Imam is an Islamic leadership position. It is most used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim community among Sunni Muslims. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, provide religious guidance. In Yemen, the title was given to the king of the country. For Shi'a Muslims, the Imams ummah after the Prophet; the term is only applicable to the members of Ahl al-Bayt, the family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, designated as infallibles. The Sunni branch of Islam does not have imams in the same sense as the Shi'a, an important distinction overlooked by those outside of the Islamic religion. In everyday terms, the imam for Sunni Muslims is the one who leads Islamic formal prayers in locations besides the mosque, whenever prayers are done in a group of two or more with one person leading and the others following by copying his ritual actions of worship. Friday sermon is most given by an appointed imam. All mosques have an imam to lead the prayers though it may sometimes just be a member from the gathered congregation rather than an appointed salaried person.
The position of women as imams is controversial. The person that should be chosen, according to Hadith, is one who has most knowledge of the Quran and Sunnah and is of good character; the term is used for a recognized religious scholar or authority in Islam for the founding scholars of the four Sunni madhhabs, or schools of jurisprudence. It may refer to the Muslim scholars who created the analytical sciences related to Hadith or it may refer to the heads of Muhammad's family in their generational times; the Position of Imams In Turkey Imams are appointed by the state to work at mosques and they are required to be graduates of an İmam Hatip high school or have a university degree in Theology. This is an official position regulated by the Presidency of Religious Affairs in Turkey and only males are appointed to this position while female officials under the same state organisation work as preachers and Qur'an course tutors, religious services experts; these officials are supposed to belong to the Hanafi school of the Sunni sect.
A central figure in an Islamic movement is called as an Imam like the Imam Nabhawi in Syria and Ahmad Raza Khan in India and Pakistan is called as the Imam for Sunni Muslims. In the Shi'a context, an imam is not only presented as the man of God par excellence, but as participating in the names and acts that theology reserves for God alone. Imams have a meaning more central to belief. Twelver and Ismaili Shi'a believe that these imams are chosen by God to be perfect examples for the faithful and to lead all humanity in all aspects of life, they believe that all the imams chosen are free from committing any sin, impeccability, called ismah. These leaders must be followed. Here follows a list of the Twelvers Shia imams: Fatimah Fatimah al-Zahraa, daughter of Muhammed, is considered infallible but not an Imam; the Shi'a believe that the 12th Imam Mahdi will one day emerge on Qiyamah. See Imamah and List of Ismaili imams for Ismaili imams. See details under Zaidiyyah, Islamic history of Yemen and Imams of Yemen.
At times, imams have held religious authority. This was the case in Oman among the Ibadi sects. At times, the imams were elected. At other times the position was inherited, as with the Yaruba dynasty from 1624 and 1742. See List of rulers of Oman, the Rustamid dynasty: 776–909, Nabhani dynasty: 1154–1624, the Yaruba dynasty: 1624–1742, the Al Said: 1744–present for further information; the Imamate of Futa Jallon was a Fulani state in West Africa where secular power alternated between two lines of hereditary Imams, or almami. In the Zaidi Shiite sect, imams were secular as well as spiritual leaders who held power in Yemen for more than a thousand years. In 897, a Zaidi ruler, al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founded a line of such imams, a theocratic form of government which survived until the second half of the 20th century. Ruhollah Khomeini is referred to as Imam in Iran. Several Iranian places and institutions are named "Imam Khomeini", including a city, an international airport, a hospital, a university.
Islam Mufti Women as imams Imamate Imam of Friday Prayer Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4. Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1. Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Sherrard, Liadain. London. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1. Momen, Moojan. TAn Introduction to Shi`i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelve. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03531-4. Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein; the Just Ruler in Shīʻite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511915-0. Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn. Shi'ite Islam. Translated by Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. SUNY press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic philosophy. London: Kegan Paul International. ISBN 9780710304162
Goh Poh Seng, Singaporean dramatist, novelist and poet, was born in Kuala Lumpur, British Malaya in 1936. He was educated at Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, received his medical degree from University College Dublin, practised medicine in Singapore for twenty-five years, his writing blossomed in Ireland, where he met writers Patrick Kavanagh and Brendan Behan, published his poetry in the university magazine, took a year off school to write. In his time living in Singapore, Dr. Goh held many honorary positions including the Chairman of the National Theatre Trust Board between 1967 and 1972, Vice-Chairman of the Arts Council from 1967 to 1973, he was committed to the development of Art and cultural policies of post-independent Singapore, as well as the development of cultural institutions such as the Singapore National Symphony, the Chinese Orchestra and the Singapore Dance Company. Goh opened Singapore's first theatre disco lounge, Rainbow Lounge at Ming Arcade, Bistro Toulouse-Lautrec at Tanglin Shopping Centre for live jazz and poetry readings, organised Singapore's first David Bowie concert in 1983, envisioned a livelier Singapore River in the 1970s, a proposal, only taken decades later.
