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India Post

The Department of Posts, trading as India Post, is a government-operated postal system in India, a subsidiary of the Ministry of Communications. Called "the post office" in India, it is the most distributed postal system in the world. Founded in 1854 by Lord Dalhousie who laid the foundation for the modern Indian postal service. Dalhousie introduced uniform postage rates & passed the India Post office act 1854 which improved upon Lord William Bentinck's 1837 act which had introduced Post offices in India, it created the position Director General of post for the whole country. It is involved in delivering mail, remitting money by money orders, accepting deposits under Small Savings Schemes, providing life insurance cover under Postal Life Insurance and Rural Postal Life Insurance and providing retail services like bill collection, sale of forms, etc; the DoP acts as an agent for Government of India in discharging other services for citizens such as old age pension payments and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme wage disbursement.

With 155,015 post offices, India Post has the most distributed postal network in the world. The country has been divided into 23 postal circles, each circle headed by a Chief Postmaster General; each circle is divided into regions, headed by a Postmaster General and comprising field units known as Divisions. These divisions are further divided into subdivisions. In addition to the 23 circles, there is a base circle to provide postal services to the Armed Forces of India headed by a Director General. One of the highest post offices in the world is in Hikkim, Himachal Pradesh operated by India Post at a height of 14,567 ft; the British Raj was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown. A number of acts were enacted during the British Raj to expand and regulate Posts and Telegraphs service: The Government Savings Bank Act 1873, passed by the legislature 28 January 1873, was enacted in 1881. On 1 April 1882, Post Office Savings Banks opened throughout India.

In Madras Presidency, it was limited. Postal life insurance began on 1 February 1884 as a welfare measure for the employees of the Posts & Telegraphs Department as Government of India dispatch No. 299 dated 18 October 1882 to the Secretary of State. Telegraph Act, 1885 The Indian Post Office Act 1898, passed by the legislature on 22 March 1898, became effective on 1 July 1898 regulating postal service, it was preceded by Act III of 1882 and Act XVI of 1896. The Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933 The world's first official airmail flight took place in India on 18 February 1911, a journey of 18 kilometres lasting 27 minutes. Henri Pequet, a French pilot, carried about 15 kilograms of mail across the Ganges from Allahabad to Naini. India Post inaugurated a floating post office in August 2011 at Dal Lake in Kashmir. Telegraphy and telephony made their appearance as part of the postal service before becoming separate departments; the Posts and Telegraphs Departments merged in 1914, dividing again on 1 January 1985.

Since India became independent in 1947, the postal service continues to function on a nationwide basis, providing a variety of services. The structure of the organization has the directorate at its apex. In April 1959, the Indian Postal Department adopted the motto "Service before help"; the number of post offices was 23,344 when India became independent in 1947 and these were in urban areas. The number increased to 155,015 in 2016 and 90% of these were in rural areas; the first adhesive postage stamps in Asia were issued in the Indian district of Scinde in July 1852 by Bartle Frere, chief commissioner of the region. Frere was an admirer of the English postal reformer who had introduced the Penny Post; the Scinde stamps became known as "Scinde Dawks". These stamps, with a value of ​1⁄2-anna, were in use until June 1866; the first all-India stamps were issued on 1 October 1854. The volume of mail moved by the postal system increased doubling between 1854 and 1866 and doubling again by 1871; the Post Office Act XIV introduced reforms by 1 May 1866 to correct some of the more obvious postal-system deficiencies and abuses.

Postal-service efficiencies were introduced. In 1863, lower rates were set for "steamer" mail to Europe at. Lower rates were introduced for inland mail. New regulations removed special postal privileges enjoyed by officials of the East India Company. Stamps for official use were prepared and accounted for, to combat abuses by officials. In 1854 Spain had printed special stamps for official communications, but in 1866 India was the first country to adopt the expedient of overprinting "Service" on postage stamps and "Service Postage" on revenue stamps; this innovation was widely adopted by other countries. Shortages developed, so stamps had to be improvised; some "Service Postage" overprinted. New designs for the four-anna and six-anna-eight-pie stamps were issued in 1866. There was a shortage of stamps to meet the new rates. Provisional six-anna stamps were improvised by cut

National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council

The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council known as the National Disaster Coordinating Council, is a working group of various government, non-government, civil sector and private sector organizations of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines established by Republic Act 10121 of 2010. It is administered by the Office of Civil Defense under the Department of National Defense; the Council is responsible for ensuring the protection and welfare of the people during disasters or emergencies. The NDRRMC plans and leads the guiding activities in the field of communication, warning signals, transportation, rescue, engineering and rehabilitation, public education and auxiliary services such as fire fighting and the police in the country; the Council utilizes the UN Cluster Approach in disaster management. It is the country's focal for the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response and many other related international commitments. In February 2010, the National Disaster Coordinating Council was renamed and subsequently expanded.

