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Inclined plane

An inclined plane known as a ramp, is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other, used as an aid for raising or lowering a load. The inclined plane is one of the six classical simple machines defined by Renaissance scientists. Inclined planes are used to move heavy loads over vertical obstacles. Moving an object up an inclined plane requires less force than lifting it straight up, at a cost of an increase in the distance moved; the mechanical advantage of an inclined plane, the factor by which the force is reduced, is equal to the ratio of the length of the sloped surface to the height it spans. Due to conservation of energy, the same amount of mechanical energy is required to lift a given object by a given vertical distance, disregarding losses from friction, but the inclined plane allows the same work to be done with a smaller force exerted over a greater distance; the angle of friction sometimes called the angle of repose, is the maximum angle at which a load can rest motionless on an inclined plane due to friction, without sliding down.

This angle is equal to the arctangent of the coefficient of static friction μs between the surfaces. Two other simple machines are considered to be derived from the inclined plane; the wedge can be considered two inclined planes connected at the base. The screw consists of a narrow inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder; the term may refer to a specific implementation. It pulled up by a cable system. Inclined planes are used in the form of loading ramps to load and unload goods on trucks and planes. Wheelchair ramps are used to allow people in wheelchairs to get over vertical obstacles without exceeding their strength. Escalators and slanted conveyor belts are forms of inclined plane. In a funicular or cable railway a railroad car is pulled up a steep inclined plane using cables. Inclined planes allow heavy fragile objects, including humans, to be safely lowered down a vertical distance by using the normal force of the plane to reduce the gravitational force. Aircraft evacuation slides allow people to and safely reach the ground from the height of a passenger airliner.

Other inclined planes are built into permanent structures. Roads for vehicles and railroads have inclined planes in the form of gradual slopes and causeways to allow vehicles to surmount vertical obstacles such as hills without losing traction on the road surface. Pedestrian paths and sidewalks have gentle ramps to limit their slope, to ensure that pedestrians can keep traction. Inclined planes are used as entertainment for people to slide down in a controlled way, in playground slides, water slides, ski slopes and skateboard parks. Inclined planes have been used by people since prehistoric times to move heavy objects; the sloping roads and causeways built by ancient civilizations such as the Romans are examples of early inclined planes that have survived, show that they understood the value of this device for moving things uphill. The heavy stones used in ancient stone structures such as Stonehenge are believed to have been moved and set in place using inclined planes made of earth, although it is hard to find evidence of such temporary building ramps.

The Egyptian pyramids were constructed using inclined planes, Siege ramps enabled ancient armies to surmount fortress walls. The ancient Greeks constructed a paved ramp 6 km long, the Diolkos, to drag ships overland across the Isthmus of Corinth; however the inclined plane was the last of the six classic simple machines to be recognised as a machine. This is because it is a passive, motionless device, because it is found in nature in the form of slopes and hills. Although they understood its use in lifting heavy objects, the ancient Greek philosophers who defined the other five simple machines did not include the inclined plane as a machine; this view persisted among a few scientists. The problem of calculating the force required to push a weight up an inclined plane was attempted by Greek philosophers Heron of Alexandria and Pappus of Alexandria, but they got it wrong, it wasn't until the Renaissance that the inclined plane was solved mathematically and classed with the other simple machines.

The first correct analysis of the inclined plane appeared in the work of enigmatic 13th century author Jordanus de Nemore, however his solution was not communicated to other philosophers of the time. Girolamo Cardano proposed the incorrect solution that the input force is proportional to the angle of the plane. At the end of the 16th century, three correct solutions were published within ten years, by Michael Varro, Simon Stevin, Galileo Galilee. Although it was not the first, the derivation of Flemish engineer Simon Stevin is the most well-known, because of its originality and use of a string of beads. In 1600, Italian scientist Galileo Galilei included the inclined plane in his analysis of simple machines in Le Meccaniche, showing its underlying similarity to the other machines as a force amplifier; the first elementary rules of sliding friction on an inclined plane were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci, but remai

