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Imhotep

Imhotep was an Egyptian chancellor to the pharaoh Djoser, probable architect of the Djoser's step pyramid, high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis. Little is known of Imhotep as a historical figure, but in the 3000 years following his death, he was glorified and deified. Traditions from long after Imhotep's death treated him as a great author of wisdom texts and as a physician. No text from his lifetime mentions these capacities and no text mentions his name in the first 1200 years following his death. Apart from the three short contemporary inscriptions that establish him as chancellor to the pharaoh, the first text to reference Imhotep dates to the time of Amenhotep III, it is addressed to the owner of a tomb, reads: The wab-priest may give offerings to your ka. The wab-priests may stretch to you their arms with libations on the soil, as it is done for Imhotep with the remains of the water bowl, it appears that this libation to Imhotep was done as they are attested on papyri associated with statues of Imhotep until the Late Period.

To Wildung, this cult holds its origin in the slow evolution of the memory of Imhotep among intellectuals from his death onwards. To Alan Gardiner, this cult is so distinct from the offerings made to commoners that the epithet of "demi-god" is justified to describe the way Imhotep was venerated in the New Kingdom; the first references to the healing abilities of Imhotep occur from the Thirtieth Dynasty onwards, some 2200 years after his death. He was one of only two commoners to be deified after death; the center of his cult was in Memphis. The location of his tomb remains unknown, despite efforts to find it; the consensus is. Imhotep's historicity is confirmed by two contemporary inscriptions made during his lifetime on the base or pedestal of one of Djoser's statues and by a graffito on the enclosure wall surrounding Sekhemkhet's unfinished step-pyramid; the latter inscription suggests that Imhotep outlived Djoser by a few years and went on to serve in the construction of King Sekhemkhet's pyramid, abandoned due to this ruler's brief reign.

Imhotep was one of the chief officials of the Pharaoh Djoser. Egyptologists ascribe to him the design of the Pyramid of Djoser, a step pyramid at Saqqara in Egypt in 2630–2611 BC, he may have been responsible for the first known use of stone columns to support a building. Despite these attestations, the pharaonic Egyptians themselves never credited Imhotep as the designer of the stepped pyramid nor with the invention of stone architecture. Two thousand years after his death, Imhotep's status had risen to that of a god of medicine and healing, he was equated with Thoth, the god of architecture and medicine, patron of scribes: Imhotep's cult had merged with that of his former tutelary god. He was revered in the region of Thebes as the "brother" of Amenhotep, son of Hapu, another deified architect, in the temples dedicated to Thoth. Imhotep was linked to Asklepios by the Greeks. According to myth, Imhotep's mother was a mortal named Kheredu-ankh, she too being revered as a demi-goddess as the daughter of Banebdjedet.

Alternatively, since Imhotep was known as the "Son of Ptah", his mother was sometimes claimed to be Sekhmet, the patron of Upper Egypt whose consort was Ptah. The Upper Egyptian Famine Stela, which dates from the Ptolemaic period, bears an inscription containing a legend about a famine lasting seven years during the reign of Djoser. Imhotep is credited with having been instrumental in ending it. One of his priests explained the connection between the god Khnum and the rise of the Nile to the king, who had a dream in which the Nile god spoke to him, promising to end the drought. A demotic papyrus from the temple of Tebtunis, dating to the 2nd century A. D. preserves a long story about Imhotep. King Djoser plays a prominent role in the story, which mentions Imhotep's family. At one point Djoser desires Renpetneferet, Imhotep disguises himself and tries to rescue her; the text refers to the royal tomb of Djoser. Part of the legend includes an anachronistic battle between the Old Kingdom and the Assyrian armies where Imhotep fights an Assyrian sorceress in a duel of magic.

As an instigator of Egyptian culture, Imhotep's idealized image lasted well into the Roman period. In the Ptolemaic period, the Egyptian priest and historian Manetho credited him with inventing the method of a stone-dressed building during Djoser's reign, though he was not the first to build with stone. Stone walling, flooring and jambs had appeared sporadically during the Archaic Period, though it is true that a building of the size of the step pyramid made out of stone had never before been constructed. Before Djoser, pharaohs were buried in mastaba tombs. Egyptologist James Peter Allen states that "The Greeks equated him with their own god of medicine, although there is no evidence that Imhotep himself was a physician." Imhotep is the antagonistic title character of Universal's 1932 film The Mummy and its 1999 remake, along with a sequel to the remake. Imhotep is a 1985 video game about building pyramids. Imhotep is the name of a Goa'uld who disguises himself as the Jaffa rebel leader K'tano in the season 5 episode The Warrior of Stargate SG-1 Imhotep is the name of a demon in Marvel Comics' Conan the Barbarian universe Imhotep is a character in Agatha Chris

Business as Usual (EPMD album)

