Henry V of England
Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster, after his fathers death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and he was the son of 20-year-old Henry of Bolingbroke, and 16-year-old Mary de Bohun. He was the grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, at the time of his birth, Richard II of England, his cousin once removed, was king. As he was not close to the line of succession to the throne and his grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the guardian of the king at that time. Upon the exile of Henrys father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge, the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland, and while in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament.
He was created Prince of Wales at his fathers coronation, and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399 and his other titles were Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year Henry spent time at The Queens College, under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, from 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. It was there that the prince was almost killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, the operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henrys energies until 1408, then, as a result of the kings ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort – legitimised sons of John of Gaunt – he had control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV, and their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince.
It may be that the tradition of Henrys riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity. Henrys record of involvement in war and politics, even in his youth, the most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531. The story of Falstaff originated in Henrys early friendship with Sir John Oldcastle, shakespeares Falstaff was originally named Oldcastle, following his main source, The Famous Victories of Henry V. However, his descendants objected, and the name was changed. That friendship, and the political opposition to Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury. If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers like Thomas Walsingham that Henry, after Henry IV died on 20 March 1413, Henry V succeeded him and was crowned on 9 April 1413 at Westminster Abbey, Kingdom of England
A coupon payment on a bond is a periodic interest payment that the bondholder receives during the time between when the bond is issued and when it matures. Coupons are normally described in terms of the rate, which is calculated by adding the sum of coupons paid per year. For example, if a bond has a value of $1,000. For the typical bond, this will consist of payments of $25 each. The coupon rate is the yield that the bond pays on its date, however. All else being equal, bonds having higher coupon rates are more desirable for investors than those having lower coupon rates. The origin of the coupon is that bonds were historically issued in the form of bearer certificates. Physical possession of the certificate was proof of ownership, several coupons, one for each scheduled interest payment over the life of the bond, were printed on the certificate. At the date the coupon was due, the owner would detach the coupon, zero-coupon bonds are those that pay no coupons and thus have a coupon rate of 0%.
Such bonds make only one payment, the payment of the value on the maturity date. Normally, to compensate the bondholder for the value of money. The difference between the price and the face value provides the bondholder with the return that makes purchasing the bond worthwhile. Credit Credit spread TED spread Yield curve
For the British cargo ship, see SS Deed. For the reality series, see The Deed. A deed is any instrument in writing which passes, affirms or confirms an interest, right, or property and that is signed, delivered. It is commonly associated with transferring title to property, the deed has a greater presumption of validity and is less rebuttable than an instrument signed by the party to the deed. A deed can be unilateral or bilateral, deeds include conveyances, licenses, patents and conditionally powers of attorney if executed as deeds. The deed is the descendant of the medieval charter. The traditional phrase signed and delivered refers to the practice of seals, agreements under seal are called contracts by deed or specialty, in the United States, a specialty is enforceable without consideration. Specialties, as a form of contract, are bilateral and can therefore be distinguished from covenants, being under seal, are unilateral promises. At common law, to be valid and enforceable, a deed must fulfill several requirements, It must state on its face that it is a deed and it must indicate that the instrument itself conveys some privilege or thing to someone.
The grantor must have the ability to grant the thing or privilege. It must be executed by the grantor in presence of the number of witnesses. In some jurisdictions, a seal must be affixed to it, affixing seals made persons parties to the deed and signatures optional, but seals are now outdated in most jurisdictions, so the signatures of the grantor and witnesses are primary. It must be delivered to and accepted by the grantee, conditions attached to the acceptance of a deed are known as covenants. A deed indented or indenture is one executed in two or more according to the number of parties, which were formerly separated by cutting in a curved or indented line known as the chirograph. A deed poll is one executed in one part, by one party, having the edge polled or cut even, in the transfer of real estate, a deed conveys ownership from the old owner to the new owner, and can include various warranties. The precise name and nature of these differ by jurisdiction. Often, the differences between them is the degree to which the grantor warrants the title.
The grantor may give a general warranty of title against any claims, the latter type of deed is usually known as a special warranty deed
It can be found used in various financial documents including the latest departmental and agency annual accounts. It developed a role along with its accountancy responsibilities. Similar offices were created in Scotland around 1200 and in Ireland in 1210. The Exchequer was named after a table used to perform calculations for taxes, the name Exchequer referred to the resemblance of the table to a chess board as it was covered by a black cloth bearing green stripes of about the breadth of a human hand, in a chequer-pattern. The spaces represented pounds and pence, the term Exchequer came to refer to the twice yearly meetings held at Easter and Michaelmas, at which government financial business was transacted and an audit held of sheriffs returns. By the time of the Dialogue, there was an exchequer in Normandy and it survived the Norman conquest of England as William the Conqueror consolidated control of his new Kingdom. The earliest surviving record of the Exchequer is from 1130, in the reign of King Henry I, in the first surviving Pipe Roll for that year, which shows continuity from previous years.