South African Class 8F 4-8-0

The South African Railways Class 8F 4-8-0 of 1904 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope. In 1904, the Cape Government Railways placed its final batch of ten 8th Class 4-8-0 Mastodon type steam locomotives in service. In 1912, when they were assimilated into the South African Railways, they were renumbered and designated Class 8F; the first 8th Class locomotive of the Cape Government Railways was a 2-8-0 Consolidation type designed by H. M. Beatty, the CGR’s Chief Locomotive Superintendent from 1896 to 1910, it was to become the Class 8X on the South African Railways. While these first Schenectady- and ALCO-built 2-8-0 locomotives were being subjected to exhaustive testing on all types of traffic and under varying conditions, some trouble was experienced with the leading two-wheeled pony truck; when designs were prepared at Salt River for a order for more locomotives, the pony truck was replaced with a four-wheeled bogie. Orders for the last 8th Class locomotives for the CGR were placed with the North British Locomotive Company in 1903.

The ten locomotives were built and delivered in 1904, numbered in the range from 829 to 838 and allocated to the Western System of the CGR. These ten locomotives were the final batch of CGR 8th Class locomotives to be built with a 4-8-0 Mastodon type wheel arrangement, they were delivered with Type XF tenders with a coal capacity of 10 long tons, a water capacity of 3,000 imperial gallons and a maximum axle load of 11 long tons 3 hundredweight 2 quarters. When the Union of South Africa was established on 31 May 1910, the three Colonial government railways were united under a single administration to control and administer the railways and harbours of the Union. Though the South African Railways and Harbours came into existence in 1910, the actual classification and renumbering of all the rolling stock of the three constituent railways was only implemented with effect from 1 January 1912. In 1912, these ten locomotives were renumbered in the range from 1234 to 1243 and designated Class 8F; these locomotives, together with the rest of the CGR’s 8th Class 2-8-0 Consolidations and 4-8-0 Mastodons and the Classes 8-L1 to 8-L3 4-8-0 Mastodon locomotives from the Central South African Railways, were grouped into ten different sub-classes by the SAR.

The 4-8-0 locomotives were designated SAR Classes 8 and 8A to 8F and the 2-8-0 locomotives were designated Classes 8X to 8Z. During A. G. Watson’s term as Chief Mechanical Engineer of the SAR from 1929 to 1936, many of the Classes 8 to 8F locomotives were equipped with superheated boilers, larger bore cylinders and either inside or outside admission piston valves; the outside admission valve locomotives had their cylinder bore increased from 18 1⁄2 to 19 inches and retained their existing SAR classifications, while the inside admission valve locomotives had their cylinder bore increased to 20 inches and were reclassified by having a "W" suffix added to their existing SAR classifications. Of the Class 8F locomotives, numbers 1236, 1242 and 1243 were equipped with superheated boilers, 20 inches bore cylinders and inside admission piston valves, reclassified to Class 8FW. In SAR service, the 4-8-0 Class 8 family of locomotives worked on every system in the country and, in the 1920s, became the mainstay of motive power on many branchlines.

Their final days were spent in shunting service. They were all withdrawn from service by 1972. Class 8FW no. 1236 is plithed at De Aar. It is the sole surviving Class 8F in South Africa

Tom Price Senior High School

Tom Price Senior High School is a government comprehensive secondary school located in Tom Price, a regional centre 1,092 kilometres north east of Perth, Western Australia. Established in 1971, the school enrolled 312 students in 2018, from Year 8 to Year 12; the school is operated by the WA Department of Education. The school principal is Trevor Henderson. Established as a district high school in 1971 and enrolling students from Year 1 to Year 10 and with an enrolment of 700 students, the school became a senior high school in 1995. Enrolments at the school have been reasonably steady over the past few years with 242 students enrolled in 2007, 254 in 2008, 250 in 2009, 238 in 2010, 245 in 2011 and 246 in 2012. List of schools in rural Western Australia Education in Western Australia Official website

Automotive Tooling Systems v Wilkens

Automotive Tooling Systems Ltd v Wilkens & others was an important case in South African labour law, in which the Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa confirmed the principle that a restraint of trade would be considered unreasonable and contrary to public policy, thus unenforceable, if it does not protect some recognisable interest of the employer and seeks to exclude or eliminate competition. The court further pointed out that the dividing line between the use by an employee of his own skill and experience, which he cannot be restrained from using, the use of his employer's trade secrets or confidential information or other interest, which he may not disclose if bound by a restraint, is very difficult to define. What must be clear, according to the court, is that the interest is one that might properly be described as belonging to the employer rather than to the employee, in that sense "proprietary to the employer." In this particular case, the business of the appellant was in a specialised technological field relating to the design, manufacture and/or customisation of special-purpose machines and tooling.

