SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Image

An image is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other two-dimensional picture one that resembles a subject. In the context of signal processing, an image is a distributed amplitude of color. Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram, they may be captured by natural objects and phenomena. The word "image" is used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, a painting or a banner. In this wider sense, images can be rendered manually, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods in a pseudo-photograph. A volatile image is one; this may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a projection of a camera obscura, or a scene displayed on a cathode ray tube. A fixed image called a hard copy, is one, recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process.

A mental image exists in an individual's mind, as something one imagines. The subject of an image need not be real. For example, Sigmund Freud claimed to have dreamed purely in aural-images of dialogs; the development of synthetic acoustic technologies and the creation of sound art have led to a consideration of the possibilities of a sound-image made up of irreducible phonic substance beyond linguistic or musicological analysis. A still image is a single static image; this phrase is used in photography, visual media and the computer industry to emphasize that one is not talking about movies, or in precise or pedantic technical writing such as a standard. A moving image is a movie or video, including digital video, it could be an animated display such as a zoetrope. A still frame is a still image derived from one frame of a moving one. In contrast, a film still is a photograph taken on the set of a movie or television program during production, used for promotional purposes. In literature, imagery "evoke sense-impressions by literal or figurative reference to perceptible or'concrete' objects, actions, or states."

Aniconism Avatar Cinematography Computer animation Computer-generated imagery Digital image Digital imaging Fine art photography Graphics Imago camera Image editing Pattern recognition The Treachery of Images Media related to Images at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Image at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of image at Wiktionary The B-Z Reaction: The Moving or the Still Image? Library of Congress – Format Descriptions for Still Images Image Processing – Online Open Research Group Legal Issues Regarding Images Image Copyright Case

Friend Unifying Platform

The Friend Unifying Platform or FriendUP is an Open Source Cloud Operating System that aims to unify web applications and deliver an ecosystem for them to be used across all devices. FriendUP offers users a device agnostic computing environment accessible via the Friend Workspace, an HTML5 and Javascript based user interface where file management and applications can be run; the project was started in 2014 by Friend Software Labs and they delivered their first open source version on Github in June 2017. Friend announced a partnership with the Golem project in November 2017. Friend will integrate their operating system environment into Golem’s distributed computing platform. FriendUP is a multi-user meta operating system. Based on the Friend Core kernel, it is designed to be a complete operating system which will evolve and adapt with information and communication technologies, it employs a Blockchain based database structure for security, is developed with decentralised flows of information in mind.

FriendUP is designed to fit the Liquid Computing workflow concept by using a desktop environment and applications that can be accessed via a web browser without the need for any plugins, meaning it can run on any device from a smartphone to a high end workstation. It fits the Web 4.0 outline of being a middleware where the Internet functions like an operating system. Where FriendUP enables more intuitive forms of resource management, or can be used between devices more easily; the term Web 4.0 itself is used to indicate another phase of the internet and World Wide Web - where humans and machines have a more symbiotic relationship. FriendUP fits within its framework, as well as future iterations of the Web, because it supports efficient and intelligent information flows. Friend Core is Friend's serving kernel, it operates as an operating system kernel for Friend applications. It handles user sessions and resources that are available on the remote server. Friend Core is written in C for speed, which allows it to handle requests on a 5G cellular network with a 2ms response time.

Some of Friend Core's functionality is implemented as runtime linked libraries. This allows for the exchanging of pluggable libraries; this provides advantages when handling decentralised data flows. Friend Core is modular; the modules extend the system with any functionality required by applications on the server side. The modules can be written using many programming languages like Node/Javascript, PHP, Perl or Java; the modules are group permission sensitive, allowing for various degrees of access control. Using a optimized core, time to first byte round trips are kept to a minimum. Friend Core provides a file system driver API that allows developers to build support for any file system or standards-based web resource using several programming languages. A DOS driver implements basic functions for reading and writing to various remote and cloud service disks such as Dropbox, Google Drive and others; the Friend Workspace is a featured desktop environment built using web technologies which allows it to run inside a web browser on any device, web capable.

Friend runs a variety of applications both natively and via remote sessions. FriendUP is compatible with web applications; as the OS is built using web technologies, applications hosted on the web can be executed inside the Friend Workspace. The Friend Workspace has its own set of protocols. Native Friend applications are integrated into the operating system and allow features such as pull down menus, managed windows and a range of GUI controls, they are localized therefore they operate much quicker than Windows apps. Friend comes bundled with several applications including a native video and text conferencing suite called Friend Chat. By routing through the Liberator application stack, a user can run Windows applications directly in the Friend Workspace, alongside Web and Friend applications. By integrating through the RDP protocol, the Windows applications act like they are native web applications. Users can perform functions such as transferring files from Friend disk drives directly into their your Windows applications as well as and copy and paste text from within the Friend Workspace.