Pipe Rolls form a continuous record of royal revenues and taxation, not all revenue went into the Exchequer. The Chancellor of the Exchequer questioned him concerning debts owed by private individuals, appeals were to the Court of Exchequer Chamber. Following the proclamation of Magna Carta, legislation was enacted whereby the Exchequer would maintain the realms prototypes for the yard and these nominal standards were, only infrequently enforced on the localities around the kingdom. From the late 1190s to the expulsion of the Jews in 1290, there was a division for taxation of Jews. Through most of the 1600s, goldsmiths would deposit their reserve of treasure with the Exchequer, charles II shut up the Exchequer in 1672, forbidding payments from it, in what Walter Bagehot described as one of those monstrous frauds. This ruined the goldsmiths and the credit of the Stuart Government, in 1694, the credit of William III of Englands government was so bad in London that it could not borrow, which led to the foundation of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England.
The records of the Exchequer were kept in the Pell Office, adjacent to Westminster Hall, the office was named after the skins from which the rolls were made. In the 19th century, a number of reforms reduced the role of the Exchequer, the Exchequer became unnecessary as a revenue collecting department in 1834 with the reforms of Prime Minister William Pitt, who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer. The government departments collecting revenue paid it directly to the Bank of England, the name continued as the Exchequer and Audit Department from 1866 until 1983 when the new National Audit Office was created. In modern times, Exchequer has come to mean the Treasury and, pecuniary possessions in general, the Scottish Exchequer dates to around 1200, with a similar role in auditing and royal revenues as in England. The Scottish Exchequer was slower to develop a separate judicial role, even then, the judicial and the administrative roles were never completely separated as with the English Exchequer
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable by law as a binding legal agreement. Contract is a branch of the law of obligations in jurisdictions of the civil law tradition, Contract law concerns the rights and duties that arise from agreements. A contract arises when the parties agree that there is an agreement, formation of a contract generally requires an offer, consideration, and a mutual intent to be bound. Each party to a contract must have capacity to enter the agreement, intoxicated persons, and those under a mental affliction may have insufficient capacity to enter a contract. Some types of contracts may require formalities, such as a memorialization in writing, at common law, the elements of a contract are offer, intention to create legal relations, and consideration. Not all agreements are necessarily contractual, as the parties generally must be deemed to have an intention to be legally bound, a so-called gentlemens agreement is one which is not intended to be legally enforceable, and which is binding in honour only.
In order for a contract to be formed, the parties must reach mutual assent and this is typically reached through offer and an acceptance which does not vary the offers terms, which is known as the mirror image rule. An offer is a statement of the offerors willingness to be bound should certain conditions be met. If a purported acceptance does vary the terms of an offer, it is not an acceptance but a counteroffer and, the Uniform Commercial Code disposes of the mirror image rule in §2-207, although the UCC only governs transactions in goods in the USA. As a court cannot read minds, the intent of the parties is interpreted objectively from the perspective of a reasonable person and it is important to note that where an offer specifies a particular mode of acceptance, only an acceptance communicated via that method will be valid. Contracts may be bilateral or unilateral, a bilateral contract is an agreement in which each of the parties to the contract makes a promise or set of promises to each other.
For example, in a contract for the sale of a home, less common are unilateral contracts in which one party makes a promise, but the other side does not promise anything. In these cases, those accepting the offer are not required to communicate their acceptance to the offeror, in a reward contract, for example, a person who has lost a dog could promise a reward if the dog is found, through publication or orally. The payment could be conditioned on the dog being returned alive. Those who learn of the reward are not required to search for the dog, but if someone finds the dog and delivers it, the High Court of Australia stated that the term unilateral contract is unscientific and misleading. In certain circumstances, a contract may be created. A contract is implied in fact if the circumstances imply that parties have reached an agreement even though they have not done so expressly, quantum meruit claims are an example. Carbolic, a firm, advertised a smoke ball marketed as a wonder drug that would, according to the instructions
A fiduciary is a person who holds a legal or ethical relationship of trust with one or more other parties. Typically, a fiduciary prudently takes care of money or other asset for another person, asset managers—including managers of pension plans and other tax-exempt assets—are considered fiduciaries under applicable statutes and laws. In such a good conscience requires the fiduciary to act at all times for the sole benefit. A fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to act for and on behalf of another in a matter in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust. A fiduciary duty is the highest standard of care at either equity or law, the nature of fiduciary obligations differ among jurisdictions. In Australia, only proscriptive or negative fiduciary obligations are recognised, in English common law, the fiduciary relation is an important concept within a part of the legal system known as equity. In the United Kingdom, the Judicature Acts merged the courts of equity with the courts of common law, when a fiduciary duty is imposed, equity requires a different, standard of behavior than the comparable tortious duty of care at common law. A fiduciary ideally would not have a conflict of interest, different jurisdictions regard fiduciary duties in different lights.
