Japanese names in modern times consist of a family name, followed by a given name. More than one given name is not used. Japanese names are written in kanji, which are characters Chinese in origin but Japanese in pronunciation; the kanji for a name may have a variety of possible Japanese pronunciations, hence parents might use hiragana or katakana when giving a birth name to their newborn child. Names written in hiragana or katakana are phonetic renderings, so lack the visual meaning of names expressed in the logographic kanji. Japanese family names are varied: according to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan; the three most common family names in Japan are Satō, Takahashi. This diversity is in stark contrast to the situation in other nations of the East Asian cultural sphere, which reflects a different history: while Chinese surnames have been in use for millennia and were reflective of an entire clan or adopted from nobles and were thence transferred to Korea and Vietnam via noble names, the vast majority of modern Japanese family names date only to the 19th century, following the Meiji restoration, were chosen at will.
The recent introduction of surnames has two additional effects: Japanese names became widespread when the country had a large population instead of dating to ancient times, since little time has passed, Japanese names have not experienced as significant a surname extinction as has occurred in the much longer history in China. Surnames occur with varying frequency in different regions. Many Japanese family names derive from features of the rural landscape. While family names follow consistent rules, given names are much more diverse in pronunciation and character usage. While many common names can be spelled or pronounced, many parents choose names with unusual characters or pronunciations, such names cannot in general be spelled or pronounced unless both the spelling and pronunciation are given. Unusual pronunciations have become common, with this trend having increased since the 1990s. For example, the popular masculine name 大翔 is traditionally pronounced "Hiroto", but in recent years alternative pronunciations "Haruto", "Yamato", "Taiga", "Sora", "Taito", "Daito", "Masato" have all entered use.
Male names end in -rō -ta or -o, or contain ichi, kazu, ji, or dai. Female names end in -ko or -mi. Other popular endings for female names include -ka and -na; the majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no other names, except for the Japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The family name – myōji, uji or sei – precedes the given name, called the "name" – or "lower name"; the given name may be referred to as the "lower name" because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. People with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names. Myōji, uji and sei had different meanings. Sei was the patrilineal surname, why up until now it has only been granted by the emperor as a title of male rank; the lower form of the name sei being tei, a common name in Japanese men, although there was a male ancestor in ancient Japan from whom the name'Sei' came. There were few sei, most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei.
Uji was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but merged with myōji around the same time. Myōji was what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku, one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's myōji. See Kabane. Multiple Japanese characters have the same pronunciations, so several Japanese names have multiple meanings. A particular kanji itself can have multiple meanings and pronunciations. In some names, Japanese characters phonetically "spell" a name and have no intended meaning behind them. Many Japanese personal names use puns. Few names can serve either as surnames or as given names. Therefore, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and, the given name is apparent, no matter which order the names are presented in; this thus makes it unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example, when writing in English while using the family name-given name naming order.
However, due to the variety of pronuncia
Pokémon Conquest, known in Japan as Pokémon + Nobunaga's Ambition, is a tactical role-playing video game developed by Tecmo Koei, published by The Pokémon Company and distributed by Nintendo for the Nintendo DS. The game is a crossover between the Nobunaga's Ambition video game series; the game was released in Japan on March 17, 2012, in North America on June 18, 2012, in Europe on July 27, 2012. The player, accompanied by an Eevee, travels throughout the Ransei Region befriending Pokémon and battling Warriors and Warlords to conquer the region and unite it as one nation; the gameplay is turn-based strategy and is a tactical RPG unlike the main-series Pokémon games, with different Pokémon capable of using different attacks and means of movement. Warriors and Warlords have unique battle-changing powers that boost their Pokémon's abilities but may only be used once per battle; these effects range from increased attacking power, health restoration, or temporary invincibility. Unlike in the main-series Pokémon games, each Pokémon is capable of using only one move.
This move is determined by the Pokémon's species and is picked to represent that species. Additionally, only a select fraction of the 649 Pokémon that existed at that time of release are available in the game; the main-series capture system is replaced by a minigame where a Warrior attempts to form a link with a wild Pokémon by coordinating button presses with a display, reminiscent of Dance Dance Revolution. The main-series leveling system is replaced by a concept called "link", a percentage which increases to a certain maximum, reflects that Pokémon's battling statistics; each Warrior has a natural affinity to certain types, which grants an increased maximum link with Pokémon of those types. In addition, every Warrior and Warlord has one evolutionary family of Pokémon with which they may form a 100%, or perfect, link. A Warlord's costume always resembles the appearance of at least one of their "perfect link" species; the various Warriors and Warlords are named after figures in Japanese history, with the game's Nobunaga being a take on the real historical figure Oda Nobunaga.
