Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway was a major British railway company before the 1923 Grouping. It was incorporated in 1847 from an amalgamation of several existing railways, it was the third-largest railway system based in Northern England. The intensity of its service was reflected in the 1,650 locomotives it owned – it was by far the most densely trafficked system in the British Isles with more locomotives per mile than any other company – and that one third of its 738 signal boxes controlled junctions averaging one every 3.5 miles. No two adjacent stations were more than 5.5 miles apart and its 1,904 passenger services occupied 57 pages in Bradshaw, a number exceeded only by the Great Western Railway, the London and North Western Railway, the Midland Railway. It was the first mainline railway to introduce electrification of some of its lines, it ran steamboat services across the Irish Sea and North Sea, being a bigger shipowner than any other British railway company, it amalgamated with the London and North Western Railway on 1 January 1922.
One year the merged company became the largest constituent of the London and Scottish Railway. The L&YR was incorporated in 1847, being an amalgamation of several important lines, the chief of, the Manchester and Leeds Railway; the following companies, in order, were amalgamated into the L&YR. The dates shown are, in most cases, the Acts of Parliament authorising the incorporation and amalgamation of each company. In a few instances the effective date is used. Manchester and Leeds Railway, 4 July 1836 – 9 July 1847 Manchester and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway, 23 August 1831 – 18 July 1846 Huddersfield and Sheffield Junction Railway, 30 June 1845 – 27 July 1846, now the Penistone Line. Liverpool and Bury Railway, 31 July 1845 – 27 July 1846 Preston and Wyre Railway and Dock Company, 1 July 1839 – 3 August 1846 Preston and Wyre Railway and Harbour Company, 3 July 1835 – 1 July 1839 West Riding Union Railway, 18 August 1846 – 17 November 1846 West Yorkshire Railway, 1845 – 18 August 1846 Leeds and West Riding Junction Railway,?
– 18 August 1846 Ashton and Liverpool Junction Railway, 19 July 1844 – 9 July 1847 Wakefield and Goole Railway, 31 July 1845 – 9 July 1847 Manchester and Southport Railway, 22 July 1847 – 3 July 1854 Liverpool and Southport Railway, 2 July 1847 – 14 June 1855 Blackburn Railway, 24 July 1851 – 12 July 1858 Bolton, Blackburn and West Yorkshire Railway, 9 July 1847 – 24 July 1851 Blackburn and Bolton Railway, 30 June 1845 – 9 July 1847 Blackburn and North Western Junction Railway, 27 July 1846 – 9 July 1847 Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield and Goole Railway, 7 August 1846 – 2 August 1858 East Lancashire Railway, 21 July 1845 – 13 May 1859 Manchester and Rossendale Railway, 4 July 1844 – 21 July 1845 Blackburn, Burnley and Colne Extension Railway, 30 June 1845 – 21 July 1845 Blackburn and Preston Railway, 6 June 1844 – 3 August 1846 Liverpool and Preston Railway, 18 August 1846 – October 1846 Fleetwood and West Riding Junction Railway, 27 July 1846 – 17 June 1866 Preston and Longridge Railway, 14 July 1836 – 23 June 1856 Blackpool and Lytham Railway, 17 May 1861 – 29 June 1871 Lancashire Union Railway, 25 July 1864 – 16 July 1883 North Union Railway, 22 May 1834 – 26 July 1889 Wigan Branch Railway, 29 May 1830 – 22 May 1834 Preston and Wigan Railway, 22 April 1831 – 22 May 1834 Bolton and Preston Railway, 15 June 1837 – 10 May 1844 Bury and Tottington District Railway, 2 August 1877 – 24 July 1888 West Lancashire Railway, 14 August 1871 – 15 July 1897 Liverpool and Preston Junction Railway, 7 August 1884 – 15 July 1897 The system consisted of many branches and alternative routes, so that it is not easy to determine the location of its main line.
For working purposes the railway was split into three divisions: Western Division: Manchester to Blackpool and Fleetwood. It included the connection to the LNWR at Stockport for through traffic to London. Eastern Division: Todmorden to Halifax, Leeds, Wakefield, Normanton and Doncaster. Whereas there were various lines between the Central and Western Divisions there was only one route between the Eastern and Central Divisions; this line cut through the Pennines between Lancashire and Yorkshire using a number of long tunnels, the longest of, Summit Tunnel near Rochdale. There were six other tunnels each more than 1,000 yards long. Victoria railway station was one of the largest railway stations in the country at the time, was the first of four stations to be named Victoria, pre-dating those in London and Nottingham, it had 17 platforms with a total length of 9,332 feet. After the grouping, a structural change led No. 11 platform to run through and join with No. 3 platform in the adjacent Manchester Exchange railway station, at 2,238 feet between ramps becoming the longest railway platform in Britain.