In Australia, it has found that there is no comprehensive list of criteria by which to establish a fiduciary relationship. Courts have so far refused to define the concept of a fiduciary, instead preferring to develop the law on a case-by-case basis and they commented that the term fiduciary is used in many different ways. Fiduciary duties cannot be understood in isolation, instead they are better viewed as ‘legal polyfilla’, molding themselves flexibly around other legal structures, and sometimes filling the gaps. The question of who is a fiduciary is a notoriously intractable question and this is especially true in the area of Labor and Employment law. In Canada a fiduciary has obligations to the employer even after the employment relationship is terminated, whereas in the United States the employment, the duty of care requires control persons to act on an informed basis after due consideration of all information. The duty includes a requirement that such persons reasonably inform themselves of alternatives, in doing so, they may rely on employees and other advisers so long as they do so with a critical eye and do not unquestionably accept the information and conclusions provided to them.
The duty of loyalty requires control persons to look to the interests of the company and its other owners, the duty to act in good faith may be measured by an individuals particular knowledge and expertise. The higher the level of expertise, the more accountable that person will be, at one time, courts seemed to view the duty of good faith as an independent obligation. However, more recently, courts have treated the duty of good faith as a component of the duty of loyalty, in Canada, directors of corporations owe a fiduciary duty. A debate exists as to the nature and extent of this duty following a landmark judgment from the Supreme Court of Canada in BCE Inc. v.1976 Debentureholders
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study. Apprenticeship enables practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated profession, Apprenticeships typically last 3 to 7 years. People who successfully complete an apprenticeship reach the journeyman or professional level of competence. In early modern usage, the clipped form prentice was common, the system of apprenticeship first developed in the Middle Ages and came to be supervised by craft guilds and town governments. A master craftsman was entitled to employ young people as a form of labour in exchange for providing food, lodging. Most apprentices were males, but female apprentices were found in such as seamstress, tailor. Apprentices usually began at ten to fifteen years of age, in Coventry those completing seven-year apprenticeships with stuff merchants were entitled to become freemen of the city. Subsequently, governmental regulation and the licensing of technical colleges and vocational education formalized and bureaucratized the details of apprenticeship, Australian Apprenticeships encompass all apprenticeships and traineeships.
They cover all sectors in Australia and are used to achieve both entry-level and career upskilling objectives. There were 470,000 Australian Apprentices in-training as at 31 March 2012, Australian Government employer and employee incentives may be applicable, while State and Territory Governments may provide public funding support for the training element of the initiative. Australian Apprenticeships combine time at work with formal training and can be full-time, part-time or school-based, Australian Apprentice and Traineeship services are dedicated to promoting retention, therefore much effort is made to match applicants with the right apprenticeship or traineeship. This is done with the aid of aptitude tests, tips and resources on potential apprenticeship and traineeship occupations are available in over sixty industries. The distinction between the terms apprentices and trainees lies mainly around traditional trades and the time it takes to gain a qualification, Australia has a fairly unusual safety net in place for businesses and Australian Apprentices with its Group Training scheme.
It is a safety net, because the Group Training Organisation is the employer and provides continuity of employment and it lasts two to four years – the duration varies among the 250 legally recognized apprenticeship trades. About 40 percent of all Austrian teenagers enter apprenticeship training upon completion of compulsory education and this number has been stable since the 1950s. The five most popular trades are, Retail Salesperson, Car Mechanic, there are many smaller trades with small numbers of apprentices, like EDV-Systemtechniker which is completed by fewer than 100 people a year. The Apprenticeship Leave Certificate provides the apprentice with access to two different vocational careers, the person responsible for overseeing the training inside the company is called Lehrherr or Ausbilder. An Ausbilder must prove he has the qualifications needed to educate another person
Debt bondage, known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a persons pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation. The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation. Currently, debt bondage is the most common method of enslavement with an estimated 8.1 million people bonded to labour illegally as cited by the International Labour Organization in 2005. Debt bondage has been described by the United Nations as a form of modern day slavery, though most countries in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are parties to the Convention, the practice is still prevalent primarily in these regions. It is predicted that 84 to 88% of the labourers in the world are in South Asia. Lack of prosecution or insufficient punishment to this crime are the causes as to why this practice exists at this scale today. When the bonded laborer dies, debts are passed on to children. Although debt bondage, forced labour, and human trafficking are all defined as forms or variations of slavery, debt bondage differs from forced labour and human trafficking in that a person consciously pledges to work as a means of repayment of debt without being placed into labor against will.