After defeating Nobunaga and completing the main story line, players are able to take on 32 special episodes, each featuring one of the other warlords and having different objectives. They feature smarter AI, the ability to upgrade the locations within the regions through a bank to find more Pokémon or get better items, to evolve the rest of the Warlords; the episodes reference real historical events, such as Mitsuhide's betrayal of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi's unification of most of Japan. After the episodes of the 16 senior warlords are completed, a final episode will be unlocked, a new game with the main playable character, but including the added features of the post-game episodes. A legend is foretold that the one who unifies all the 17 kingdoms of the Ransei Region, will have a chance to encounter the Legendary Pokémon who created the Ransei Region. Warriors and Warlords all over the region sought to fulfill the foretold legend, thus bringing Ransei's peaceful era to an end in battles; the game initiates off with the player just becoming the Warlord of the Aurora kingdom and is met by Oichi.
Hideyoshi of the nearby kingdom of Ignis sends his warriors to ambush Aurora, only for them to be defeated by player and Oichi. Oichi explains to the player that all of the other kingdoms of Ransei had become aggressive and hostile towards one another, in their own destiny of fulfilling the Ransei Legend; this initiates the player's harrowing journey of unifying other nations, starting with Ignis, hoping to restore peace upon Ransei. After conquering the kingdoms of Greenleaf, Fontaine, Oichi explains that Nobunaga, who dwells at the northern part of Ransei, is the main threat of the Ransei Region. After conquering the kingdoms of Violight and Pugilis, Oichi explains that Nobunaga's ambition is to fulfill the Ransei Legend and use Arceus's power to demolish Ransei. After conquering the two kingdoms of Terrera and Illusio, Oichi hosts a celebration of Shingen and Kenshin's recruitment to the player's army. During the celebration, the player is confronted by Nobunaga, who holds the kingdoms of Avia, Yaksha, Valora and Spectra under his command.
Nobunaga informs the player and Oichi of their foolishness of opposing him and returns to his own kingdom of Dragnor. Though his servant Ranmaru pleads with Oichi not to oppose him, Nobunaga states he will annihilate anyone who gets in his way. With Nobunaga and his Zekrom defeated, the player had united Ransei, the Infinity Tower is revealed. Inside, the player's party finds the Mythical Pokémon Arceus. After linking with Arceus, the player is confronted again with Nobunaga, now partnered with a shiny Rayquaza, along with Mitsuhide, Nō, Ranmaru, Hideyoshi into a final battle. After being defeated, Nobunaga reveals his true intentions to bring peace to Ransei by destroying Arceus as it is the cause of the conflict. However, seeing the player unaffected by being linked to Arceus, as the Pokémon takes its leave, Nobunaga re
Sake spelled saké referred to as Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice, polished to remove the bran. Despite the name, unlike wine, in which alcohol is produced by fermenting sugar, present in fruit, sake is produced by a brewing process more akin to that of beer, where starch is converted into sugars, which ferment into alcohol; the brewing process for sake differs from the process for beer, where the conversion from starch to sugar and from sugar to alcohol occurs in two distinct steps. Like other rice wines, when sake is brewed, these conversions occur simultaneously. Furthermore, the alcohol content differs between sake and beer. In Japanese, the word "sake" can refer to any alcoholic drink, while the beverage called "sake" in English is termed nihonshu. Under Japanese liquor laws, sake is labelled with the word "seishu", a synonym not used in conversation. In Japan, where it is the national beverage, sake is served with special ceremony, where it is warmed in a small earthenware or porcelain bottle and sipped from a small porcelain cup called a sakazuki.
As with wine, the recommended serving temperature of sake varies by type. The origin of sake is unclear, the earliest reference to the use of alcohol in Japan is recorded in the Book of Wei in the Records of the Three Kingdoms; this 3rd-century Chinese text speaks of dancing. Alcoholic beverages are mentioned several times in the Kojiki, Japan's first written history, compiled in 712. Bamforth places the probable origin of true sake (which is made from rice, kōji mold in the Nara period. In the Heian period, sake was used for religious ceremonies, court festivals, drinking games. Sake production was a government monopoly for a long time, but in the 10th century and shrines began to brew sake, they became the main centers of production for the next 500 years; the Tamon-in Diary, written by abbots of Tamon-in from 1478 to 1618, records many details of brewing in the temple. The diary shows that pasteurization and the process of adding ingredients to the main fermentation mash in three stages were established practices by that time.
