The Imperial State Crown is one of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and symbolises the sovereignty of the monarch. It has existed in various forms since the 15th century; the current version was made in 1937 and is worn by the monarch after a coronation and used at the State Openings of Parliament. The crown is adorned with 2,901 precious stones, including the Cullinan II diamond, St Edward's Sapphire, the Stuart Sapphire, the Black Prince's Ruby. St Edward's Crown, used to crown English monarchs, was considered to be a holy relic, kept in the saint's shrine at Westminster Abbey and therefore not worn by monarchs at any other time. Instead, a "great crown" with crosses and fleurs-de-lis, but without arches, was a king's usual headgear at state occasions until the time of Henry V, depicted wearing an imperial crown of state with gold arches. Arches were a symbol of sovereignty, by this point in history, the king of England was being celebrated as rex in regno suo est imperator – an emperor of his own domain – owing obedience to no one but God, unlike some continental rulers, who owed fealty to more powerful kings or the Holy Roman Emperor.
Henry VII or his son and successor Henry VIII may have commissioned a more elaborate version of the state crown, first described in detail in an inventory of royal jewels in 1521, again in 1532, 1550, 1574 and 1597, was included in a painting by Daniel Mytens of Charles I in 1631. The Tudor Crown had more pearls and jewels than its medieval predecessor, the centre petals of each of the fleurs-de-lis had images of Christ, the Virgin Mary and St George; the crown weighed 3.3 kg and was set with 168 pearls, 58 rubies, 28 diamonds, 19 sapphires and 2 emeralds. Following the abolition of the monarchy and the execution of Charles I in 1649, the Tudor Crown was broken up by Oliver Cromwell during the Interregnum, its valuable components were sold for £1,100. Upon the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, a new state crown was made for Charles II by Sir Robert Vyner. About 10 versions of the crown have existed since the restoration; the one made for Queen Victoria in 1838 is the basis for today's crown.
Made by Rundell and Bridge in 1838 using old and new jewels, it had a crimson velvet cap with ermine border and a lining of white silk. It weighed 39.25 troy ounces and was decorated with 1,363 brilliant-cut, 1,273 rose-cut and 147 table-cut diamonds, 277 pearls, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds, 4 rubies, the Black Prince's Ruby. At the State Opening of Parliament in 1845, the Duke of Argyll was carrying the crown before Queen Victoria when it fell off the cushion and broke. Victoria wrote in her diary, "it was all crushed and squashed like a pudding that had sat down"; the gems in the crown were remounted for the coronation of George VI in 1937 by Co.. The crown was adjusted for Queen Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953, with the head size reduced and the arches lowered by 25 mm to give it a more feminine appearance; the Imperial State Crown is 31.5 cm tall and weighs 1.06 kg, has four fleurs-de-lis and four crosses pattée, supporting two arches topped by a monde and cross pattée. Its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine.
The frame is made of gold and platinum, decorated with 2,868 diamonds, 273 pearls, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds, 5 rubies. Notable stones are St Edward's Sapphire on the top cross, reputedly taken from the ring of Edward the Confessor when he was re-interred at Westminster Abbey in 1163, the Black Prince's Ruby on the front cross. In 1909, the 104-carat Stuart Sapphire, set in the front of the crown, was moved to the back and replaced by the 317-carat Cullinan II. Below the monde hang four pearls, three of which are said to have belonged to Queen Elizabeth I, but the association is certainly erroneous; the crown is worn by the monarch on leaving Westminster Abbey at the end of her coronation. It is also worn at State Openings of Parliament, although Elizabeth II wore a hat in 1974 and 2017 after snap general elections, in 2019 she wore the State Diadem, while the Imperial State Crown was carried beside her, it is taken to the Palace of Westminster under armed guard in its own carriage and placed in the Robing Room, where the Queen dons her robes and puts on the crown before giving her speech to Parliament.