Debt bondage only applies to individuals who have no hopes of leaving the labor due to inability to pay debt back. Those who offer their services to repay a debt and the employer reduces the debt accordingly are not in debt bondage. In the 19th century, people in Asia were bonded to labor due to a variety of reasons ranging from farmers mortgaging harvests to drug addicts in need for opium in China. When a natural disaster occurred or food was scarce, people willingly chose debt bondage as a means to a secure life, in the early 20th century in Asia, most laborers tied to debt bondage had been born into it. In certain regions, such as in Burma, debt bondage was far more common than slavery and these continued added loan values made leaving servitude unattainable. Moreover, after the development of the economy, more workers were needed for the pre-industrial economies of Asia during the 19th century. A greater demand for labor was needed in Asia to power exports to growing industrial countries like the United States and it started from the end of slavery in 1833 and continued until 1920.
Important to both East and West Africa, defined by Wilks as the use of people in transferring their rights for settlement of debt, was common during the 17th century, the system of pawnship occurred simultaneously with the slave trade in Africa. Though the export of slaves from Africa to the Americas is often analyzed, development of plantations like those in Zanzibar in East Africa reflected the need for internal slaves. Furthermore, many of the slaves that were exported were male as brutal and this created gender implications for individuals in the pawnship system as more women were pawned than men and often sexually exploited within the country
Warwickshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. The county town is Warwick, although the largest town is Nuneaton, the county is famous for being the birthplace of William Shakespeare. Commonly used abbreviations for the county are Warks or Warwicks, the county is divided into five districts of North Warwickshire and Bedworth, Rugby and Stratford-on-Avon. The current county boundaries were set in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, the historic county boundaries included Coventry and Solihull, as well as much of Birmingham. The northern tip of the county is only 3 miles from the Derbyshire border, an average-sized English county covering an area of almost 2,000 km2, it runs some 60 miles north to south. Equivalently it extends as far north as Shrewsbury in Shropshire and as far south as Banbury in north Oxfordshire, the majority of Warwickshires population live in the north and centre of the county. The market towns of northern and eastern Warwickshire were industrialised in the 19th century, and include Atherstone, Nuneaton, of these, Atherstone has retained most of its original character.
Major industries included coal mining, textiles and cement production, of the northern and eastern towns, only Nuneaton and Rugby are well-known outside of Warwickshire. The south of the county is rural and sparsely populated. The only town in the south of Warwickshire is Shipston-on-Stour, the highest point in the county, at 261 m, is Ebrington Hill, again on the border with Gloucestershire, grid reference SP187426 at the countys southwest extremity. There are no cities in Warwickshire since both Coventry and Birmingham were incorporated into the West Midlands county in 1974 and are now metropolitan authorities in themselves, the largest towns in Warwickshire in 2011 were, Rugby, Leamington Spa, Warwick and Kenilworth. Much of western Warwickshire, including that area now forming part of Coventry, thus the names of a number of places in the central-western part of Warwickshire end with the phrase -in-Arden, such as Henley-in-Arden, Hampton-in-Arden and Tanworth-in-Arden. The remaining area, not part of the forest, was called the Felden – from fielden, areas historically part of Warwickshire include Coventry, Sutton Coldfield and some of Birmingham including Aston and Edgbaston.
These became part of the county of West Midlands following local government re-organisation in 1974. Some organisations, such as Warwickshire County Cricket Club, which is based in Edgbaston, in Birmingham, Coventry is effectively in the centre of the Warwickshire area, and still has strong ties with the county. Coventry and Warwickshire are sometimes treated as an area and share a single Chamber of Commerce. Coventry has been a part of Warwickshire for only some of its history, in 1451 Coventry was separated from Warwickshire and made a county corporate in its own right, called the County of the City of Coventry. In 1842 the county of Coventry was abolished and Coventry was remerged with Warwickshire, in recent times, there have been calls to formally re-introduce Coventry into Warwickshire, although nothing has yet come of this