonifacio's radical Katipunan. Philippine policies by the United States reinforced the dominant position of the Ilustrados within Filipino society. Friar estates were sold to the Ilustrados and most government positions were offered to them.

Assimilados Ladino people Évolués Affranchis Emancipados Filipino nationalism Spanish language in the Philippines Philippine literature in Spanish Republic of the Philippines, Microsoft Corporation, Encarta. MSN.com, 2007 (, retrieved on: August 1, 2007 Exiles and Social Change and Pacific Migration Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1-2, SMC.org.ph, retrieved on: August 1, 2007 Owen, Norman G. Compadre Colonialism: Studies in the Philippines Under American Rule, A Review by Theodore Friend, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 224-226, JSTOR.org, 2007, retrieved on: August 1, 2007 Majul, Cesar A. The Political and Constitutional Ideas of the Philippine Revolution, A Review by R. S. Milne, Pacific Affairs, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 98-99, JSTOR.org, 2007, retrieved on: August 1, 2007 Proclamation of Philippine Independence and the Birth of the Philippine Republic, The Philippine History Site, OpManong. SSC. Hawaii.edu, retrieved on: August 1, 2007 Rossabi, Amy. The Colonial Roots of Civil Procedure in the Philippines, Volume 11, Number 1, Fall 1997, The Journal of Asian Law, Columbia.edu, retrieved on: August 1, 2007 Filipino Nationalism, AngelFire.com, retrieved on: August 1, 2007 Veneracion, Jaime B.

Ph. D. Rizal's Madrid: The Roots of the Ilustrado Concept of Autonomy, Diyaryo Bulakenya, Bahay Saliksikan ng Bulakan, Geocities.com, April 4, 2003, retrieved on: August 1, 2007 Philippine History, Philippine Children's Foundation, PhilippineChildrensFoundation.org, 2005, retrieved on: August 1, 2007

X-Men (Game Gear video game)

X-Men is a video game, released in 1994 for the Sega Game Gear featuring the X-Men superhero team. In the game, most of the X-Men have been captured by Magneto. Players use them and their abilities to defeat Magneto. Sega released a sequel in 1995, X-Men: Gamesmaster's Legacy. Players defeat enemies and navigate levels by punching and jumping. Mutant abilities can be deactivated. However, these mutant abilities drains the energy from the player's character. A new playable character is unlocked after finishing a level, including Storm, Psylocke and Iceman. There are several foes from the X-Men universe to defeat including Callisto, Sebastian Shaw, Omega Red, a Brood Queen and Magneto; each boss has their own stage based on various diverse settings from X-Men, including the Morlock Tunnels, the Savage Land, the Hellfire Club, the Brood homeworld and Avalon. These levels are labyrinths of either technological wonders, biological wonders, or a mixture of both; as more X-Men are rescued, these allies can be called upon to take over as the player's character.

Magneto serves as the final boss of the game. X-Men received a positive review from GamePro, who commented "X-Men Game Gear squeezes all the action and graphics it can into four megs of Marvel-ous comic book mayhem.... The long levels are complex enough to keep your battery bill high, the challenge is strong enough to keep you busy in the back seat for that long drive to Grandma's house." X-Men at GameSpot

Black Rock, Bridgeport

Black Rock is a neighborhood in the southwestern section of the city of Bridgeport, Connecticut. The home of Ormsbee Bros Real Estate Trust, it was part of the Town of Fairfield. It borders Fairfield and the Ash Creek tidal estuary on the west, the West Side/West End of Bridgeport on the north and east, Black Rock Harbor and Long Island Sound on the south. Black Rock comprises census tracts 701 and 702 and part of census tract 703, it includes two historic districts. The Black Rock neighborhood has a mix of residential and commercial properties, with most of the retail stores being located along Fairfield Avenue, the main thoroughfare, which connects Black Rock to Fairfield and downtown Bridgeport. Fairfield Avenue is in a state of transition with older businesses being replaced by upscale restaurants, espresso bars, gourmet ice cream shops, art galleries; the Black Rock Branch Library renovation and expansion were completed in 2009. The library has been expanded from its original 6,000 square feet to 11,000 square feet.