The station capacity has been reduced to two platforms for Metrolink trams, two bay platforms, four through platforms under the Manchester Evening News Arena, which now replaces a significant area once occupied by the station. The main facade and station building of
Ince railway station
Ince railway station serves the Ince area of Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Greater Manchester. The station is on the Manchester-Southport Line 17¼ miles north west of Manchester Victoria; until November 1964, Ince was served by a station at Lower Ince on the line from Wigan Central to Glazebrook. Ince suffered in the 1970s from much house clearance and landscaping; this has resulted in low passenger usage for the station which served an area, a bustling independent town. Ince is not a commuter dormitory suburb and now the station is deserted at peak times. Usage figures increased by around 10% in 2006/07 and by greater amounts albeit from a low base. There are three seats, with a new shelter. There is a newly installed LED next train indicator sign and a payphone. A series of improvement works during June and July 2018 to the station added an array of CCTV cameras and a new Card-Only ticket machine; the station is unstaffed and customers must obtain tickets from the ticket machine on the platform.
Those wishing to pay for their ticket with cash must use the ticket machine to obtain a'Promise to Pay' and pay the conductor on the train. The station is served by an hourly service in each direction to Manchester Victoria via Atherton and to Kirkby respectively. In the evenings, a few Southport to Manchester trains call here, as there are no trains to/from Kirkby after 19:30. There is Manchester Victoria in the current timetable. Train times and station information for Ince railway station from National Rail Disused-stations.org
Wigan is a town in Greater Manchester, England, on the River Douglas, 10 miles south-west of Bolton, 12 miles north of Warrington and 17 miles west-northwest of Manchester. Wigan is the largest settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan and is its administrative centre; the town has a population of 103,608, whilst the wider borough has a population of 318,100. In Lancashire, Wigan during classical antiquity was in the territory of the Brigantes, an ancient Celtic tribe that ruled much of what is now northern England; the Brigantes were subjugated in the Roman conquest of Britain during the 1st century, it is asserted that the Roman settlement of Coccium was established where Wigan lies. Wigan is believed to have been incorporated as a borough in 1246 following the issue of a charter by King Henry III of England. At the end of the Middle Ages, it was one of four boroughs in Lancashire established by Royal charter. During the Industrial Revolution Wigan experienced dramatic economic expansion and a rapid rise in population.
Although porcelain manufacture and clock making had been major industries, Wigan became known as a major mill town and coal mining district. A coal mine was recorded in 1450 and at its peak, there were 1,000 pit shafts within 5 miles of the town centre. Mining was so extensive that a town councillor remarked that "a coal mine in the backyard was not uncommon in Wigan". Coal mining ceased during the latter part of the 20th century. Wigan Pier, a wharf on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, was made famous by the writer George Orwell. In his book, The Road to Wigan Pier, Orwell highlighted the poor working and living conditions of the inhabitants during the 1930s. Following the decline of heavy industry in the region, Wigan Pier's warehouses and wharves became a local heritage centre and cultural quarter; the DW Stadium is home to Wigan Athletic Football Club and Wigan Warriors Rugby League Football Club. The name Wigan has been dated to at least the 7th century and originally meant a "village" or "settlement".
It has been suggested that the name is Celtic, named after a person called Wigan, a name corresponding to Gaulish Vicanus, Old Welsh Uuicant or Old Breton Uuicon. This may have been linked with Tre to give an original name of Trewigan. Derivation from Brittonic *wig,'dwelling', plus the nominal suffix -an has been suggested; the name of the town has been recorded variously as Wigan in 1199, Wygayn in 1240, Wygan in numerous historical documents. There is little evidence of prehistoric activity in the area pre-Iron Age; the first people believed to have settled in the Wigan area were the Brigantes, a Celtic tribe who controlled most of northern Britain. In the 1st century, the area was conquered by the Romans; the late 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary mentions a Roman settlement called Coccium 17 miles from the Roman fort at Manchester and 20 miles from the fort at Ribchester. Although the distances are out, it has been assumed that Coccium is Roman Wigan. Possible derivations of Coccium include from the Latin coccum, meaning "scarlet in colour, scarlet cloth", or from cocus, meaning "cook".