The following heads of agencies compose the NDRRMC: According of Republic Act 10121, various local governments throughout the country should establish Local DRRM Offices at the regional, municipal and barangay levels. As functional arms of the local governments, these Offices are responsible to create a Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan according to the Framework of the NDRRMC covering 4 aspects including disaster preparedness, response and mitigation, rehabilitation and recovery. Local Offices have a Chief DRRM Officer supported by Administrative and Training and Planning, Operations and Warning Officers; some of these Offices have advanced to organizing their own search and rescue and emergency medical services squads and command-control-and-communications centers. The NDRRMC was in charge of reporting data in the wake of Typhoon Haiyan. On November 15, 2014, the agency reported 1,140 people missing and 12,166 injured; the agency has reported the rose of death toll to 1,785 missing and 28, 626 injured.

They estimated that the typhoon cost ₱36.6 billion damage to the infrastructure and agriculture of the Visayan Region. As of April 17, 2015, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council confirmed total of 6,300 deaths including 5,877 of those taking place in the Eastern Visayas; when the population was put into a state of alert during the first phases of the Pinatubo crisis, authorities from the NDCC showed indisputable efficiency in managing the people. Prior the eruption, no precautionary measures were taken until signs of activity were observed in 1991; this could be attributed to the absence of any oral or written records of volcanic activity for the past 400 years in the surrounding areas. By April 3, 1991, PHIVOLCS, after having concluded that the volcano was reawakening, decided to evacuate Aetas villages that were lying within a radius of 10 km around the summit. On May 13, 1991, a 5-level warning and evacuation system was constituted; this system included a concentric danger zone surrounding the volcano, continuously fixing four radii of evacuation from 10 to 40 kilometers between June 7 and 18, which depended on the evolution of the threat.

On the day of June 26, 1991, orders of evacuation were conveyed to local authorities or Coordination Councils. During those times, the entire zone located within the 10 km radius around the crater of Pinatubo has been decreed as permanent high risk sector by PHIVOLCS prohibiting all human occupation of the zone. In the time of Pinatubo’s eruptive phase in June 1991, most of the population reacted favorably to the evacuation orders due to the early preparation and coordination efforts the authorities on the field have demonstrated. However, there were still some Aetas that changed their minds and decided to return to the mountains seeking refuge in caves and spiritual comfort from their God. There were others that refused to leave, having been convinced that the expected eruption would not be extreme enough to reach their homes, having been scared at the thought of having to abandon their belongings and crops. By the time the second warning was given out in July 1992, the population, having been more aware of previous events, were much more prepared.

Despite the PHIVOLCS frequent pleas and the population’s positive response to it though, a total of 300 Aetas families still refused to evacuate. Under the DRRM Act, the National Economic and Development Authority is designated as the lead agency for the recovery. NEDA is mandated to coordinate the recovery support functions of national government agencies, local governments, civil society organizations. However, during the recovery from super typhoon Haiyan, NDRRMC was caught unprepared due to the typhoon’s overwhelming impacts, it was in this context that the government, through the President’s Memorandum Order 62 of December 2013, created the Office of the Presidential Assistant for Rehabilitation and Recovery to focus on coordinating the recovery process. OPARR aims to unify efforts of other institutions involved in recovery, it has special power to mobilize the full resources of the country and to expedite the decision-making process under the direct authority of the President. OPARR was dissolved after two years.

