InconfidĂȘncia Mineira

Inconfidência Mineira was an unsuccessful separatist movement in Brazil in 1789. It was the result of a confluence of external and internal causes in what was a Portuguese colony; the external inspiration was the independence of thirteen of the British colonies in North America following the American Revolutionary War, a development that impressed the intellectual elite of the captaincy of Minas Gerais. The main internal cause of the conspiracy was the decline of gold mining in that captaincy; as gold became less plentiful, the region's gold miners faced increasing difficulties in fulfilling tax obligations to the crown, the tax over gold was one-fifth. When the captaincy could not satisfy the royal demand for gold, it was burdened with an additional tax on gold, called derrama. Conspirators seeking independence from Portugal planned to rise up in rebellion on the day that the derrama was instituted. However, the conspirators lacked an overall leader; some of the conspirators were republicans, others were monarchists.

Some favored the abolition of slavery. The conspirators did put forth a few economic and social ideas: the promotion of cotton production, the exploitation of iron and saltpeter reserves, a proposal to give incentives to mothers to have many children, the creation of a citizens' militia; the conspiracy attracted a great number of military personnel and intellectuals, as well as the poets Cláudio Manuel da Costa and Tomás Antônio Gonzaga. Among the best known participants were Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, best known as "Tiradentes". Tiradentes, who came from Andrade's regiment, was the independence movement's most enthusiastic propagandist; the Inconfidência was inspired by the ideals of the French liberal philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment and the successful American Revolution of 1776. The conspirators belonged to the white upper class of minerals-rich Minas Gerais. Many had studied in Europe in the University of Coimbra, some had large debts with the colonial government. In the context of declining gold production, the intention of the Portuguese government to impose the obligatory payment of all debts was a leading cause behind the conspiracy.

Many of the conspirators wanted to create a republic in which the leader would be chosen through democratic elections. The capital would be São João del Rei, Ouro Preto would become a university town; the structure of the society, including the right to property and the ownership of slaves, would be kept intact. Three participants in the independence movement revealed the conspirators' plans to the government, the rebels were arrested in 1789. Among the movement were the lawyer Alvarenga Peixoto, the poets Tomás Antônio Gonzaga and Cláudio Manuel da Costa, the priest José da Silva de Oliveira Rolim, the alferes Joaquim José da Silva Xavier. After Joaquim Silvério dos Reis, a member of the conspiracy, informed on the movement before it could take place, Peixoto was captured and sent to exile in the city of Ambaca, in Portuguese Angola, another colony of the Portuguese Empire, where he remained until the end of his life. Judicial proceedings against the conspirators lasted from 1789 to 1792. Lieutenant Colonel Freire de Andrade, José Álvares Maciel, eight others were condemned to the gallows.

Seven more were condemned to perpetual banishment in Africa, the rest were acquitted. Following the trial Queen Maria I commuted the sentences of capital punishment to perpetual banishment for all except those whose activities involved aggravated circumstances; that was the case for Tiradentes, who took full responsibility for the conspiracy movement and was imprisoned in Rio de Janeiro, where he was hanged on 21 April 1792. Afterwards, his body was torn into pieces, which were sent to Vila Rica in the captaincy of Minas Gerais, to be displayed in the places where he had propagated his revolutionary ideas; the anniversary of his death is celebrated as a national holiday in Brazil. In 1948 the events were portrayed in a film Minas Conspiracy directed by Carmen Santos. In 1963, Minas Gerais incorporated as its state flag the one designed by the Inconfidência, with an equilateral triangle inspired by the Holy Trinity – albeit the inconfidentes wanted a green triangle, while Minas' flag uses a red one – and a Latin motto taken out of Vergil's Eclogues.

List of historical acts of tax resistance Maxwell, Kenneth R. Conflicts and Conspiracies: Brazil & Portugal 1750–1808 Furtado, Júnia Ferreira, Chica da Silva: A Brazilian Slave of the Eighteenth Century

Mallian campaign

The Mallian campaign was conducted by Alexander the Great from November 326 to February 325 BC, against the Malli of the Punjab. Alexander was defining the eastern limit of his power by marching down-river along the Hydaspes to the Acesines, but the Malli and the Oxydraci combined to refuse passage through their territory. Alexander sought to prevent their forces meeting, made a swift campaign against them which pacified the region between the two rivers. Alexander was injured during the course of the campaign losing his life; the campaign against the Malli occurred a year after Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush, eight years after the start of his campaigns against the Persian Empire. At this time, his conquests stretched from Greece into India; the political situation in Greece was quiet. Alexander had defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes in May 326 BC, stayed in his territory for thirty days. During this time, he reconciled King Porus and his other vassal, with each other, as they were both to be his new vassals.

