The Imperial Sword is one of the four most important parts of the Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire. During a coronation, it was given to the emperor along with the Imperial Crown, Imperial Sceptre, the Imperial Orb. All four parts of the Imperial Regalia are displayed in the Imperial Treasury at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria; the Imperial Sword was made for Emperor Otto IV in the twelfth century for his coronation as King of the Romans in 1198. Its predecessor, the sword of Otto III, is preserved, in the Essen Abbey treasury; the first known explicit mention of the sword dates to 1315, in a letter of a lady-in-waiting of Elisabeth of Aragon, wife to Frederick III. It may be referenced in an inventory of 1246, which mentions zwey swert mit zweyn scheiden, gezieret mit edelem gesteyne; the first pictorial representations of the sword date to the fifteenth century, but the first detailed depiction only to the seventeenth century. The Imperial Sword has an overall length of 110 cm, with the length of the blade being 95.3 cm.
The sword originated during the high medieval period, but was refitted and decorated several times during the late medieval and early modern periods—e.g. The addition of the silver wire wrapping the hilt; the crossguard on one side bears the Middle Latin inscription CHRISTVS: VINCIT: CHRISTVS: REIGNAT: CHRISTVS: INPERAT. On the reverse side, the shorter variant CHRISTVS: VINCIT: CHRISTVS: REINAT. Schulze-Dörrlamm interprets the theological intention of this inscription as referring to Christ the Victor, Christ the King, Christ the Emperor—an invocation of Christ as legitimation for secular power, the translatio imperii to the Holy Roman Empire; the pommel is of the "mushroom" or "tea-cosy" shape typical of the high medieval period. The pommel is engraved with the arms of Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, who reigned from 1209 to 1215; the lower edge of the pommel is inscribed with BENEDICTVS · DOS DES QVI DOCET MANV+ viz. This is an abbreviated form of Psalm 144:1, Benedictus Dominus Deus meus, qui docet manus meas ad prælium, et digitos meos ad bellum.
The scabbard of the sword is adorned with 14 gold plates engraved with depictions of monarchs. These pictures date to the eleventh century, are thus about a century older than the sword itself; the figures have been identified as depicting the consecutive German monarchs from Charlemagne to Henry III, crowned in 1046. Citations Bibliography Kunsthistorisches Museum
For the April 1945 invasion of Okinawa, the Allies assembled the most powerful naval force in history. Since the few remaining capital ships of the Imperial Japanese Combined Fleet had been sunk or otherwise put out of action at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the Allies were unopposed in terms of surface vessels. Since the Japanese air arm had been decimated by this point in the war, the lack of trained and experienced pilots led them to deploy the kamikaze extensively in the waters off Okinawa; the roles of Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas and Commander in Chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet, were both exercised by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz from his headquarters at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Since the "Big Blue Fleet" was at this time under the command of Admiral Raymond Spruance aboard his flagship USS Indianapolis, the force was designated Fifth Fleet.. The ships and troops of Operation Iceberg were under direct operational command of Rear Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner aboard amphibious command ship Eldorado.
US Navy combat ships: 11 fleet carriers, 6 light carriers, 22 escort carriers, 8 fast battleships, 10 old battleships, 2 large cruisers, 12 heavy cruisers, 13 light cruisers, 4 anti-aircraft light cruisers, 132 destroyers, 45 destroyer escorts Amphibious assault vessels: 84 attack transports, 29 attack cargo ships, LCIs, LSMs, LSTs, LSVs, etc. Auxiliaries: 52 submarine chasers, 23 fast minesweepers, 69 minesweepers, 11 minelayers, 49 oilers, etc. Royal Navy combat ships: 5 fleet carriers, 2 battleships, 7 light cruisers, 14 destroyers Losses: The smaller ships were least able to withstand damage from kamikaze attacks. 12 to kamikaze: Twiggs, Mannert L. Abele, William D. Porter, Bush, Emmons, Canada Victory, Logan Victory, Hobbs Victory 2 to mines: Halligan, Skylark 1 to collision: Thornton United States Pacific Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz at Pearl Harbor US Fifth Fleet augmented with RN forces Admiral Raymond A. Spruance in heavy cruiser Indianapolis Vice Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner in amphibious command ship Eldorado TG 51.1 Western Islands Attack Group Rear Admiral I.
