Imperial Russian Navy

The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire from 1696 to 1917. It was formally established in 1696 and lasted until being dissolved during the February Revolution of 1917, it developed from a smaller force that had existed prior to Tsar Peter the Great's founding of the modern Russian Navy during the Second Azov campaign. It was expanded in the second half of the 18th century and by the early part of the 19th century, it reached its peak strength, behind only the British and French fleets in terms of size. Officers were drawn from the aristocracy of the Empire, who belonged to the state Russian Orthodox Church. Young aristocrats began to be trained for leadership at a national naval school. From 1818 on, only officers of the Imperial Russian Navy were appointed to the position of Chief Manager of the Russian-American Company, based in Russian America for colonization and fur trade development. After the navy was staffed by paid foreign sailors, the government began to recruit native-born sailors as conscripts, drafted as were men to serve in the army.

Service in the navy was lifelong. The Russian Navy went into a period of decline, due to the empire's slow technical and economic development in the first half of the 19th century, it had a revival in the latter part of the century during the reign of Emperor Nicholas II, but most of its Pacific Fleet along with the Baltic Fleet, sent to the Far East and was destroyed in the humiliating Russo-Japanese War of 1904. The navy had mixed experiences during the First World War, with the Germans gaining the upper hand in the Baltic Sea, while the Russians took control of the Black Sea; the Russian Revolution marked the end of the Imperial Navy. The surviving ships were taken over by the Soviet Navy when it was established in 1918 after the Revolution. Under Tsar Mikhail I, the first three-masted ship built within Russia was finished in 1636. Danish shipbuilders from Holstein built it in Balakhna according to contemporary European design; the ship was christened Frederick. During the Russo-Swedish War, 1656-1658, Russian forces seized the Swedish fortresses of Dünaburg and Kokenhusen on the Western Dvina.

They renamed the former as the latter as Tsarevich-Dmitriyev. A boyar named Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin founded a shipyard at Tsarevich-Dmitriev fortress and began constructing vessels to sail in the Baltic Sea. In 1661, Russia lost this and other captured territories by the Peace of Cardis. Russia agreed to surrender to Sweden all captured territories, it ordered all vessels constructed at Tsarevich-Dmitriev to be destroyed. Boyar Ordin-Nashchokin turned his attention to the Volga Caspian Sea. With the Tsar's approval, the boyar brought Dutch shipbuilding experts to the town of Dedinovo near the confluence of the Oka and Volga rivers. Shipbuilding commenced in the winter of 1667. Within two years, four vessels had been completed: one 22-gun galley, christened Орёл, three smaller ships. Орёл was Russia's first own European-designed sailing ship. It was captured in Astrakhan by rebellious Cossacks led by Stepan Razin; the Cossacks abandoned it, half-submerged, in an estuary of the Volga. During much of the 17th century, independent Russian merchants and Cossacks, using koch boats, sailed across the White Sea, exploring the rivers Lena and Indigirka, founding settlements in the region of the upper Amur.

The most celebrated Russian explorer was Semyon Dezhnev who, in 1648, sailed along the entire northern expanse of present-day Russia by way of the Arctic Ocean. Rounding the Chukotsk Peninsula, Dezhnev passed through the Bering Sea and sailed into the Pacific Ocean. Peter the Great established the modern Russian Navy. During the Second Azov campaign of 1696 against Turkey, the Russians for the first time used 2 warships, 4 fireships, 23 galleys and 1300 strugs, built on the Voronezh River. After the occupation of the Azov fortress, the Boyar Duma looked into Peter's report of this military campaign, it passed a decree on October 1696 to commence construction of a navy. This date is considered the official founding of the Imperial Russian Navy. During the Great Northern War of 1700-1721, the Russians built the Baltic Fleet; the construction of the oared fleet took place in 1702-1704 at several shipyards. In order to defend the conquered coastline and attack enemy's maritime communications in the Baltic Sea, the Russians created a sailing fleet from ships built in Russia and others imported from abroad.

