Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. Immunology charts and contextualizes the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases. Immunology has applications in numerous disciplines of medicine in the fields of organ transplantation, rheumatology, bacteriology, parasitology and dermatology; the term was coined by Russian biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, who advanced studies on immunology and received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1908. He noticed unusual cells surrounding the thorns; this was the active response of the body trying to maintain its integrity. It was Mechnikov who first observed the phenomenon of phagocytosis, in which the body defends itself against a foreign body. Prior to the designation of immunity, from the etymological root immunis, Latin for "exempt", early physicians characterized organs that would be proven as essential components of the immune system; the important lymphoid organs of the immune system are the thymus, bone marrow, chief lymphatic tissues such as spleen, lymph vessels, lymph nodes and liver.
When health conditions worsen to emergency status, portions of immune system organs, including the thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes, other lymphatic tissues, can be surgically excised for examination while patients are still alive. Many components of the immune system are cellular in nature and not associated with any specific organ, but rather are embedded or circulating in various tissues located throughout the body. Classical immunology ties in with the fields of medicine, it studies the relationship between the body systems and immunity. The earliest written mention of immunity can be traced back to the plague of Athens in 430 BCE. Thucydides noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of the disease could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time. Many other ancient societies have references to this phenomenon, but it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries before the concept developed into scientific theory; the study of the molecular and cellular components that comprise the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology.
The immune system has been divided into a more primitive innate immune system and, in vertebrates, an acquired or adaptive immune system. The latter is further divided into cell-mediated components; the immune system has the capability of non-self-recognition. An antigen is a substance; the cells involved in recognizing the antigen are Lymphocytes. Once they recognize, they secrete antibodies. Antibodies are proteins. Antibodies don’t directly kill pathogens, but instead identify antigens as targets for destruction by other immune cells such as phagocytes or NK cells; the humoral response is defined as the interaction between antigens. Antibodies are specific proteins released from a certain class of immune cells known as B lymphocytes, while antigens are defined as anything that elicits the generation of antibodies. Immunology rests on an understanding of the properties of these two biological entities and the cellular response to both. It’s now getting clear that the immune responses contribute to the development of many common disorders not traditionally viewed as immunologic, including metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s disease.
Besides, there are direct implications of the immune system in the infectious diseases as well. Hence, research in the field of immunology is of prime importance for the advancements in the fields of modern medicine, biomedical research, biotechnology. Immunological research continues to become more specialized, pursuing non-classical models of immunity and functions of cells and systems not associated with the immune system. Clinical immunology is the study of diseases caused by disorders of the immune system, it involves diseases of other systems, where immune reactions play a part in the pathology and clinical features. The diseases caused by disorders of the immune system fall into two broad categories: immunodeficiency, in which parts of the immune system fail to provide an adequate response. Other immune system disorders include various hypersensitivities that respond inappropriately to otherwise harmless compounds; the most well-known disease that affects the immune system itself is AIDS, an immunodeficiency characterized by the suppression of CD4+ T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Clinical immunologists study ways to prevent the immune system's attempts to destroy allografts. The body’s capability to react to antigens depends on a person's age, anti
The Restless Spirit is a 1913 American silent short drama film written and directed by Allan Dwan, featuring J. Warren Kerrigan and Pauline Bush; the film is based on Thomas Gray's 1751 poem, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, tells the story of a man who wishes to be a conqueror. The Dreamer is nursed back to health by the Desert Flower. A series of illusions follows which shows the futility of conquest when he cannot conquer his own community, he returns and becomes respected by the community that once ridiculed him. The film makes use of numerous dissolves which were technically difficult to execute, sent the cameraman to the hospital due to stress; the film may have been the last unbilled appearance by Lon Chaney, was released on October 27, 1913 by Universal Film Manufacturing Company under the Victor label. The film is presumed lost; the film begins with a restless and disappointed dreamer who has a wife and child. He gazes at his hands and dreams of becoming a conqueror, but laments that no chance comes to him and continues to dream.
The Dreamer becomes the subject of ridicule and his wife becomes the subject of pity by the community. The Dreamer decides enter the world of men and abandons his wife leaving her to seek refuge in her father, her father wishes for her to marry a wealthy gentleman, a stranger in the town. The Dreamer heads into wanders until exhaustion takes its toll. A woman, "The Desert Flower", takes him to her hut in the desert. There the woman spends her time looking over the garments of the man who courted her, the same stranger now attempting to marry the Dreamer's wife; the woman learns of the Dreamer's story and shows the dreamer the futility of conquering worlds unknown when he cannot conquer his own small corner of the world. The Dreamer sees himself in the roles of great conquerors; the Dreamer's wife has been kicked out for refusing to marry the stranger, is reunited with the Dreamer on the edge of the desert. The stranger is sent out into the Dreamer and his wife return to the town. In time, the Dreamer becomes respected by the community.
