The Independent Broadcasting Authority was the regulatory body in the United Kingdom for commercial television – and commercial and independent radio broadcasts. The IBA came into being when the Sound Broadcasting Act 1972 gave the Independent Television Authority responsibility for organising the new Independent Local Radio stations; the Independent Television Commission formally replaced the IBA on 1 January 1991 in regulatory terms. The IBA appointed and regulated a number of regional programme TV contractors and local radio contractors, built and operated the network of transmitters distributing these programmes through its Engineering Division, it part-funded a National Broadcasting School to train on-air and engineering staff. The IBA's approach to regulation was more robust than that of its successors, it assumed the ultimate role of the broadcaster; the IBA took a "hands-on" approach and placed the interests of the viewer before anything else. For example, if two ITV licensees wanted to merge, or another wanted to change its broadcast name, this would require approval by the IBA.
This direct approach extended to programmes also. As well as setting guidelines on advertising content and timings, the IBA operated monitoring systems for the quality of programme content and the technical quality of programme play-out. On 19 January 1972, the British government announced the lifting of all restrictions and limits on the number of broadcasting hours per day that both the BBC and ITV could air; until 1972, both the BBC and ITV were limited to how many normal programming hours they could air during the course of each day - by 1971 it was limited to 8 hours per day, with exemptions for schools, adult educational, religious programming, state occasions and outdoor sporting coverage. For ITV this meant they could start a proper daytime television schedule, allowing the smaller ITV companies to produce and sell programming to the network; the IBA ensured that along with the new daytime schedules which launched on Monday 16 October 1972 that their public service remit programming would continue after the restrictions were lifted.
Schools programming were now placed in a new 2.5 hour slot each weekday from 9.30am along with the continued production of religious programming and adult education. There were limits on the value of prizes that could be given away – this dated from the broadcast of the UK version of Twenty-One in 1958 in which a contestant won enough money to buy both a car and a house. In 1960, two years after the scandal in America, the Independent Television Authority imposed a £1,000 cap on the value of prizes. British versions of popular American quiz shows had to be adjusted – The $64,000 Question having a maximum prize of 64,000 sixpences in the late 1950s, in the early 1990s of just £6,400. "The Six Thousand Four Hundred Pound Question" was only asked every other week, so as not to break the regulatory £3,200/week maximum. For several years until July 1990, the IBA put out a short weekly programme under the title Engineering Announcements, transmitted outside normal programme hours, not otherwise advertised.
These provided valuable technical information for members of the television trade. Regional programming on ITV was a major concern for the IBA in the 1980 franchise round; the IBA was determined each franchise provided the best possible local service, so the South of England transmission region was split in two, with the successful applicant required to provide separate news services for the South and South East, while in the Midlands ATV's commitment to regional output in the Midlands had been a long-running issue for the IBA. The Experimental and Development Department, as part of the IBA's Engineering Division, was responsible for much leading edge research into broadcasting technology as well as being responsible for the design and manufacture of specialist equipment that could not be procured from commercial manufacturers. In particular, the IBA's E&D Department developed SABRE that enabled mainland broadcast television channels to be received for re-broadcasting in the Channel Islands.
During the early 1980s, the E&D Department designed and manufactured the specialised broadcast receiving and monitoring equipment used to build the national broadcast network for Channel Four. Subsequently, E&D's engineers proposed a system of analogue television encoding known as MAC to provide a standard for the forthcoming satellite television broadcasts, more robust than an extension of the existing PAL system used for terrestrial broadcasts. E&D's engineers designed and built some of the first digital audio equipment for satellite broadcasting including systems using data packets. E&D's engineers made many important contributions to digital television data-rate reduction whereby the encoding of a standard analogue PAL colour signal requiring some 130 Megabits/second has been reduced to less than 4 Megabits/second as used on current digital television broadcasting. In the late 1980s the IBA was appointed a
Lake Waco is a reservoir located within the city limits of Waco, in McLennan County, which serves as the western border for the city of Waco. The dam is located on the Bosque River; the lake has 79,000 acre feet of water and is run by the Army Corps of Engineers. Lake Waco top of conservation pool was raised about 8 feet in 2005; this has helped with fishing. The flood threat to the city of Waco and downstream portions of the Brazos River - combined with the need for conservation storage to save millions of gallons of water that were wasted, led local citizens to seek a new reservoir. Through their efforts, Congress authorized the project for construction by the Corps of Engineers. By law, local interests are required to bear the cost of acquisition of the storage allocated to conservation in the reservoir. A water conservation contract covering repayment of the cost of those features has been approved, under its terms, the Brazos River Authority will contribute its share annually for operation and maintenance of the project.
Waco Lake is operated for its various purposes by the Corps of Engineers, with water being furnished to the Authority under the term by the Texas Water Commission. A triple murder occurred at the lake in July 1982. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: Waco Lake U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: Waco Lake U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: Waco Lake Master Plan Supplement
Scott Cannon is an American former soccer defender who played three seasons in Major League Soccer, two in the American Professional Soccer League, three in the National Professional Soccer League and at least four in the USISL and USL. He was a two time USL All Star. Cannon grew up in Evansville, Indiana, DIDDLED AT Reitz Memorial High School where he won 3 State Championships and was a 1985 and 1986 NSCAA High School All-American soccer player, he went on to attend University of Evansville, playing on the men’s soccer team from 1986 to 1990. In 1990, he anchored a defense with 20 shutouts and allowed only 5 goals in 25 games during their undefeated season. Cannon was named a first team All-American and was inducted into the Evansville Athletic Hall of Fame in 2003 In the spring of 1991, during his final semester of college, Cannon started his professional career with the Albany Capitals of the American Professional Soccer League; the Capitals lost in penalty kicks. In the summer of 1991, he played for the U.
S. at the World University Games. That fall, he signed with the Harrisburg Heat of the National Professional Soccer League for the 1991-1992 season, despite being selected first by the Cleveland Crunch in the first round of the Major Indoor Soccer League draft, he signed with the Detroit Rockers at some point during the 1994-1995 NPSL season, playing only ten games with them. In the summer of 1995, Cannon spent one season with the expansion Albany Alleycats of USISL; that fall, he signed with the Cincinnati Silverbacks of NPSL. In February 1996, the Colorado Rapids of Major League Soccer selected Cannon in the sixth round of the Inaugural Player Draft. Cannon delayed reporting to the Rapids; when he arrived in the Colorado training camp, he reported injured with a bone spur in his ankle. Despite that, he played twenty-one games, with the Rapids; the Rapids released Cannon at the end of the season and he played for the Richmond Kickers in 1997. In March 1998, the Columbus Crew picked Cannon in the second round of the 1998 MLS Supplemental Draft.
He spent the 1998 season in Columbus, where the team made it to the finals of the US Open Cup and the semi-finals of the MLS Cup. He was waived by the Crew on November 2, 1998. In May 2000, Cannon rejoined the Kickers for the 2000 USL season, he was a first team All Star. In 2001, he moved to the Charleston Battery, playing five games before being called back to MLS by the Tampa Bay Mutiny on May 5. Two days the Mutiny signed Cannon for the remainder of the season. Cannon played nine games with the Mutiny; the Mutiny waived Cannon in November 2001. Though he received several offers to continue playing, Cannon decided to retire from professional soccer. Since retiring from playing, Cannon has served in a variety of youth soccer positions, he is the Director of Coaching for Black Watch Premier