Office of Civil Defense NDRRMC official website

Beware of Those

Beware of Those is the fifth album released by Mac Mall and the eighth album released by JT the Bigga Figga. It was released on June 27, 2000, by Get Low Recordz and featured production from Mac Mall and JT the Bigga Figga. "Beware of Those" – 3:49 "Don't Move" – 1:40 "Crestside to Fillmore" – 4:11 "Régime Life" – 3:31 "Fully Loaded" – 3:28 "Hit'Em Where It Hurts" – 3:09 "Meal Ticket" – 4:35 "Gangstaz" – 4:14 "Young Ritzy" – 4:30 "Thug Poetry" – 3:53 "Block Monsters" – 4:31 "What's the Decision" – 4:41 "Verbal Haters" – 3:17 "All My G's" – 4:28 "Did It, Did It" – 4:07 "Outlawz" – 5:44 Unlisted bonus track – 3:27 Unlisted bonus track – 4:51


Wasta or wasata is an Arabic word that loosely translates into nepotism,'clout' or'who you know'. It refers to using one’s connections and/or influence to get things done, including government transactions such as the quick renewal of a passport, waiving of traffic fines, getting hired for or promoted in a job. In other words, it amounts to getting something through favoritism rather than merit, or what is informally spoken of in English as "pull" from connections; the English word cronyism overlaps in meaning but is not the same. Equivalent words in other languages include sociolismo in Cuba. Wasta is derived from the Modern Standard Arabic word واسِطَة which can mean medium, means but personal connection used to gain something. Furthermore, companies in the Arab world have a'no-nepotism' policy in place, so one can find a workforce with friends and friends relatives who may or may not be qualified; this takes place in both the private sectors. In many Arab countries, such as Oman, Lebanon, Kuwait, UAE, Saudi Arabia and especially Jordan, wasta affects hiring and promotion decisions.

This is not restricted to Arab nationals but is practised by expatriates who use their connections as wastas. With respect to recruitment, there seems to be a movement away from this wasta in the case of multinationals and professional firms. However, wasta is still used in the region. Regulation and Cronyism in Middle Eastern Societies: The Simple Economics of'Wasta'. Andy H. Barnett, Bruce Yandle, George Naufal, School of Business and Management-American University of Sharjah, Department of Economics- Clemson University, School of Business and Management- American University of Sharjah. Hutchings, K. & Weir, D.. "Guanxi and Wasta: A comparison". Thunderbird International Business Review, 48, 141-156 Izraeli, D.. "Business Ethics in the Middle East". Journal of Business Ethics, 16, 1555-1560, doi:10.1023/A:1005863031132 Kocherlakota, N. R.. Money is Memory. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Research Department Staff Report 218, 1-37

Kenneth Boulton

Kenneth Boulton is an American pianist and music educator. Boulton is the dean of the School for Fine Arts at Northern State University in South Dakota. Boulton was born in Seattle and raised in Arlington, graduating from Arlington High School in 1980, he received a bachelor's degree in piano performance from Washington State University and a master's degree and doctorate in the same field from the University of Maryland. In 2008, Boulton was nominated for a Grammy Award in the Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist Performance for his piano anthology Louisiana — A Pianist's Journey, it was composed and recorded while he worked as an assistant professor of piano at Southeastern Louisiana University, incorporated the state's musical heritage. In 2010, he co-authored with Leonard Lehrman. Elie Siegmeister, American Composer: A Bio-Bibliography, published by Scarecrow Press. Since 2016, Boulton has served as dean of the School for Fine Arts at Northern State University in South Dakota. Boulton is married to JoAnne Barry, a fellow pianist he met in 1989.

His parents and Annalee Boulton, donated a Steinway concert grand piano to the Arlington High School's Lynda M. Byrnes Performing Arts Center. Boulton himself performed at the inauguration of the center in 2007

Ed Harrington

Ed Harrington was a star defensive lineman in the Canadian Football League. Harrington played college football at Langston University and with the Toronto Rifles of the Continental Football League, he had a 10-year career in the Canadian Football League from 1963 to 1974 for the Toronto Argonauts. He was a CFL All-Star three times, his name was put in the All-time Argos on September 19, 2010. During his career, Harrington worked with various community organization in Toronto including Physical Director of the Toronto YMCA. After football, he worked at the Ontario Ombudsman Office, patient advocate at psychiatric hospitals in Whitby and North Bay. Harrington survived by wife Terryl. Career bio Ed Harrington Tribute by the Toronto Argonauts on YouTube