Salah is the second of the Five Pillars in the Islamic faith, an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical and spiritual act of worship, observed five times every day at prescribed times. While facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca, the holy city of Muslims, one stands, prostrates oneself, concludes with sitting on the ground. During each posture one reads certain verses and prayers. Ritual purity is a precondition. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah, a sequence of prescribed actions and words; the number of rakaʿahs varies according to the time of day. Ṣalāh is an Arabic word that means to bless. It means "contact," "communication," or "connection"; the word salah is used by English-speakers only to refer to the formal obligatory prayers of Islam. The English word "prayer" may not be adequate to translate salah, as "prayer" could translate several different forms of Muslim worship, each with a different Arabic name, such as duʿāʾ and dhikr. In some parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries, the Arabic term salat or salah is used alone.

In other places, however, a word from the local language is used. The most widespread term is the Persian word namāz, used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages, as well as by speakers of Turkish, Chinese and Albanian. In the North Caucasus, the term is chak in Lak and kak in Avar. In Malaysia and Indonesia, the term solat is used, as well as a local term sembahyang; the noun ṣalāh is used 82 times in the Qur'an, with about 15 other derivatives of its triliteral root ṣ-l-w. Words connected to salah are used in one-sixth of Qur'anic verses. "Surely my prayer, my sacrifice and my life and my death are for Allah", "I am Allah, there is no god but I, therefore serve Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance". are both examples of this. Exegesis of the Qur'an can give four dimensions of salah. First, in order to glorify God's servants, together with the angels, perform "salah". Second, salah is done involuntarily by all beings in Creation, in the sense that they are always in contact with God by virtue of Him creating and sustaining them.

Third, Muslims voluntarily perform salah to reveal that it is the particular form of worship that belongs to the prophets. Fourth, salah is described as the second pillar of Islam; the primary purpose of Salah is to act as a person's communication with Allah. Purification of the heart is the ultimate religious objective of Salah. Salah is an obligatory ritual for all Muslims, except for those who are prepubescent and experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth, according to Sunnis. There are some conditions that make salah invalid, some that make salah correct. According to one view among many, if one ignores the following conditions, their salah is invalid: Facing the Qibla, with the chest facing the direction of the Kaaba; the ill and the old are allowed leniency with posture. Laughing or speaking, or any unnecessary movements during the salah. Covering of the whole body; each Salah is made up of repeating cycles called rakats. There may be two to four units; each unit consists of specific recitations.

On the major elements there is consensus. Between each position there is a slight pause. Salah is begun in a standing position. Intention is a prerequisite for salah, what distinguishes real worship from'going through the motions'; some authorities hold that intention suffices in the heart, some require that it be spoken under the breath. One says a formula known as takbīr; this opening takbir is known as the takbīrat al-ihram. From this point forward one praying may not converse, eat, or do other worldly things: the aim is to be alone with God. For many Muslims, the consecration is said with the hands raised and thumbs placed behind the earlobes, as shown. One lowers one's hands; some Muslims afterwards add a supplication praising Allah, such as: سُبْحَاْنَكَ اَلْلّٰھُمَّ وَبِحَمدِكَ وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَتَعَالٰی جَدُّكَ وَلَا اِلٰه غَیْرِكَ‎ subḥānaka llāhumma, wa bi-ḥamdika, wa tabāraka smuka, wa taʿālā jadduka, wa lā ʾilāha ġayruk. "Glory to You, all praise is Yours, blessed is Your name, most high.

None has the right to be worshiped but You." Still standing, the next princip


Theriso is a village and former municipality in the Chania regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Chania, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 74.106 km2. It was part of the former Kydonia Province; the town of Theriso is located to the south of Chania at the top of the Theriso gorge. The 14 km drive up the gorge is considered spectacular and is popular with Chania residents for the cooler temperatures and grill restaurants of the village. Theriso is the birthplace of the mother of Eleftherios Venizelos. In 1905, Venizelos organised the Revolutionary Assembly in the village that ousted Prince George of Greece and precipitated the independence of Crete and its union with Greece; the municipal unit of Theriso extends from the outer suburbs of Chania, principally Perivolia and the village Agia, up the gorge beyond Theriso itself into the White Mountains. The head town of the municipality was Vamvakopoulo near Chania.

The municipal unit includes Theriso and Varipetro. It is bordered by Mousouroi to Keramia to the east. List of communities of Chania Municipality Description GTP description

Puckett Observatory

Puckett Observatory is a private astronomical observatory located in the state of Georgia. It is operated by Tim Puckett, its primary observation goals are the discovery of supernovae. To facilitate the latter goal it sponsors the Puckett Observatory World Supernova Search whose astronomers have discovered 369 supernovae; the Puckett Observatory houses two telescopes. The 60 cm Ritchey–Chrétien telescope was custom engineered and built by Puckett, took nine years to complete, going online full-time in 1997; the telescope features a new type of hybrid disk/band worm drive designed by Puckett in 1993. It is one of the largest telescopes in the state; the other observatory telescope includes a Celestron C-14 Schmidt–Cassegrain with a Software Bisque's Paramount ME Robotic Telescope System. The Puckett Observatory World Supernova Search was formed in 1998, with its principal investigator being Tim Puckett; the search consists of a team of amateur astronomers located in the United States, India and Italy.