The respondents had been employed as skilled toolmakers. They concluded a restraint of confidentiality clause with the appellant; the respondents subsequently took up employment with the third respondent. The respondents did the same work for the third respondent; the appellant claimed to have a proprietary interest in the know-how acquired by the respondents and sought to interdict them, relying on the restraint of trade clause. The respondents denied the proprietary interest claimed and contended that the relevant know-how acquired by the first and second respondents was neither confidential nor specific to the appellant's business but was available to artisans and technicians; as a result, it was argued that the knowledge formed part of the first and second respondents' stock of general knowledge and experience, with which they were entitled to earn their living in any other business. The SCA pointed out that the mere fact that former employees take up employment with a competitor does not in itself entitle the appellant to any relief if all they will be doing is to apply their skills and knowledge acquired whilst in the employ of the appellant.

The court dismissed the appeal on the basis that the appellant had failed to establish a proprietary interest that might legitimately be protected, concluding that the restraint was inimical to public policy and therefore unenforceable. Automotive Tooling Systems Ltd v Wilkens & others 2007 SA 271. David Crouch Marketing CC v Du Plessis JOL 23835

Tirupattur taluk

Tirupattur taluk is a taluk in Tirupattur district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The headquarters of the taluk is the town of Tirupattur; this fastest developing town is known as "SANDALWOOD CITY" known for its rich and pure Sandalwoods. On August 15th 2019, honourable Chief Minister of Tamilnadu, Edapaadi K. Palanisami announced Tirupattur as a new district of Tamilnadu. In the 2001 Indian census, the taluk of Tirupattur had a population of 50,455 with 23,656 males and 22,799 females. There were 973 women for every 1000 men; the taluk had a literacy rate of 66.07. The total number of households was 111,192. In the 2011 census Tirupattur taluk had a population of 67,396. Tirupattur is a town located in tirupattur District, one of the oldest towns in Tamil Nadu, it is located 40 km from Krishnagiri, 85 km from Hosur, 85 km from thiruvannamalai and 125 km from Bangalore. The town has small-scale industries and mills, it is an important commercial center from time immemorial. It remains so, it has Old Shiva, Vishnu Tanks built during the Hoysala Dynasty.

It is well connected by road and rail to other important cities of Tamil Nadu such as Thiruvannamalai, Salem and Vellore and to Bangalore in Karnataka. This town is famous in Islamic religious circles as many great saints "Awliyas" had made it their home town; some of them are buried at various places in the town, including Hazrath Syed Sha Mohammed alias Syed Khawja Meeran Hussaini Jaffari, Hazrath Syed ShaAmeenuddin Hussaini Chisty ur Kahdri. The name Tirupattur means a group of ten villages/small towns. There exists a village called Aathiyur in the southern fringes of the Town and Kodiyur in the northern fringes of the town, it is surrounded by several of these villages. Tirupattur's population and land area are good enough to have political representations in the state legislature of Tamil Nadu, part of Thiruvannamalai constituency for the central/federal legislature of India. Tirupattur Municipality Tirupattur Municipality was constituted as a third grade municipality in the year 1886; as per G.

O. No. 194, date: 10.02.1970, classified as Second Grade Municipality. At present from 1.4.1977 onwards as per G. O. No. 654, classified as first grade municipality. In the 2001 Indian census, Tirupathur had a population of 60,803. Males constituted 51% of the population and females 49%. Tirupathur had an average literacy rate of 73% higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 79%, female literacy was 67%. In 2001 in Tirupathur, 11% of the population was under 6 years of age. In the 2011 census, the city of Tirupathur had a population of 63,798. Males constituted 51% of the population and females 49%. Tirupathur had an average literacy rate of 78% higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 80%, female literacy was 76%. In 2011 in Tirupathur, 11% of the population was under 6 years of age, it is known as the "Sandalwood Town" due to the abundant availability of sandalwood trees in the surrounding hills. It is close to the 4th major hill station of Tamil Nadu, the Yelagiri hills, known as the common man's Ooty.