He was a founder of the literary magazine Tumasek and co-founded Singapore's first multi-disciplinary arts centre, Centre 65, to promote the arts. Centre 65 inspired the name of Centre 42, an institution for playwriting which opened in 2014. Goh's first novel, If We Dream Too Long won the National Book Development Council of Singapore's Fiction Award in 1976 and has been translated into Russian and Tagalog. While the novel was criticised by The Straits Times upon publication, it enjoyed a first print run of 3,000 copies, is considered the first English-language Singaporean novel, has been used as a Literature text in various universities, his other books include the novels The Immolation and A Dance of Moths, which received the NBDCS Fiction award in 1996, poetry collections Eyewitness, Lines from Batu Ferringhi and Bird With One Wing. Goh's play When the Smiles are Done was the first to use Singlish on stage, while his debut play The Moon is Less Bright was revived by Theatreworks in 1990 and The Second Breakfast Company in 2018.
In 1982, Goh received the Cultural Medallion for his contributions to Literature. Goh emigrated to Canada in 1986. In 2007, Goh returned to Singapore for the last time to attend the Singapore Writers Festival. A 15-minute documentary about Goh, directed by Almerinda Travasoss, was released in the same year. In 2009, Goh announced his plan to write a quartet of novels loosely based on his personal and family history, he died on 10 January 2010 in Vancouver, after suffering from Parkinson's disease in his years. Paying tribute to Goh, playwright Robert Yeo said, "He is someone who not only believed in literature, but believed in lifting the cultural aspirations of Singaporeans." In 2012, his son Kagan Goh published Who Let In The Sky?, a family memoir about Goh's struggle with Parkinson's. In 2014, the Centre for Southeast Asia Research at the University of British Columbia acquired the Goh Poh Seng Collection, a set of 110 volumes from Goh's library. In 2015, If We Dream Too Long was selected by The Business Times as one of the Top 10 English Singapore books from 1965–2015, alongside titles by Arthur Yap and Daren Shiau.
His play, When Smiles Are Done, was selected as one of the "finest plays in 50 years" with productions by Michael Chiang, Kuo Pao Kun and Alfian Sa'at. In the same year, The Straits Times' Akshita Nanda selected If We Dream Too Long as one of 10 classic Singapore novels. "Widely considered the first true Singaporean novel," she wrote, "it should be enjoyed for the lightness of its prose and the wit and insight of the author. In 2015, a collection of Goh's short stories based on his adventures in 1950s Ireland, Tall Tales and MisAdventures of a Young Westernized Oriental Gentleman, was posthumously published by NUS Press; the memoir, written in the last years of Goh's life, includes reflections of his formative encounters with Irish literary giants Patrick Kavanagh and Samuel Beckett. Reviewing the book in Quarterly Literary Review Singapore, Zhang Ruihe called it "a valuable addition to Singapore literature, a record of a writer's coming of age in a time of global transition and revolution."In 2016, If We Dream Too Long was adapted into an interactive dinner theater event by pop-up events company AndSoForth and the National Arts Council.
Eyewitness Lines from Batu Ferringhi Bird With One Wing ISBN 9971835061 The Girl from Ermita & Selected Poems ISBN 0889711674 As Though the Gods Love Us ISBN 0889711712 If We Dream Too Long ISBN 997169445X The Immolation ISBN 9810899351 A Dance of Moths ISBN 9810068662 Dance With White Clouds: A Fable for Grown Ups ISBN 9628783033 The Moon Is Less Bright When Smiles Are Done The Elder Brother Tall Tales and MisAdventures of a Young Westernized Oriental Gentleman ISBN 9789971696344 ‘A Star-Lovely Art’, in Vol 10 No. 1 2010 issue of Moving Worlds: A Journal of Transcultural Writing, University of Leeds National Book Development Council Of Singapore Fic
The cognitive-affective personality system or cognitive-affective processing system is a contribution to the psychology of personality proposed by Walter Mischel and Yuichi Shoda in 1995. According to the cognitive-affective model, behavior is best predicted from a comprehensive understanding of the person, the situation, the interaction between person and situation. Cognitive-affective theorists argue that behavior is not the result of some global personality trait. However, inconsistencies in behavior are not due to the situation; these stable variations in behavior present themselves in the following framework: If A X. People's pattern of variability is the behavioral signature of their personality, or their stable pattern of behaving differently in various situations. According to this model, personality depends on situation variables, consists of cognitive-affective units; the authors identified five cognitive-affective units: encoding strategies, or people's individualized manner of categorizing information from external stimuli.
The cognitive-affective processing system theory attempts to explain conflicting evidence -- personality remains invariant over time and throughout different social contexts, whereas social behaviors vary across different situations. The theory integrates concepts of personality structure and dynamics, obviating the need for two subdisciplines in personality psychology, each with different and sometimes conflicting goals. Biospheric model of personality Hypostatic model of personality Personality systematics Systems psychology