In the 16th century, the technique of distillation was introduced into the Kyushu district from Ryukyu. The brewing of shōchū, called "Imo—sake" started, was sold at the central market in Kyoto. In the 18th century, Engelbert Kaempfer and Isaac Titsingh published accounts identifying sake as a popular alcoholic beverage in Japan; the work of both writers was disseminated throughout Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. During the Meiji Restoration, laws were written that allowed anybody with the money and know-how to construct and operate their own sake breweries. Around 30,000 breweries sprang up around the country within a year. However, as the years went by, the government levied more and more taxes on the sake industry and the number of breweries dwindled to 8,000. Most of the breweries that grew and survived this period were set up by wealthy landowners. Landowners who grew rice crops would have rice left over at the end of the season and, rather than letting these leftovers go to waste, would ship it to their breweries.
The most successful of these family breweries still operate today. During the 20th century, sake-brewing technology grew by bounds; the government opened the sake-brewing research institute in 1904, in 1907 the first government-run sake-tasting competition was held. Yeast strains selected for their brewing properties were isolated and enamel-coated steel tanks arrived; the government started hailing the use of enamel tanks as easy to clean, lasting forever, being devoid of bacterial problems. Although these things are true, the government wanted more tax money from breweries, as using wooden barrels means that a significant amount of sake is lost to evaporation, which could have otherwise been taxed; this was the end of the wooden-barrel age of sake and the use of wooden barrels in brewing was eliminated. In Japan, sake has long been taxed by the national government. In 1898, this tax brought in about ¥5 million out of a total of about ¥120 million, about 4.6% of the government's total direct tax income.
During the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, the government banned the home brewing of sake. At the time, sake still made up an astonishing 30% of Japan's tax revenue. Since home-brewed sake is tax-free sake, the logic was that by banning the home brewing of sake, sales would go up, more tax money would be collected; this was the end of home-brewed sake, the law remains in effect today though sake sales now make up only 2% of government income. When World War II brought rice shortages, the sake-brewing industry was dealt a hefty blow as the government clamped down on the use of rice for brewing; as early as the late 17th century, it had been discovered that small amounts of alcohol could be added to sake before pressing to extract aromas and flavors from the rice solids, but during the war, pure alcohol and glucose were added to small quantities of rice mash, increasing the yield by
Mikawa Province was an old province in the area that today forms the eastern half of Aichi Prefecture. Its abbreviated form name was Sanshū. Mikawa bordered on Owari, Shinano, Tōtōmi Provinces. Mikawa is classified as one of the provinces of the Tōkaidō. Under the Engishiki classification system, Mikawa was ranked as a "superior country" and a "near country" in terms of its distance from the capital. Mikawa is mentioned in records of the Taika Reform dated 645, as well as various Nara period chronicles, including the Kujiki, although the area has been settled since at least the Japanese Paleolithic period, as evidenced by numerous remains found by archaeologists. Early records mention a "Nishi-Mikawa no kuni" and a "Higashi-Mikawa no kuni" known as Ho Province. Although considered one administrative unit under the Engishiki classification system, this division persisted informally into the Edo period; the exact location of the provincial capital is not known. Traditionally considered to have been located in the Ko-machi area of the modern city of Toyokawa because of the place name, archaeological investigations at the Hakuho-machi area of Toyota from 1991 to 1997 have revealed extensive ruins and ceramic shards indicating the possibility that the provincial capital was located there.
Furthermore, the ruins of the Kokubun-ji of Mikawa Province was located in 1999 a short distance away from the Toyota site. On the other hand, the Ichinomiya of the province, Toga jinja is located in what is now part of Toyokawa, as well as a temple which claims to be a successor to the original provincial temple. During the Heian period, the province was divided into numerous shōen controlled by local samurai clans. During the Kamakura period but it came under the control of Adachi Morinaga, followed by the Ashikaga clan. For much of the Muromachi period it was controlled by the Isshiki clan. However, by the Sengoku period, the province had fragmented into many small territories dominated by the Matsudaira clan, contested by the Imagawa clan to the east and the Oda clan to the west, it was united under Tokugawa Ieyasu after the power of the Imagawa had been destroyed at the Battle of Okehazama. After the creation of the Tokugawa shogunate, parts of the province were assigned as feudal domains to trusted hereditary retainers as fudai daimyōs, with large portions retained as tenryō territory administered by various hatamoto directly under the shogunate.