Over the years chance finds provided clear indications that a Roman settlement existed at Wigan, although its size and status remained unknown. In 2005 investigations ahead of the Grand Arcade development, in 2008 at the Joint Service Centre development, have proven that Wigan was a significant Roman site in the late first and second centuries AD; the excavated remains of ditches at Ship Yard off Millgate were consistent with use by the Roman military and formed part of the defences for a fort or a temporary camp. More remains were excavated to the south, in the area of McEwen's Yard, where foundations of a large and important building were discovered, together with many other Roman features; the building is 36 by 18 metres in size with a tiled roof. It contained around ten rooms including three with hypocausts, it had a colonnaded portico on the northern side, which formed the main entrance. The structure's ground-plan and the presence of the hypocausts show. A timber building excavated at the Joint Service Centre has been interpreted as a barrack block.
This suggests a Roman fort occupied the crest of the hill, taking advantage of the strategic position overlooking the River Douglas. The evidence gained from these excavations shows that Wigan was an important Roman settlement, was certainly the place referred to as Coccium in the Antonine Itinerary. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the area was under the control of the Northumbrians and the Mercians. In the early 10th century there was an influx of Scandinavians expelled from Ireland; this can be seen in place names such as Scholes—now a part of Wigan—which derives from the Scandinavian skali meaning "hut". Further evidence comes from some street names in Wigan. Although Wigan is not mentioned in the Domesday Book because it was included in the Neweton barony, it is thought that the mention of a church in the manor of Neweton is Wigan Parish Church; the rectors of the parish church were lords of the manor of Wigan, a sub-manor of Neweton, until the 19th century. Wigan was incorporated as a borough in 1246 following the issue of a charter by King Henry III to John Maunsell, the local church rector and lord of th
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Greater Manchester Police
Greater Manchester Police is the police force responsible for law enforcement within the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester in North West England. GMP is the fifth largest police service in the United Kingdom after the Metropolitan Police Service, Police Scotland, Police Service of Northern Ireland and West Midlands Police; as of September 2017, Greater Manchester Police employed. The GMP headquarters are at Central Park, on Northampton Road, in the Newton Heath area of Manchester. Greater Manchester Police was directly created from two amalgamated city police forces and Salford Police and parts of what were Lancashire Constabulary, Cheshire Constabulary and West Yorkshire Constabulary on 1st April 1974; the city forces were Manchester Borough Police which formed in the late 1830s and Salford Borough Police which began in 1844. Upon Manchester gaining city status in 1853, its police force changed its name to Manchester City Police to reflect its status. In 1926, Salford became a city, resulting in Salford Borough Police becoming Salford City Police.
These two city forces operated until 1968 when, as a result of compulsory amalgamation, as per the Police Act 1964, Salford City Police merged with Manchester City Police, resulting in the new force of Manchester and Salford Police. This new force lasted only 6 years, when in 1974 the Local Government Act 1972 created the Metropolitan County of Greater Manchester and with it, Greater Manchester Police. An increase of 284,241 acres in terms of policing area and 2,267,090 people over the abolished Manchester and Salford Police. Indirectly GMP can trace its heritage to a number of other borough forces, each with their own significant history, abolished in the late 1960s and, amalgamated into the county forces of Lancashire and Cheshire; these two county forces only policed these boroughs for around 6 years before Greater Manchester was created and GMP took over responsibility for providing police services. In the historic Lancashire county area these borough police forces were Bolton Borough Police, Oldham Borough Police, Rochdale Borough Police and Wigan Borough Police.
In the historic Cheshire county area this included Stockport Borough Police. The first Chief Constable of GMP was William James Richards. Richards had been the chief constable of the short lived Manchester and Salford Police and before that chief constable of Manchester City Police. Following his retirement on 30 June 1976, James Anderton became the new chief constable on 1 July 1976. James Anderton was a controversial figure during his 15 years in office due to his outspoken style of leadership and hardline views on crime and morality. In 1991 David Wilmot succeeded James Anderton. In 2002 Michael Todd was appointed to Chief Constable until his death, by suicide, in 2008. There was much press coverage of the death of the Chief Constable Michael J. Todd in March 2008. Todd was seen as a man of action and got more "bobbies on the beat", with himself doing so. GMP's Assistant Chief Constable became the Acting Chief Constable until the appointment of Peter Fahy head of Cheshire Police, as Chief Constable in September 2008.
