Incompatibilism is the view that a deterministic universe is at odds with the notion that persons have a free will. This view is pursued in at least three ways: libertarians deny that the universe is deterministic, the hard determinists deny that any free will exists, pessimistic incompatibilists deny both that the universe is determined and that free will exists. Incompatibilism is contrasted with compatibilism. Metaphysical libertarianism argues that determinism is false; such dualism risks an infinite regress however. Libertarian Robert Kane presented an alternative model: Robert Kane is a leading incompatibilist philosopher in favour of free will. Kane seeks to hold persons morally responsible for decisions that involved indeterminism in their process. Critics maintain that Kane fails to overcome the greatest challenge to such an endeavor: "the argument from luck". Namely, if a critical moral choice is a matter of luck on what grounds can we hold a person responsible for their final action?

Moreover if we imagine that a person can make an act of will ahead of time, to make the moral action more probable in the upcoming critical moment, this act of'willing' was itself a matter of luck. Libertarianism in the philosophy of mind is unrelated to the like-named political philosophy, it suggests that we do have free will, that it is incompatible with determinism, that therefore the future is not determined. For example, at this moment, one could either cease. Under this assertion, being that one could do either, the fact of how the history of the world will continue to unfold is not determined one way or the other. One famous proponent of this view was Lucretius, who asserted that the free will arises out of the random, chaotic movements of atoms, called "clinamen". One major objection to this view is that science has shown that more and more of the physical world obeys deterministic laws, seems to suggest that our minds are just as much part of the physical world as anything else. If these assumptions are correct, incompatibilist libertarianism can only be maintained as the claim that free will is a supernatural phenomenon, which does not obey the laws of nature.

However, many libertarian view points now rely upon an indeterministic view of the physical universe, under the assumption that the idea of a deterministic, "clockwork" universe has become outdated since the advent of quantum mechanics. By assuming an indeterministic universe libertarian philosophical constructs can be proposed under the assumption of physicalism. There are libertarian view points based upon indeterminism and physicalism, related to naturalism. A major problem for naturalistic libertarianism is to explain how indeterminism can be compatible with rationality and with appropriate connections between an individual's beliefs, general character and actions. A variety of naturalistic libertarianism is promoted by Robert Kane, who emphasizes that if our character is formed indeterministically our actions can still flow from our character, yet still be incompatibilistically free. Alternatively, libertarian view points based upon indeterminism have been proposed without the assumption of naturalism.

At the time C. S. Lewis wrote Miracles, quantum mechanics was only in the initial stages of acceptance, but still Lewis stated the logical possibility that, if the physical world was proved to be indeterministic, this would provide an entry point into the traditionally viewed closed system, where a scientifically described physically probable/improbable event could be philosophically described as an action of a non-physical entity on physical reality. Lewis mentions this only in making clear that his thesis does not depend on it in any way. Others may use some form of Donald Davidson's anomalous monism to suggest that although the mind is in fact part of the physical world, it involves a different level of description of the same facts, so that although there are deterministic laws under the physical description, there are no such laws under the mental description, thus our actions are free and not determined; those who reject free will and accept determinism are variously known as "hard determinists", hard incompatibilists, free will skeptics, illusionists, or impossibilists.

They believe that any sense of the contrary is an illusion. Of course, hard determinists do not deny that one has desires, but say that these desires are causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. According to this philosophy, no wholly random, mysterious, or miraculous events occur. Determinists sometimes assert that it is stubborn to resist scientifically motivated determinism on purely intuitive grounds about one's own sense of freedom, they reason that the history of the development of science suggests that determinism is the logical method in which reality works. William James said that philosophers have an "antipathy to chance." Absolute chance, a possible implication