During the Edo period, Mikawa was the only area permitted by the shogunate to produce gunpowder, which led to its modern fireworks industry. The various domains and tenryō territories were transformed into short-lived prefectures in July 1871 by the abolition of the han system, was organized into ten districts by the early Meiji period cadastral reform of 1869; the entire territory of former Mikawa Province became part of the new Aichi Prefecture in January 1872. Aichi Prefecture Atsumi District – dissolved Hazu District – dissolved Hekikai District – dissolved Hoi District – dissolved Kamo District Higashikamo District – dissolved Nishikamo District – dissolved Nukata District Shitara District Kitashitara District Minamishitara District – dissolved SeaHorses Mikawa and SAN-EN NeoPhoenix play in the B. League, Japan's first division of professional basketball. Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Toyokawa is a city located in the eastern part of Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015, the city had an estimated population of 181,051 and a population density of 1120 persons per km²; the total area was 161.14 square kilometres. Toyokawa, famous for its Toyokawa Inari temple, is blessed with a good balance of industry, commerce and forestry spread over its 160 km² boundary, is situated in an area rich in history and culture. Toyokawa is located in an area of rolling hills in southeastern Aichi Prefecture, it has a short coastline with Mikawa Bay. Aichi Prefecture Toyohashi Okazaki Shinshiro Gamagōri The area of modern Toyokawa was settled in prehistoric times. During the Nara period, the kokubunji of Mikawa Province was established in 741; the temple of Toyokawa Inari, a popular pilgrimage destination, dates from 1441. A number of daimyō clans under the Tokugawa shogunate originate in what are now parts of Toyokawa, most notably the Makino clan; the area prospered during the Edo period with two post towns along the Tōkaidō, Goyu-shuku and Akasaka.
After the Meiji Restoration, on October 1, 1889 the area was organized into several villages within Hoi District, Aichi Prefecture, including Toyokawa Village. On March 13, 1893, Toyokawa was promoted to town status. Toyokawa City was founded on June 1, 1943 by the merger of Toyokawa town with neighboring Ushikubo Town and Yawata Village, all from Hoi District. In 1939 the massive Toyokawa Naval Arsenal was established, one of the largest producers of machine guns, aviation ordnance and ammunition in the Empire of Japan, it was had sections that produced military-issue katana and glass lenses for use in cameras and similar equipment. During World War II, many thousands of civilians were conscripted or volunteered to work at the Arsenal, towards the end of the war, included hundreds of middle school students and high school girls. On August 7, 1945 the Toyokawa Naval Arsenal was targeted by a flight of B-29 bombers. About 2,500 people were killed during the Toyokawa Air Raid. Toyokawa was one of the last places to be targeted using conventional explosive and incendiary bombs in the closing days of World War II, occurring the day after Hiroshima was destroyed by an atomic bomb.
After the war, on April 12, 1955 Toyokawa annexed Mikami village from Yana District. This was followed by the neighboring town of Goyu from Hoi District on April 1, 1959. Toyokawa further expanded on February 1, 2006 by annexing Ichinomiya, On January 15, 2008 the towns of Otowa and Mito became part of Toyokawa, on February 1, 2010 the town of Kozakai was merged into Toyokawa City. JR Central – Tokaido Line Nishi-Kozakai • Aichi-Mito JR Central – Iida Line Kozakai • Ushikubo • Toyokawa • Mikawa-Ichinomiya • Nagayama • Ejima • Tōjō • Meitetsu – Toyokawa Line Kō • Yawata • Suwachō • Inariguchi • Toyokawa-Inari Meitetsu – Nagoya Main Line Ina - Odabuchi - Kō - Goyu - Meiden-Akasaka - Meiden-Nagasawa Tomei Expressway National Route 1 National Route 23 National Route 151 National Route 247 National Route 362 CastleIna CastleTempleToyokawa Inari – noted Buddhist temple Mikawa Kokubunji temple - Mikawa Provincial templeShrineToga Shrine - Mikawa Ichinomiya shrine JGSDF Camp Toyokawa Yuka Kato, Olympic swimmer Gakuto Kondo, professional soccer player Sion Sono, movie director Wuxi New Area, China.