From 1703-1723, the main naval base of the Baltic Fleet was located in Saint Petersburg and in Kronstadt. Bases were created in Reval and in Vyborg after it was ceded by Sweden after Russo-Swedish War. Vladimirsky Prikaz was the first organization in charge of shipbuilding. On, these functions were transferred to the Admiralteyskiy Prikaz. In 1745 the Russian Navy had 130 sailing vessels, including 36 ships of the line, 9 frigates, 3 shnyavas, 5 bombardier ships, 77 auxiliary vessels; the oared fleet consisted of 396 vessels, including 253 galleys and semi-galleys and 143 brigantines. The ships were being constructed at 24 shipyards, including the ones in Voronezh, Pereyaslavl, Olonets and Astrakhan

Dança das Cabeças

Dança das Cabeças is an album by Brazilian composer and pianist Egberto Gismonti recorded in 1976 and released on the ECM label. The album was Gismonti's first for the European label, establishing the beginnings of a long and productive association; the Allmusic review by Álvaro Neder awarded the album 4 stars, stating, "a landmark of the careers of Gismonti and percussionist Naná Vasconcelos, his only accompanist here. Recorded in only three days, the album's concept is based on the history shared by both musicians, according to Gismonti: two boys wandering through a dense, humid forest, full of insects and animals, keeping a 180-feet distance from each other; the album received several international awards, in England, U. S. Germany, Brazil, it changed both artists' lives: Naná became an undisputed international artist, touring worldwide. The music is pure and sensitive and sophisticated, with a broad dynamic range going from haunting, mysterious melodies to full-impact, energetic percussive sounds reminiscent of Brazilian Indians' batuque."

All compositions by Egberto Gismonti except as indicatedPart I – 25:21 "Quarto Mundo No. 1" "Dança das Cabeças" "Águas Luminosas" "Celebração de Núpcias" "Porta Encantada" "Quarto Mundo No. 2" Part II – 24:30 "Tango" "Bambuzal" "Fé Cega, Faca Amolada" "Dança Solitária"Recorded at Talent Studio in Oslo, Norway in November 1976 Egberto Gismonti - 8-string guitar, wood flutes, voice Naná Vasconcelos - percussion, corpo, voice

Alison Fuller

Alison Fuller is a British educational researcher and Professor of Vocational Education and Work at the Institute of Education of the University College London and, where she serves as Pro-Director for Research and Development. She is a leading educational researcher in the UK, with her research centering on work transitions, vocational education and training, workplace learning. Before joining University College London, Alison Fuller served as Director of Research and Head of the Lifelong Work-Related Learning Research Centre at the Southampton Education School of the University of Southampton, she joined the Institute of Education of the University College London in 2013. Alison Fuller's research focuses on work transitions, vocational education and training, workplace learning. A frequent academic collaborator of hers is Lorna Unwin. In the 1990s, Fuller and Unwin argued in favour of a reconceptualization of apprenticeships based on a reconciliation of learner-centred and transmission approaches to pedagogy, challenging the perceived superiority of a formal education taking place only in educational institutions.

Face to wide variation in UK apprentices' experiences with similar programmes and Unwin co-operated with a range of enterprises to perform case study research on their apprenticeships. As a result, they developed the concept of expansive-restrictive continuum to characterize the differences in apprenticeship and highlight how apprenticeships' quality is mediated through participation, personal development and institutional arrangements, with important lessons for the UK's Modern Apprenticeship programme and the integration of organizational and personal development. Arguing that the Modern Apprenticeship programme was being undermined by a lack of employer demand and commitment and resulted in poor outcomes and Unwin have moreover been critical of public plans to expand the programme as a means of social inclusion. In research with Unwin and Heather Hodkinson, Karen Evans, Natansha Kersh and Peter Senker, Fuller highlights the significance of workers' biographies for workplace learning, arguing that the latter is framed by workers' prior knowledge and skills, workers' habitus, workers' individual dispositions, the existence of a workplace community as a locus of identity.

By contrast, the concept of legitimate peripheral participation, as developed by Lave and Wenger, is inadequate to conceptualize workplace learning in modern workplaces due to its outdated portrayal of workplaces in advanced industrial societies and of the institutional environments in which people work, which influence the opportunities and barriers employees encounter with regard to workplace learning. Together with Unwin, Alan Felstead, David Ashton, Peter Butler and Tracey Lee, Fuller makes the case for a conceptualization of learning as a form of participation, wherein individual performance at work can be enhanced by social relationships and mutual support, a perspective ignored by the prevailing metaphor of "learning as acquisition". Fuller and Unwin have challenged the picture of a linear trajectory for apprenticeships wherein older employees mould novices into experts, where expertise is equated with experience. Fuller, A. Unwin, L.. Contemporary Apprenticeship: International Perspectives on an Evolving Model of Learning.

London: Routledge. Rainbird, H. Fuller, A. Munro, A.. Workplace Learning in Context. London: Psychology Press. Fuller, A. Felstead, A. Unwin, L. Jewson, N.. Improving Working as Learning. London: Routledge. Alison Fuller's profile in UCL's Institutional Research Information Service Alison Fuller's profile on Google Scholar