V.1.0.0 - First public open source release. V.1.1.0 - Second public open source release. V.1.2.0 - Third public open source release. Official website TWiT FLOSS Weekly Friend special

Stargardt disease

Stargardt disease is the most common inherited single-gene retinal disease. It has an autosomal recessive inheritance caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene, it has an autosomal dominant inheritance due to defects with ELOVL4 or PROM1 genes. It is characterised by macular degeneration that begins in childhood, adolescence or adulthood, resulting in progressive loss of vision. Presentation occurs in childhood or adolescence, though there is no upper age limit for presentation; the main symptom is loss of uncorrectable with glasses. This is manifest as the loss of the ability to see fine details when reading or seeing distant objects. Symptoms develop before age 20, include: wavy vision, blind spots, loss of depth perception, sensitivity to glare, impaired colour vision, difficulty adapting to dim lighting. There is a wide variation between individuals in the symptoms experienced as well as the rate of deterioration in vision. Peripheral vision is less affected than fine, central vision. From Stargardt’s first description of his eponymous disease until the diagnosis was based on looking at the phenotype using examination and investigation of the eye.

Since the advent of genetic testing, the picture has become more complex. What was thought to be one disease is, in fact at least three different diseases, each related to a different genetic change; therefore it is a little confusing to define what Stargardt's disease is. It is caused by defects in the ABCA4 gene, but whether changes to other genes such as PROM1 or ELOVL4, or missense mutations play a role remains to be seen; the carrier frequency in the general population of ABCA4 alleles is 5 to 10%. Different combinations of ABCA4 genes will result in different age of onset and retinal pathology; the severity of the disease is inversely proportional to ABCA4 function and it is thought that ABCA4 related disease has a role to play in other diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, cone-rod dystrophies and age-related macular degeneration. STGD1: By far the most common form of Stargardt disease is the recessive form caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene. STGD4: A rare dominant defect in the PROM1 gene.

STGD3: A rare dominant form of Stargardt disease caused by mutations in the ELOVL4 gene. Late-onset Stargardt disease is associated with missense mutations outside known functional domains of ABCA4. In STGD1, the genetic defect causes malfunction of the ATP-binding cassette transporter protein of the visual phototransduction cycle. Defective ABCA4 leads to improper shuttling of vitamin A throughout the retina, accelerated formation of toxic vitamin A dimers, associated degradation byproducts. Vitamin A dimers and other byproducts are accepted as the cause of STGD1; as such, slowing the formation of vitamin A dimers might lead to a treatment for Stargardt. When vitamin A dimers and byproducts damage the retinal cells, fluorescent granules called lipofuscin in the retinal pigmented epithelium of the retina appear, as a reflecting such damage. In STGD4, a butterfly pattern of dystrophy is caused by mutations in a gene that encodes a membrane bound protein, involved in the elongation of long chain fatty acids Diagnosis is firstly clinical through history and examination with a Slit-lamp.

If characteristic features are found the investigations undertaken will depend on locally available equipment and may include Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy which highlights areas of autofluorescence which are associated with retinal pathology. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, electroretinography and microperimetry are useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes; these investigations may be followed by genetic testing but this is not essential until treatment is available. Fluorescein angiography is used less than in the past. At present there is no treatment. However, ophthalmologists recommend measures. There are no prospective clinical trials to support the recommendations but they are based on scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying the disease pathology. There are three strategies doctors recommend for potential harm reduction: reducing retinal exposure to damaging ultra violet light, avoiding foods rich in Vitamin A with the hope of lowering lipofuscin accumulation and maintaining good general health and diet.

Ultra-violet light is more damaging colour than visible light. In an effort to mitigate this, some ophthalmologists may recommend that the patient wears a broad-brimmed hat or sunglasses when they are outdoors. Sometimes, doctors instruct their patients to wear yellow-tinted glasses when indoors and in artificial light or in front of a digital screen. Foods carrots, vitamin supplements rich in vitamin A are considered to be harmful. Foods with a high vitamin A content are yellow or orange in color, such as squash and sweet potato but some, such as liver, are not. Smoking, being overweight, eating unhealthily may contribute to more rapid degeneration. On the other hand, the consumption of oily fish, in a diet similar to that which doctors recommend for age related macular degeneration, can be used to slow the progression of the disease; the long-term prognosis for patients with Stargardt disease is variable and depends on the age of onset and genetic alleles. The majority of people will progress to legal blindness.

Stargardt disease has no impact on general health and life expectancy is normal. Some patients those with the late onset form, can maintain a re