If a State Opening occurs before a coronation, the crown is placed on a cushion beside the monarch. In 1689, one week after being proclaimed king, William III wore his crown in Parliament to pass the Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689; when not in use, the Imperial State Crown is on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. Imperial Crown of India Kenneth J. Mears; the Crown Jewels. Historic Royal Palaces. ASIN B000HHY1ZQ. Dale Hoak. Tudor Political Culture. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52014-0. "The Imperial State Crown". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 31701. "Frame of Queen Victoria's Imperial State Crown". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 75002. The Crown Jewels at the Royal Family website
Char Dham Expressway National Highway, is a proposed two-lane express National Highway with a minimum width of 10 metres in the state of Uttarakhand. The proposed highway will complement the under development Char Dham Railway by connecting the four holy places in Uttarakhand states includes Badrinath, Champawat, Pithoragarh and Yamunotri The project includes 900 km national highways will connect whole of Uttarakhand state; the total cost of INR ₹12000 crores and the foundation stone of the project was laid by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi on 27 December 2016 at Parade Ground in Dehradun. The highway will be called Char Dham Mahamarg and the highway construction project will be called as Char Dham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojana and is made to improve the connectivity to the Chota Char Dham centered in the Himalayas. Road will include several long tunnels to eliminate accident and slide prone areas. Indian Railway and National Highways Authority of India have been directed, by the Chief Secretary of India, to ensure that rail and road highway routes are integrated on this circuit.
Originating from Rishikesh, Char Dham highway network will have four distinct routes,From west to east and south to north: Rishikesh–Yamunotri Rishikesh Dharasu, NH 94, 144 km from Rishikesh Yamunotri, NH 94, 95 km from Dharasu. State buses go up to Hanuman Chatti, taxis go all the way to Yamunotri, lodging is available at dharamshalas and ashrams at Yamunotri. Rishikesh–Gangotri; this will take the railway and Char Dham road highway at Gangotri close to the large disputed India-China border area of Nelang Valley, in India's operational control. Rishikesh Dharasu, NH 94, 144 km from Rishikesh Gangotri, NH 108, 124 km from Dharasu. Road transport goes up to Gangotri, but the actual source of Ganga is at Gomukh glacier, another 18+ km trail and requires a minimum of two days. Rishikesh–Kedarnath Rishikesh Rudraprayag, NH 58, 140 km from Rishikesh Gaurikund, NH 109, 76 km from Rudraprayag, Road transport goes up to Gaurikund. Rishikesh-Badrinath; this will take the railway and Char Dham road highway at Badrinath closer to the disputed valley on India-China border area of Barahoti, in India's operational control.
Rishikesh Rudraprayag, NH 58, 140 km from Rishikesh Joshimath Mana, NH 58, 140 km from Rudraprayag, motorable all the way to Badrinath, Tapt Kund ‘hot springs’ is just before the Badrinath Temple. The project will have bypasses, viaducts, pit stops, parking and helicopter emergency response services, etc. along the way. Dec 2016: Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone on December 2016. Nov 2018: Work going on at fast pace. 87% land acquired, out of 53 approved sub-projects for this project, work ongoing on 28 of them, tendering done for another 7 sub-projects. Char Dham Railway Route map Route map with Uttarakhand districts Current functional road network before upgradation and realignment
Jene Vickrey is a Republican member of the Kansas House of Representatives, representing the 6th district. He has been serving since 1993, is House Majority Leader. Before becoming House Majority Leader, he was speaker pro tempore. Vickrey has served in the American Legion Exchange Council, National Federation of Independent Businesses and Springhill Chamber of Commerce, he was a charter member of the Louisberg Rotary Club. The American Conservative Union gave him a lifetime rating of 83%. During the 2015 Legislative Session, Vickrey served on the following Committees: Calendar and Printing Interstate Cooperation Legislative Budget Legislative Coordinating Council During the 2013-2014 Legislative Sessions, Vickrey served on the following committees: Calendar and Printing Interstate Cooperation Legislative Budget Legislative Coordinating Council During the 2011-2012 Legislative Sessions, Vickrey served on the following committees: Calendar and Printing Interstate Cooperation Joint Legislative Coordinating Council Legislative Budget During the 2009-2010 Legislative Sessions, Vickrey served on the following committees: Transportation Education Government Efficiency and Fiscal Oversight Joint Legislative Coordinating Council Vickrey won re-election in 2012, running unopposed in both the August 7 Republican primary and in the general election on November 6, 2012.
Vickrey won re-election to House District 6 in 2010 with no opposition. He was unopposed in the Republican primary; the general election was on November 2, 2010. On November 4, 2008, Vickrey was re-elected to House District 6 with no opposition, he raised $26,849 for his campaign. The top 5 donors to Vickrey's 2008 campaign: 1. Kansas Contractors Assoc $1,000 2. Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway $500 3. Nolan, RC $500 4. Kansas Medical Society $500 5. Wal-Mart $500 Official website Kansas Legislature - Jene Vickrey Project Vote Smart profile Kansas Votes profile Follow the Money campaign contributions: 1996,1998,2000,2002, 2004, 2006, 2008