Observatories participating in the search include the Puckett Observatory, telescopes located in Portal and Osoyoos, BC. The observatory uses computers to control the robotic telescopes and sends the images to volunteers via the Internet; each image is manually compared to archive images. At least 40 hours each week are required to run the search operation. Team members have contributed thousands of hours to analyzing the data. An HST Search for the Progenitor of the Type Ib Supernova 2010O in NGC 3690/Arp 299: Authors Bond, Puckett, et. al. See also: Amateur, NOAO, HST, Chandra Observers Team Up to Search for Supernova Progenitor Type Iax Supernovae:A New Class of Stellar Explosion; this new class has 25 members, are spectroscopically similar to SNe Ia, but have lower maximum-light velocities, most have hot photospheres. Relative to SNe Ia, SNe Iax have low luminosities for their light-curve shape; the Puckett Observatory Supernova Search has discovered 7 of them: 2008ha, 2008ae, 2007J, 2006hn, 2005cc, 2003gq, 2002bp.

The POSS search team made a rare discovery of two supernovae in one galaxy. Possible quasar in Bootes. - Variable Object in Bootes Cataclysmic Nova in Hercules - CBET 226 SN 2005bc SN 2005gl SN 2008ha CBET 1966: 20091011: VARIABLE STAR IN PEGASUS SN 2002bj Supernova fits into new class SN 2012A Announcement in Sky and Telescope SN 2012A Astronomy Picture of the Day SN 2012A Puckett Scores, AAVSO Gets Assist Minor planet: 1999 JR137 Timothy David Puckett was born in 1962 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, is an amateur astronomer and astrophotographer with over 30 years experience. Experienced in the field of amateur CCD astro-imaging, Puckett has operated numerous CCD cameras since 1989, he has built several robotic telescopes and is operating an automated supernova search patrol and comet astrometry program which uses 60-cm and 35-cm telescopes. Puckett's photos of comets and deep-sky objects have been published in books and magazines in several countries, including Great Britain, Italy, Germany and South Africa.

His work has been featured on ABC, NBC, CBS, FOX, CNN, BBC, The Discovery and Learning Channels and Good Morning America. Puckett is a robotic-telescope consultant for professional observatories. In recognition of Puckett's contributions to the field of astronomy, asteroid 32096 Puckett, discovered Orange County Astronomers Michael Collins and Minor White at the OCA-Anza Observatory in 2000, was named in his honor; the official naming citation was submitted by Michael Peoples and published by the Minor Planet Center on November 9, 2003. Puckett was the recipient of the American Astronomical Society's 2011 Chambliss Amateur Achievement Award; this award is presented for an achievement in astronomical research made by an amateur astronomer. The award citation reads: "To Tim Puckett for his Puckett Observatory World Supernova Search program that has discovered more than 200 supernovae". History of supernova observation List of astronomical observatories Robert; the Great Supernova Race. Sky and Telescope, October 2013, pp. 16–21.

Ferris, Timothy. Seeing in the Dark. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002. Pp. 280–81, 339n Hale, Alan. Everybody's Comet: A Layman's Guide to Comet Hale-Bopp. Silver City: High-Lonesome Books, 1996. P. 72 Mobberley, Martin. The New Amateur Astronomer. London: Springer-Verlag, 2004. Pp. 155, 156, 164. Pasachoff, Jay M. Stars and Planets, Peterson Fields Guides. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. Ratledge, David. Software and Data for Practical Astronomers: The Best of the Internet. London: Springer-Verlag, 1999. Pp. 51–52. Sagan and Ann Druyan. Comet. New York: Ballantine Books, 1997. P. 178. Zimmerman, Robert. "Become a Super Amateur." Sky and Telescope, October 2009, 32-37. AstroGuide 1997. AstroArts, Inc. Puckett Comet Images Coelum: Mensile di Astronomia Scienza e Telescopi. April 1998. P. 89 Dürer's Saint Jerome. London: The National Gallery, 1996. Puckett Comet Images. NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Moon over Andromeda NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Rosette Nebula NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Cone Nebula NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Moon over Andromeda NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Comet Tempel-Tuttle NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Comet Hale-Bopp Astronomy Outreach Network CNN Sky and Telescope:100th Supernova Space Today Online New York Times NASA Stardust Mission Space Daily Comet 73 P Schwassmann-Wachmann Image CNN NASA Deep Impact Sky and Telescope San Francisco Chronicle 11/06/09 Tim Puckett's Award Winning Ambition AAS Honors Distinguished Astronom