J. Warren Kerrigan as the Husband/The Dreamer Pauline Bush as the Wife Jessalyn Van Trump as The Desert Flower William Worthington as the Stranger George Periolat Lon Chaney as Russian Count/Prince The groundwork for The Restless Spirit began when Allan Dwan visited Universal's offices in New York City in late July 1913. Frederic Lombardi believes that it was during this meeting that Carl Laemmle offered Dwan's colleagues double their pay from Flying A if they would come to Universal. In the following weeks, J. Warren Kerrigan came to Universal and the two would work together in the production of The Restless Spirit. Dwan credits the idea to adapt and produce a film on Thomas Gray's Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard as a betting challenge. Dwan claimed to have studied Gray's poem and dream about the production before accepting the challenge. Frederic Lombardi, author of Allan Dwan and the Rise and Decline of the Hollywood Studios, writes that Dwan may have been emboldened after the production of the Pickett Guard and the lack of structure in Gray's poem.
Since the poem had no "real story", Dwan could formulate his own allegorical plot. Dwan was able to convince his employers that the work would be a box office success and intended to use the film a prestigious multi-role vehicle for Kerrigan's debut at Universal. Lombardi writes that Dwan was subject to produce overtly artistic films, but these tendencies were kept in check by Dwan's more practical inclinations; the film's ethereal aspects and double exposures were performed in the camera because the ability to create the effects in lab did not yet exist. Dwan made 24 dissolves in the film, each required precise control by the cameramen and that the counts had to be exact otherwise the shot would be ruined. Lombardi notes that the cinematographer, Walter Pritchard, was the man who had to go through the ordeal and that Universal said he was one of the company's oldest men. Dwan would claim. In The Parade's Gone By, Brownlow instead gives the number of dissolves as 25 and adds to the story by Dwan claiming that the audience could not figure out the effect was done.
Dwan claimed that by the time 15 dissolves were done that the cinematographer was so nervous that the it would keep him up at night and cause his hands to shake so that an assistant would have to reload the film at the right spot before shots. This production may have been the last unbilled movie credit of Lon Chaney; the discovery of Lon Chaney's role was through Chaney having marked his appearance in a still with an X above his head. Chaney wrote "This is me just below the X sign. Here I am a Russian Prince." On the back of the still. The image still in particular leaves no question that it comes from The Restless Spirit because it appears on the cover of The Universal Weekly for October 23, 1913; the second image found on the estate depicts Lon Chaney in the role of a wildman, which Mirsalis attributes to a fantasy sequence in the film. On September 6, 1913, Motography reported that J. Warren Kerrigan would star in the upcoming picture known as A Restless Spirit with a reference to Kerrigan's transfer to Universal.
Alternate names for the film such as His Restless Spirit and A Restless Spirit. It is unknown if the film was planned or if it was mere assumption, but it was reported that it would be a two reel production in September 1913. Newspaper accounts change to reference the film as having three reels by October 3, 1913; as details spread in the newspaper, the film's working title continued to be referenced as A Restless Spirit in v
Fifth Regiment Armory is a historic National Guard armory located at Baltimore, United States. It is an fortress-type structure situated in midtown Baltimore, it consists of a full basement, a first floor containing a 200 foot by 300 foot drill hall, a mezzanine or "balcony" level, a newer second level housing the trussed steel drill hall roof. The façade features buttresses, casement windows, a crenellated roofline, giving the appearance of a medieval fortification, it was the site of the 1912 Democratic National Convention. The Fifth Regiment Armory was designed by architects Nolting, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. It is included within the Baltimore National Heritage Area. On October 31, 1958, President Dwight Eisenhower delivered a televised speech from the Fifth Regiment Armory; the event, promoting Republican Party candidates in that year's midterm elections, was attended by Maryland Governor Theodore McKeldin, Senator John Glenn Beall, Jr. Senator John Marshall Butler, Congressman James Devereux.
Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore City, including photo from 1980, at Maryland Historical Trust Fifth Regiment Armory Baltimore, Maryland.