Business as Usual is the third album from Hip Hop duo EPMD, released December 18, 1990 and their first on leading rap label Def Jam as a result of being signed over from their former label, Fresh Records. This album was the first release by Def Jam as an imprint under its new Rush Associated Labels subsidiary, which allowed founder Russell Simmons more control and more ownership over its material, as the masters for proper Def Jam releases at that time were owned by Sony Music's Columbia Records. Business as Usual was not as acclaimed as their first two albums, but was not considered to be a failure either. One notable aspect here was the debut of future Hip Hop star Redman, who appears on the tracks "Hardcore" and "Brothers on My Jock". Three singles were released from the album, "Gold Digger", "Rampage" featuring LL Cool J and "Give the People". In 1998, the album was selected as one of The Source's 100 Best Rap Albums; the album was certified Gold by the RIAA on May 7, 1991. List of number-one R&B albums of 1991

British Battledress

This article is about the standard British combat uniform worn from 1939 to 1961. For other British Army standard issue uniforms, see British Army uniform. For the named US Armed Forces standard issue combat uniform used from the 1980s until the first decade of the 21st century, see Battle Dress Uniform. For army action clothing in general, see Battledress. Battledress was the specific title of a military uniform adopted by the British Army in the late 1930s and worn until the 1960s. Several other nations introduced variants of battledress during the Second World War, including Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa, the United States of America and after the Second World War, including Argentina, Norway, the Netherlands, Greece. Battledress, or No. 5 Uniform, was the combat uniform worn by British Commonwealth and Imperial forces and many Free European Forces through the Second World War. It was worn but not in temperate climates. In some armies it continued in use into the 1970s. During the Second World War and thereafter this uniform was used for formal parades until the re-introduction of separate parade uniforms in the late 1950s.

From the early 1930s, the British War Office began research on a replacement for the Service Dress, a combined field and dress uniform since the early 1900s. Conducted on a small scale over several years, some of the ideas tested included deerstalker hats and safari jackets. After extensive field trials of other uniforms, Serge was adopted just before the Second World War; the uniform was designed with the needs of mechanised infantry in mind, was inspired by contemporary wool'ski suits' that were less restrictive to the wearer, used less material, were warm while wet and were more suited to vehicular movement than Service Dress. Attempting to create a more standardised uniform across much of the British military, it was composed of a streamlined short jacket of wool serge that buttoned to the outside of high-waisted wool serge trousers; the jacket was copied by the U. S. Army and was christened the Ike jacket; the sleeves of the British blouse had a forward curve built into them so that they were more comfortable to wear prone shouldering a rifle, or seated holding a steering wheel for instance, although they tended to show multiple wrinkles near the inside of the elbow when the soldier's arms were held straight at the sides.

On the trousers, there was a large map pocket on the front near the left knee and a special pocket for a field dressing near the right front pocket. The mixed green and brown fibres of the British battledress fabric matched the colours of heath and forests of the United Kingdom well without having to be a single muddy olive green colour like American uniforms. One problem developed, the gap between the blouse and trousers would open up in extreme movement and buttons popped, so braces were issued, in some cases a sweater was worn. A woollen shirt was worn under the wool blouse, wearing an open collar blouse was restricted to officers, other ranks buttoning the top button of the blouse and closing the collar with a double hook-and-eye arrangement. Short webbing anklets covered the gap between the trousers and the ankle boots, further adding to the streamlined look and keeping dirt out of the boots without having to use a taller, more expensive leather boot. Battledress was issued beginning in 1939 in the British Army, though shortages meant that some units of the British Expeditionary Force went to France in Service Dress.

Some officers refused to wear Battledress themselves, contrary to orders. One Guards major declared: "I don't mind dying for my country but I'm not going to die dressed like a third-rate chauffeur". Battledress, Serge being the original pattern of battledress uniform referred to as'1937 Pattern', the blouse had a fly front, pleated pockets with concealed buttons and an unlined collar, the trousers having a large map pocket on the left leg front with a concealed button and a small, single pleat dressing pocket on the front of the right hip; the trousers have four belt loops. 1940 Pattern Battledress introduced in 1940 saw some small changes to the original design, a lined collar and closer cut to the blouse and trousers with a new dressing pocket on the trousers with two pleats and a revolving shank button. 1940 "Austerity" Pattern Battledress was introduced in 1942. Pocket pleats to the blouse were removed, early manufacture included two inside pockets but this was soon reduced to a single inside pocket.

Plastic buttons were introduced, rather than the brass dished buttons of Serge. The trousers lost their belt loops and ankle tabs, the pocket buttons were now exposed and made of brown or green plastic like those of the blouse. Officers were permitted to tailor the collar of their blouses so as to wear a collared shirt and tie. Battle Dress, Olive Drab, War Aid was made in the U. S. A. for the British Army and was seen in the Mediterranean theatre. Note the American use of'Battle Dress' as two words; the blouse featured exposed buttons on the outer pockets, which bore no box pleats. The fly front of Battledress, Serge was