Santa Rosa, Philippines Cupertino, United States Official website
Pokémon known as Pocket Monsters in Japan, is a media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a Japanese consortium between Nintendo, Game Freak, Creatures. The franchise copyright is shared by all three companies, but Nintendo is the sole owner of the trademark; the franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1995, is centered on fictional creatures called "Pokémon", which humans, known as Pokémon Trainers and train to battle each other for sport. The English slogan for the franchise is "Gotta Catch'Em All". Works within the franchise are set in the Pokémon universe; the franchise began as Pokémon Red and Green, a pair of video games for the original Game Boy that were developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo in February 1996. Pokémon has since gone on to become the highest-grossing media franchise of all time, with $90 billion in total franchise revenue; the original video game series is the second best-selling video game franchise with more than 300 million copies sold and 1 billion mobile downloads, it spawned a hit anime television series that has become the most successful video game adaptation with over 20 seasons and 1,000 episodes in 124 countries.
In addition, the Pokémon franchise includes the world's top-selling toy brand, the top-selling trading card game with over 25.7 billion cards sold, an anime film series, a live-action film, manga comics and merchandise. The franchise is represented in other Nintendo media, such as the Super Smash Bros. series. In November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which had managed the non-game related licensing of Pokémon, announced that it had agreed not to renew the Pokémon representation agreement; the Pokémon Company International oversees all Pokémon licensing outside Asia. The franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2006. In 2016, The Pokémon Company celebrated Pokémon's 20th anniversary by airing an ad during Super Bowl 50 in January, issuing re-releases of Pokémon Red and Blue and the 1998 Game Boy game Pokémon Yellow as downloads for the Nintendo 3DS in February, redesigning the way the games are played; the mobile augmented reality game Pokémon Go was released in July. The most released games in the main series, Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee!, were released worldwide on the Nintendo Switch on November 16, 2018.
The first live-action film in the franchise, Pokémon: Detective Pikachu, based on Detective Pikachu, began production in January 2018 and is set to release in 2019. The upcoming and latest games in the main series, Pokémon Sword and Shield, are scheduled to be released worldwide on the Nintendo Switch in late 2019; the name Pokémon is the romanized contraction of the Japanese brand Pocket Monsters. The term "Pokémon", in addition to referring to the Pokémon franchise itself collectively refers to the 809 fictional species that have made appearances in Pokémon media as of the release of the seventh generation titles Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee! "Pokémon" is identical in the plural, as is each individual species name. Pokémon executive director Satoshi Tajiri first thought of Pokémon, albeit with a different concept and name, around 1989, when the Game Boy was released; the concept of the Pokémon universe, in both the video games and the general fictional world of Pokémon, stems from the hobby of insect collecting, a popular pastime which Tajiri enjoyed as a child.
Players are designated as Pokémon Trainers and have three general goals: to complete the regional Pokédex by collecting all of the available Pokémon species found in the fictional region where a game takes place, to complete the national Pokédex by transferring Pokémon from other regions, to train a team of powerful Pokémon from those they have caught to compete against teams owned by other Trainers so they may win the Pokémon League and become the regional Champion. These themes of collecting and battling are present in every version of the Pokémon franchise, including the video games, the anime and manga series, the Pokémon Trading Card Game. In most incarnations of the Pokémon universe, a Trainer who encounters a wild Pokémon is able to capture that Pokémon by throwing a specially designed, mass-producible spherical tool called a Poké Ball at it. If the Pokémon is unable to escape the confines of the Poké Ball, it is considered to be under the ownership of that Trainer. Afterwards, it will obey whatever commands it receives from its new Trainer, unless the Trainer demonstrates such a lack of experience that the Pokémon would rather act on its own accord.
Trainers can send out any of their Pokémon to wage non-lethal battles against other Pokémon. In Pokémon Go, in Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee!, wild Pokémon encountered by players can be caught in Poké Balls, but cannot be battled. Pokémon owned by other Trainers cannot be captured, except under special circumstances in certain side games. If a Pokémon defeats an opponent in battle so that the opponent is knocked out, the winning Pokémon gains experience points and may level up. Beginning with Pokémon X and Y, experience points are gained from catching Pokémon in Poké Balls; when leveling up, the Pokémon's battling aptitude statistics increase. At certain levels, the Pokémon may learn new moves, which are techniques used in battle. In addition, many species of Pokémon can undergo a form of metamorphosis and
Battle of Azukizaka (1542)
In the first battle of Azukizaka Oda Nobuhide defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto, setting the stage for his son, Oda Nobunaga, to become one of Japan's greatest warlords. Despite the defeat in 1548, Imagawa defeated Nobuhide in the Second Battle of Azukizaka and continued to expand his territory until 1560, when he faced Nobunaga and was killed in the Battle of Okehazama. Battle of Azukizaka