The town is at an average elevation of 388 m. This area is famous for sandalwood, it claims to be the second biggest depot in Asia. The main businesses is selling raw products; the strategic location of this town is such that the town acts as an "urban magnet" to radius of 20 to 25 km all-round. Nearly 200 villages are depending on this town for all their urban needs; the growth is dominated by Sandalwood. The Urban Municipal town spreads over an extent of this is a class-I town in Vellore District is based on population range floating population is increasing day by day. Tirupattur map The Tirupattur town has 56.059 km length of roads and the municipality is maintaining ‘B’ Grade Bus stand in the heart of the town. There is a century old municipal market having 413 shops which helps in promoting commercial and economic activities of the town; this town is known for recording coldest temperature in the Tamil Nadu plains during winter. The seasonal climate conditions are moderate and the weather is uniformly salubrious.

The town experiences cool winters. The town gets its majority of rainfall during the south west monsoon period. September and October are the wettest months with around 400 mm of rain being received in these two months; the town experiences frequent thunderstorms in late April and May, which gives necessary relief from the heat, along with the dip in night temperatures. The warmest nights are in May, when the town has an average minimum temperature of 23.4 °C. The coldest nights are in January, when the average minimum temperatures drop to 16.1 °C. May is the hottest month with an average maximum of 37.0 °C. The highest temperature recorded in the town is 46.3 °C on 7 May 1976. The lowest recorded temperature is 10.2 °C on 15 December 1974. The highest 24‑hour precipitation is 167.3mm received on 4 November 1966. The average annual rainfall being received in the town is 982 mm. Nature of Soil The major group of soils that are found in the town are red varieties; the red soil constitutes 90 percent while black soil only 10 percent.

Tirupattur is called as the "Sandal City", "Sandal Kingdom", Even

Edda Björgvinsdóttir

Guðbjörg Edda Björgvinsdóttir, better known as Edda Björgvinsdóttir, is an Icelandic actress, writer and motivational speaker. She is best known for playing the titular role of the 1986 comedy classic Stella í orlofi, for playing various characters in the 1986 sitcom Heilsubælið í Gervahverfi, as well as for her work in the annual comedy special Áramótaskaupið, for numerous other comedic roles in film, television and on stage. Edda was born in Reykjavík, Iceland in 1952; when she was about two years old her family moved to the countryside, where her father was the headmaster of a boarding school for troubled boys. She graduated from Menntaskólinn við Hamrahlíð in 1972, she studied Philosophy at the University of Iceland 1973 and Roentgen Technology at the Polytechnic School of Reykjavík 1974. She studied drama for one year at the United Drama School from 1974-1975 and furthered her studies at the Icelandic State Drama School and The Icelandic Academy of Arts in Reykjavík from which she graduated with distinction in 1978 with Bachelor of Arts degree in Performing Arts.

In 2013 Edda graduated with master degree in cultural management from Bifröst University. Shortly after graduation Edda made her debut at the National Theatre of Iceland in Reykjavík in Jökull Jakobssons's drama “The Shoemakers Son the Bakers Daughter” praised by critics and audiences alike as one of the most individual and versatile actress of her generation, she soon turned out to be suited for broad comedy and serious drama, a talent which has furnished her with a career of deserved diversity as one of the most sought after talent in the business. During her rather short spell as a star player in serious dramas at the beginning of her career on stage and television, as well as being a featured leading lady in several epic motion pictures, she addressed audiences during evening performances in the theatre with a variety of classical and contemporary parts, throwing in matenées of family and children shows, switching into her comedy gear after every evening performance, rushing to the nearest comedy club with her stand up routine.

The demand for her services as a comedienne increased during the first two years of her career turning her into a full time leading force on the comedy circuit in Iceland. Edda was married to comedian Gísli Rúnar Jónsson, they met in Drama school and got divorced in 2000. Although being divorced they are still best of friends, they had Róbert Ólíver Gíslason. Edda has two daughters from a previous relationships named Margrét Ýrr. In 2018, she was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of the Falcon; when the Raven Flies Heilsubælið í Gervahverfi Stella í orlofi Karlakórinn Hekla The Sacred Mound Dramarama Stella í framboði Under the Tree Edda Björgvinsdóttir on IMDb Official english website Official Icelandic website