N. Kiland in amphibious command ship Mount McKinley Embarking 77th Infantry Division and one Marine BLT Transport Group "Fox” Transport Division 49 4 attack transports: Chilton, LaGrange, Tazewell, St. Mary's 2 attack cargos: Oberon, Torrance Transport Division 50 4 attack transports: Henrico, Natrona, Drew 1 attack cargo: Tate 1 evacuation transport: Rixey Transport Division 51 5 attack transports: Goodhue, Telfair, Montrose 2 attack cargos: Wyandot, Suffolk Reconnaissance section 2 destroyer transports: Scribner, Kinzer Western Islands Tractor Flotilla: 18 LSTs Western Islands Reserve Tractor Group: 10 LSTs Western Islands LSM Group: 11 LSMs Western Islands Control Unit: 7 submarine chasers: Western Islands Support Craft Flotilla Mortar support divisions 6, 7, 8 RCM and Rocket Division 3 Gunboat Support Divisions 1, 3, 4, 5 LSM Group Western Islands Hydrographic Survey Group: 4 submarine chasers Western Island Service & Salvage Unit 1 salvage vessel: Clamp 1 landing craft repair ship: Egeria 2 fleet tugs: Yuma, Tekesta 2 LCIs 1 LCTScreen: Captain Frederick Moosbrugger in amphibious command ship Biscayne 8 destroyers 8 Fletcher class: Picking, Wickes, William D. Porter, Kimberly, Charles J. Badger 6 destroyer escorts 3 John C. Butler class: Richard W. Suesens, Oberrender 3 Cannon class: Riddle, Stern 3 destroyer transports: Humphreys, Dickerson TG 51.2 Demonstration Group "Charlie" Rear Admiral Jerauld Wright Embarking Demonstration Landing Force, Major General Thomas E. Watson, USMC Transport Squadron 15 5 attack transports: Bayfield, Hendry, Berrien 3 attack cargos: Shoshone, Southampton 1 evacuation transport: Pinkney Rear Admiral William H.
P. Blandy in amphibious command ship Estes Rear Admiral Calvin T. Durgin Rear Admiral Clifton Sprague 7 escort carriers Makin Island VC-84 16 FM-2 Wildcat fighters, 11 TBM Avenger torpedo bombers Fanshaw Bay VOC-2 24 FM-2 Wildcat fighters, 6 TBM Avenger torpedo bombers Lunga Point VC-85 18 FM-2 Wildcat fighters, 12 TBM Avenger torpedo bombers Sangamon Air Group 33 24 F6F Hellcat fighters, 6 TBM Avenger torpedo bombers Natoma Bay VC-81 20 FM-2 Wildcat fighters, 12 TBM Avenger torpedo bombers Savo Island VC-91 20 FM-2 Wildcat fighters, 15 TBM Avenger torpedo bombers Anzio VC-13 12 FM-2 Wildcat fighters, 12 TBM Avenger torpedo bombers Screen 6 destroyers 1 Allen M. Sumner class: Ingraham 3 Fletcher class: Boyd, Hart 2 Bagley class: Bagley, Patterson 11 destroyer escorts 9 John C. Butler class: Lawrence C. Taylor, Melvin R. Nawman, Oliver Mitchell
Sylvia Garcia, more known as Jena Lee, is a French singer, composer. Born in Chile, Sylvia Elva Garcia was adopted by a French family at the age of nine months, she grew up in Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. In 2007, Jena Lee met Sulee B Wax, interested in her work; when the fourth season of Popstars started, he asked Jena to try writing the instrumentals. Jena Lee wrote six songs of the thirteen that comprise Sheryfa Luna's album, including the song "Somewhere". Following the composition of these songs, she received other requests, such as from Mathieu Edward with the title "Like before" as well as for a composition for the musical theater show Cléopâtre. In 2008, Lee won the Urban Music Nation contest organized by radio operator Skyrock, her first single, "J'aimerais tellement", was released in April 2009 along with a music video. It was at the top of the French singles charts for a total of eleven weeks and had most downloads in November 2009. Lee's first album, Vous remercier, was recorded with Bustafunk.
It was released on 2 November 2009 on the Internet and to stores on 9 November 2009 on the label Mercury Records, a division of the group Universal Music French. In 2010, Jena Lee released the follow up to Vous remercier, which contains the singles "US Boy", "Éternise-moi", the duet with French group Eskemo, "Mon ange". 1 Digital downloads Official website