Hum Along and Dance

"Hum Along and Dance" is a soul song written for the Motown label by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong. Recorded by the Temptations, the song was covered by Motown acts Rare Earth and the Jackson 5; the song is an instrumental piece and a vehicle for scatting and improvisational vocals, since, as the chorus states, "ain't no words to this song/you just dance and hum along". All three versions of the song were produced by Whitfield; the original version of "Hum Along and Dance" was recorded by the Temptations in early 1970 as an album track for the Psychedelic Shack album. The track, one of the Temptations' many psychedelic soul recordings, features Eddie Kendricks, Melvin Franklin, Dennis Edwards taking turns in delivering the song's chorus and scatting over the instrumental track; the Funk Brothers were the instrumentalists for this version of "Hum Along and Dance", Whitfield uses a number of echo effects and stereo-panning effects on their tracks during the song. Towards the final few bars of the record, Otis Williams delivers a echoed chant: "Come on man/take a drag/don't be afraid/it ain't gonna hurt you", an overt reference to marijuana use.

In fact, on the Psychedelic Shack album, "Hum Along and Dance" leads directly into "Take a Stroll Through Your Mind", an eight-minute ode to marijuana use. The track was released as the B-side of their 1970 single "Ungena Za Ulimwengu". Rock band Rare Earth's version was released as an album track for their 1973 album Ma, their version features instrumentation from the various members of the band, with harder guitar chords, a prominent organ line. Lead singer Pete Rivera offers an excuse for the lack of lyrics and urges to the listener to "get it!". The Jackson 5 version of "Hum Along and Dance" appeared as the closing track for side A of their 1973 album G. I. T.: Get It Together. The lead vocals are handled by Jackie Jackson and Tito Jackson, with Michael Jackson and Marlon Jackson appearing towards the end. Although the Jackson brothers are heard yelling out "play it, Tito" and "play it, Jermaine", the actual instrumentalists on the track were Los Angeles studio players. Motown did not allow the Jacksons to play their own instruments or write and produce their own material, the lack of creative freedom would cause the group to leave for CBS Records within two years of making this recording.

This version of "Hum Along and Dance" is stylistically similar to the Rare Earth version, features nearly the same arrangement with more of an electric funk sound added to the mix. A bewildered Marlon Jackson is heard asking, upon hearing the song's chorus, "ain't no words? What you mean?" His band mate and brother Tito Jackson replies, as he has been doing throughout the song, by reiterating Gil Bridges' reasoning: "we ain't have time to write none". Jackie Jackson is heard answering as well telling Michael Jackson; this version was sampled by the Bomb Squad for Public Enemy's 1989 track "Prophets Of Rage". An alternate "uncut" longer version of the song appears as a bonus track on the 2004 twofer CD of "Joyful Jukebox Music/Boogie". Lead vocals by Eddie Kendricks, Melvin Franklin, Dennis Edwards, Otis Williams Background vocals by the Temptations: Dennis Edwards, Eddie Kendricks, Paul Williams, Melvin Franklin, Otis Williams Instrumentation by the Funk Brothers Lead and background vocals by the Jackson 5: Jackie Jackson, Tito Jackson, Jermaine Jackson, Marlon Jackson & Michael Jackson Instrumentation by various Los Angeles studio musicians Lead vocals by Pete Rivera Background vocals by Gil Bridges and Rod Richards Instrumentation by Rare Earth: Gil Bridges, Pete Rivera, Mike Urso, Ray Monette, Mark Olsen, Ed Guzman (percussions

Nick Valensi

Nicholas Valensi is an American guitarist, singer and session musician. He is most famous for his role as lead and rhythm guitarist, as well as occasional backing vocalist and mellotron player, in the American rock band The Strokes. Valensi has worked as a songwriter and session guitarist with various artists, including Sia, Brody Dalle, Regina Spektor and Kate Pierson. In 2013, he founded side-project CRX, for which he acts as singer and lead and rhythm guitarist, their debut album, New Skin, was released on October 28, 2016. Valensi was born to a Tunisian father and a French mother, Danielle. Valensi's father died, he began learning guitar at the age of five, following an impromptu strum on one of his father's guitars. His father described him as a natural guitarist, due to his quickness at picking up the ability to strum along with the rhythm of songs at a young age. Growing up, Valensi spent many summers at his grandfather's home near Bordeaux, until the age of 16, he has Céline and Alessandra.