Alexander achieved this by arbitrating their disputes and arranging a family alliance. He marched north-east toward the Glaukanokoi, received the submission of their thirty-seven cities. Abisares of Kashimir submitted to the Macedonians as well, gave them many gifts, including forty elephants. Alexander proposed to march further east to the River Ganges and fight the powerful empires of the Nanda and the Gangaridai. According to Arrian, he expressed his thoughts thus. I will demonstrate to the Macedonians and their allies not only that the Indian gulf is confluent with the Persian, but the Hycranian gulf is confluent with the Indian. At the Beas River, his army mutinied, they wished to return home. It had been raining for the last seventy days. At the Battle of Hydaspes they had suffered many casualties; the Nanda Empire was rumoured to be more powerful than Porus, only a princeling. Coenus' spoke on behalf of the troops and pleaded with Alexander to allow them to return, to the agreement of the other officers.

Alexander gave in. Shortly after this, Memnon brought up reinforcements of 6,000 cavalry from Thrace, 7,000 infantry; the reinforcements brought with them twenty five thousand suits of armour. After uniting with Memnon's forces, Alexander decided to head south, following the river Hydaspes, after the omens ostensibly declared it unfavourable to march further east; the fleet and army just sailed down the river marching short distances inland. Only slight opposition was experienced. Alexander received news that the Mallians and the Oxydracians had decided to trade hostages with each other, moved all their valuables into their fortified cities, they decided to combine their forces. Reports suggested that they had a total of 10,000 horse and 900 chariots. In spite of the fact that the two had traditionally been enemies, it was reported that they had laid aside their disputes to fight the Macedonians. Alexander decided to prevent them from joining their forces, it was Alexander's habit, as to campaign in all seasons of the year.

In Greece, this meant the winter. The Mallian alliance was unaware of this practice, therefore might have expected more time to prepare for Alexander's advance. Throughout his career, Alexander made many celebrated marches in spite of difficult conditions. After the Battle of Gaugamela Alexander and his forces are alleged to have reached the Great Zab, 34 miles from the battlefield, only one day later. Upon receiving the news of the alliance in November, Alexander raced out to prevent the junction of the two tribes, he reached the area in five days by sailing down the Hydaspes with the fleet he had built. The boats had been built to be taken apart and put back together, so that they could be conveyed across the Punjab. There were, as there are now, five rivers in the Punjab - it is sometimes referred to as "The Valley of the Five Rivers" - so it was necessary to drag the boats from one to the next; the Hydaspes and Acesines were dangerous to sail down in this area, the Macedonians sustained considerable damage to some of their ships, in addition to some casualties.

They used two sorts of vessels and the transport ships known as "round vessels". The transport ships were not damaged, as their round hulls helped them navigate the difficult channels. By contrast, the warships had considerable difficulties, many were destroyed, their double rows of oars meant. At one point Alexander took off his armour, preparing to jump in the water, for fear that his ship was going to sink. However, the Macedonians got through. Arriving in the confederacies' territory, they set about the task of pacification. While their ships were undergoing repairs, the Macedonians first attacked a tribe to the west called the Sibea; this tribe, alleged to have 40,000 warriors, was on the right bank, thus the Macedonians had to cross the river in order to attack them. The Macedonians destroyed their capital city and burned their crops, slew all the males, enslaved the women and children. Alexander had been scrupulous about being merciful towards the i

Developments at Zoo Basel

The Zoo Basel is upgrading its infrastructure, but can hardly grow in area, as it is surrounded by the city of Basel, and, in the south, by Binningen. While most projects are upgrading older infrastructure and constructing multiple-animal exhibits, the zoo has plans to expand in area as well. Starting in April/May 2010 the monkey house and the surrounding area will undergo extensive construction; this includes the demolition of the small monkey house, the macaques rock, the children's play ground, the old bear exhibits, several paths. On June 30, 2011 the enlarged monkey house opened. While visitors have the same amount of space available, the apes' space more than doubled from 340 square metres to 700 square metres; the old outer walls were removed and the living quarters were extended in depth and height. There will be additional compartments with no public access, a service tunnel, worker quarters, restrooms added. In summer 2012 five large outdoor "cages", the remodeled monkey house roof, a new ape playground, several new paths will open.