Police Constable Ian Rodgers was the first GMP officer to be killed in the line of duty in 1975. His death occurred in a railway incident at Stockport. Since the formation of GMP 20 officers have been died in the line of duty. GMP assisted with the reconstruction of Manchester following the 1996 Manchester bombing, with Garry Shewan. In the 1990s, Manchester had gained the deriding tag of'Gunchester', in reference to the city's high gun crime rate at the time. Greater Manchester Police faced the problem of gun crime in Manchester in the deprived districts in south Manchester. Key gang leaders were jailed for life in 2009 and by 2011, the city had shaken off the tag. On 14 October 2010, Greater Manchester Police posted details of all calls made to them in a 24-hour period on Twitter; the service posted details of every incident reported to its officers in 24 hours to demonstrate how much of their time is spent on what the Chief Constable called "social work" instead of fighting crime. They repeated this exercise on 14 October 2014.
GMP have used social media as a helpful force rather than a hindrance. In the 2011 England riots, with criticism of the role social media such as Twitter and Facebook had in instigating the riots, GMP stated that support on social media had resulted in many responses from members of the public in trying to catch suspects. GMP naming and shamed any convicted individuals over the riots. From November 2012 to May 2017 the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner was Tony Lloyd; the police and crime commissioner was scrutinised by the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Panel, made up of elected councillors from the local authorities in the police area. Before November 2012 the Greater Manchester Police Authority was the police governance. However, under new plans for an elected Mayor of Greater Manchester announced by George Osborne in November 2014, the position of Police and Crime Commissioner was removed and its responsibilities subsumed into the mayoral office; the first Mayoral election took place in 2017, in which Andy Burnham was elected Mayor of Greater Manchester.
The area GMP polices is split into geographical divisions, with each Metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester being assigned one. As of 2016, the two divisions covering the City of Manchester were merged, form
North West Ambulance Service
The North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the ambulance service for North West England. It is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with Emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. NWAS was formed on 1 July 2006, it was created by the merge of 4 previous services as part of Health Minister Lord Warner's plans to combine ambulance services. Based in Bolton, the new Trust provides services to 7 million people in Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire and the North Western fringes of the High Peak district of Derbyshire in an area of some 5,500 square miles. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's charter, every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. NWAS provides emergency ambulance response via the 999 system, as well as operating the NHS 111 advice service for North West England, they operate non-emergency patient transport services, in 2013/2014 carried out 1.2 million such journeys.
Since 2016, the PTS in Cheshire and Wirral has instead been carried out by West Midlands Ambulance Service. NWAS utilise a mixed fleet of emergency ambulances based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter or Fiat Ducato, the former consisting of a demountable box body on a chassis, the latter a van conversion; the Trust uses Skoda Octavia estates as the main Rapid response car although since 2017 begun using BMW i3 electric cars and use Renault Masters for Intermediate, Urgent care and Patient Transport vehicles. In Central Manchester, some paramedics respond on specially converted bicycles; the Trust operates from 104 ambulance stations across the North West. The most northerly station is at Carlisle, the furthest south is at Crewe, it maintains three Emergency Operations Centres for the handling of 999 calls and dispatch of emergency ambulances. Parkway Anfield Preston In 2017, NWAS signed an agreement to purchase a new EOC and area office for £2.9m at Liverpool International Business Park next to Liverpool John Lennon Airport As of 2019, this building has been converted and services are being moved from the Anfield site.
Over recent years, the Trust has combined many of their older ambulance stations into purpose-built facilities shared with other emergency services, including Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue, Lancashire Fire and Rescue and Greater Manchester Police. NWAS was the first ambulance trust to be inspected by the Care Quality Commission, in August 2014; the Commission found the trust provided safe and effective services which were well-led and with a clear focus on quality but it was criticised for taking too many callers to hospital and for sending ambulances when other responses would have been more appropriate. The Trust was subsequently inspected in 2018 and was found to have improved with a rating of "Good" Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Healthcare in Greater Manchester North West Air Ambulance List of NHS trusts NWAS Website