He attended The Dwight School, where he met and formed a band with Fabrizio Moretti and Julian Casablancas, Hunter College, where he met Nikolai Fraiture. He was once quoted as saying, "I always thought, but once I started playing with Julian, that's when I started to understand music." Valensi's main guitar, which he uses for nearly every live show and recorded song, is a 1990s Epiphone Riviera with Gibson P-94 pick-ups, given to him by friend and fellow Strokes guitarist Albert Hammond Jr. In a 2004 interview with Epiphone, he called it "the greatest guitar never made" because Gibson had never produced a semi-hollow with humbucker-sized P-94 pickups, he has several models in different colours, including multiple naturals, one in vintage sunburst, one in red, a 12-string elite in red. In 2005, Epiphone released a signature model of his guitar, the Elitist Nick Valensi Riviera P-94, followed it up with a standard model Nick Valensi Riviera P-94 in 2007. Back-up/warm-up guitars include an Epiphone Dot fitted with 2 P-94s, an Epiphone Casino, an Epiphone Sheraton, a Gibson Faded Special Double Cutaway with 2 P-90s.

Valensi borrows fellow Strokes guitarist Albert Hammond, Jr.'s backup guitars, which include a Gibson Les Paul Jr. and a Les Paul Special. New guitars used for the First Impressions of Earth tour include a Les Paul Custom in black, a Fender Telecaster Custom, a Duesenberg semi-hollow. Valensi's main amplifier is a 2x12" Fender Hot Rod DeVille, used with Fender 4x12" extension cabinets during live shows, he recently purchased a Carr amplifier to use on the last few stops of the First Impressions tour. His pedalboard consists of a Visual Sound Jekyll & Hyde Ultimate Overdrive pedal, Boss TR-2 Tremolo, Vox Cooltron Bulldog Distortion, MXR Micro Amp and a Boss TU-2 Chromatic Tuner, he has been seen with an Electro Harmonix Memory Man and a Boss Blues Driver. His recent pedalboard consists of a Fulltone GT-500 Distortion/Booster, a Korg Pitchblack Tuner, A Visual Sound Visual Volume Pedal, a Visual Sound Double Trouble dual overdrive, a Maxon Distortion Master, an Electro-Harmonix XO Holy Grail Reverb, an Electro-Harmonix Deluxe Memory Man, an MXR Micro Amp Boost.

He uses a Fender Super-Sonic 100-watt head into two Fender 2x12" cabinets. He cites his influences as The Velvet Underground, The Cars, George Harrison, Bob Marley, Blondie. In the summer of 2006, Nick married his girlfriend of five years and actress Amanda de Cadenet. De Cadenet published a book of photographs entitled Rare Birds in 2005, which includes several pictures of Valensi, whom she refers to as her "muse" on her website. Amanda de Cadenet gave birth to their fraternal twins and Ella, on October 19, 2006. Nick Valensi sang backing vocals and played guitar for Devendra Banhart's song "Shabop Shalom" on the 2007 album Smokey Rolls Down Thunder Canyon. Furthermore, he contributed backing vocals on the self-titled debut album of his bandmate Fab Moretti's band, Little Joy, he played guitar for Regina Spektor's song "Better", released on her album Begin to Hope and published as a single in a different version on which the guitar parts are rearranged. He appears in a song by Devendra Banhart's side project Megapuss.

He appears in the video for "No One's Better Sake" by Little Joy as drummer. He plays guitar on Sia's album We Are Born and has written several hooks and melodies on it. Sia has stated that she and Valensi are planning to write songs together for other artists, he plays guitar on Sia's album 1000 Forms of Fear on the track "Hostage", being listed as a co-writer. He co-wrote and played guitar for Kate Pierson's songs Mister Sister and Bottoms Up on her album Guitars and Microphones. CRX discographyNew Skin Peek The Strokes discography Is This It Room on Fire First Impressions of Earth Angles Comedown Machine The New Abnormal