The outdoor cages will have a double net layer. The cages' heights will be 11 metres for the other apes; the apes' outdoor area will grow from today's 70 square metres to over 2,000 square metres. The children's playground is planned to go along with the jungle theme - similar to the one in the Etosha exhibit; the paths on the monkey roof, around the new cages, by the main entrance, the former bear exhibits will be adjusted and/or newly constructed. According to the Basler Zeitung online on March 10, 2010, the orangutans left Basel; the gorillas and 150 other smaller monkey found a temporary home on an unidentified Novartis site in Basel. On April 14, 2010, Basler Zeitung reported. All monkeys returned before the monkey house opening on June 30, 2011 - except the orangutans and the woolly monkeys. All projects are completed, with the exception of the opening of the five large outdoor cages. This, final phase, is scheduled to open on September 28, 2012; the renovation is scheduled to start in 2013 and just before Easter 2014 the restaurant, at least will be re-opened.

During renovation it is planned to continue restaurant services in tents. The current elephant house is due to be expanded. Planned are boxes for the females, a larger outdoor male area, overall expansion of the area towards the old kangaroo exhibit; because of an estimated 24-million-Swiss-franc donation for the monkey expansion project, Zoo Basel is able to finance this project. According to Basler Zeitung from May 12, 2010, the elephant house will be expanded before the Ozeanium project. On June 21, 2012 Zoo Basel's board of directors approved this project. Under the theme "mobility," a new exhibit is planned on the current elephant exhibit. According to Oliver Pagan, zoo director, this exhibit will be larger than the current elephant exhibit and include the old kangaroo exhibit, the playground adjacent to the elephant house, the lemurs exhibit; the new elephant exhibit will have two for females. Construction is scheduled to start in 2013 and is planned to conclude in 2016. On March 17, 2009, Zoo Basel announced its intent to build Switzerland's first large-scale ocean aquarium.

Through private donors, a 70-million-Swiss-franc building is planned to be built on the Heuwaage square and will extend into the downtown nightlife strip of Steinen. It is scheduled to open in 2018; the building will host several thousand animals from all five large oceans in tanks that are up to 8 metres and a diameter of up to 30 metres. Among these animals are planned to be sharks, coral reefs, large octopuses, penguins; the building will have four floors: One underground, on ground level, two above ground. It will have shops that will be opened beyond the regular zoo hours. Zoo Basel's proposal would be the only large scale aquarium in Switzerland in middle Europe. According to Zoo Basel, similar ocean aquariums are over 500 kilometres away. Among them in Arnhem, Genoa and Barcelona. All of them are popular visitor destinations with hundreds of thousands of visitors each year; because of these examples Zoo Basel anticipates that its Ozeanium would be self-sustaining and boost the zoo's annual visitors to over 2 million.

In the long run, Zoo Basel would like to acquire rare giant pandas and have them in the Sautergarten area as part of the Asian theme area. According to the zoo's web page, zoo officials hope that giant pandas would "excite visitors to learn about the Chinese plant and animal life, as well as environment protection". Since 1961, the zoo has not grown in area. There is a possibility to expand east across the Birsig river; this would allow additional space for other exhibits in the Sauter Garden. In various Basler Zeitung publications, a possible expansion to the north was mentioned. A possible scenario would have demolished the parking facilities and moved them to another place a car park underneath the street just east of the current parking area, underneath the Erdbeerestreet. Polaris: an arctic- and penguin-oriented project in the Markthalle, a large concrete cupola building just across from the French railway station; that project has been rejected in favour of a small shopping mall with a 47-apartment high-rise next to it.

On June 30, 2011 the enlarged monkey house opened. While visitors have the same amount of space available, the apes'