Additionally, the entire facility has been modernized, with the installation of 12 public access computers, free Wi-Fi throughout the building and the construction of two large program rooms and a smaller conference room. The library is fully accessible to persons with disabilities. While businesses in Black Rock are located along Fairfield Avenue, most of the 2,628 properties in Black Rock are for residential use. Residences comprise 86% of properties in Black Rock, 10% is commercial, only 4% are industrial or other property classes; the residential areas lie on either side of Fairfield Avenue with less density closer to the waterfront. The area of least density is a section called St. Mary's-by-the-Sea and consists of Resident AA zoned properties which require a minimum lot of 11,250 SF, although most lots are larger than the minimum. Grovers Hill is the highest elevation in Black Rock and some of the most expensive properties in Black Rock are located on this hill with views of Long Island Sound.

There are direct waterfront properties, including two condominium complexes on the Sound and two on the Ash Creek tidal estuary. St. Mary's-by-the-Sea has a 9-acre public park along the Sound with half a mile of sidewalks and an area for bird watching. Black Rock was settled about the same time as Fairfield, many years before Bridgeport existed; as Bridgeport grew to be the largest city in Connecticut, Black Rock was absorbed into its city limits. Before Black Rock was incorporated into Bridgeport, there was the community of Stratfield, absorbed into modern Bridgeport. Stratfield was known as Pequonnock and was located about midway between Black Rock and the original settlement of Bridgeport; the cemetery known as Stratfield Burying Place is located here and has many of Black Rock's early settlers interred there. There are two historic districts in the neighborhood that have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. One includes houses and other structures; the district is known as Black Rock Historic District.

The other is Black Rock Gardens Historic District. It has 12 buildings built for workers during World War I. Black Rock attracts artists, young professionals, retirees who desire to live in an affordable waterfront community on Long Island Sound; this Fairfield County community has been the focus of three articles by the New York Times over the past few years, "Living in St Mary's-by-the-Sea, Connecticut: The Saltwater Smell Means You're Home", “Living in Black Rock, Connecticut: A Community with Spirit and an Edge” and “If You’re Thinking of Living In St. Mary’s-by-the-Sea, Connecticut: At Peninsula’s End, a Waterside Enclave”. Black Rock has become more desirable since the Fairfield Metro train station construction was completed; because the train station is technically located in Fairfield, not Bridgeport, it is not to be called the Black Rock train station despite its proximity to the town line. The access road to the train station connects to Brewster Street in Bridgeport. Black Rock is convenient to I-95 for commuters to Stamford or New Haven.

Black Rock has a rich history dating back to its heritage as a colonial seaport. In the late 19th century and early 20th century wealthy merchants built beautiful homes in Black Rock. One of these homes, with 3 acres of land and 16 rooms, is located on Old Battery Road. Old Battery Road is located on Grovers Hill, one of the highest elevations in Black Rock, which affords views of the Sound. Grovers Avenue, Penfield Place, Beacon Street, Anchorage Drive are have direct waterfront properties and deep water docks; the S. S. Norden Club, Captain’s Cove Seaport, Black Rock Yacht Club, Fayerweather Yacht Club, Harborview Market, & the Arts & Entertainment District on Fairfield Avenue offer culture and recreational activities. Black Rock is an artsy and eclectic community where newcomers are integrated into the neighborhood as they join together on community projects and events. Fairfield Avenue is Black Rock's primary artery. Black Rock is accessible from exit 25 on I-95 and from Route 1, both of which run just north of the area.

Black Rock is served by a train station on Metro-North's New Haven Line, located just across Ash Creek in Fairfield called "Fairfield Metro Center" which opened in December 2011. The Black Rock Business Association, originated in 2005, is a group of Black Rock business owners who work together to promote Black Rock as a shopping and entertainment district; the Black Rock Business Association's