France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Nipo T. Strongheart
Nipo T. Strongheart was a Native American known as a lecturer on the Chautaqua circuit, performer in Wild West shows, a technical advisor to Hollywood film producers. Throughout his life, which spanned several careers, he was an advocate for Native American issues, he spoke on religious issues several times, late in life he became a member of the Bahá'í Faith. Strongheart's mother, Chi-Nach-Lut Schu-Wah-Elks, was a member of the Yakama Nation. According to some sources, Strongheart lived with his white father for most of his childhood away from the reservation and Indian culture. Another source says he was adopted by a Yakima woman after his mother's death, brought up and educated in her family on the reservation. Strongheart performed with his father in its successors. Strongheart's public performances began in 1917, when he was in his 20s and worked for the YMCA War Work Council, he toured military camps across New England, where he gave presentations on Native American culture and praised military service.
His recruiting talks encouraged hundreds of men to volunteer for war service. After World War I and his job ended, Strongheart moved to the Yakama Indian Reservation, he soon had a successful career in the Lyceum and Chautauqua circuits of fairs. He gave presentations on Native American culture and spoke against the problems of life on reservations, as enforced by government policy, he played an important role in the development of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, which granted citizenship to all Native Americans who did not have it. Strongheart empower Indian culture. In his early youth, Strongheart had some experience with the fledgling film industry; as the audiences for the lecture circuit declined, he became involved in filmmaking. He was involved in a number of projects in the developing talkies, he helped develop or found a number of organizations to support or represent Native Americans, including the Los Angeles Indian Center, for urban Indians, the National Congress of American Indians.
Through Strongheart's involvement in film production, he countered stereotypes about Native Americans. He dealt with wardrobe and props; when Strongheart died, his will included provision for seed money and materials to enable the Yakama Nation to build a library and museum. In 2014 the Yakama established a permanent exhibition about Strongheart. Scholarly interest in him arose in 1997, when researchers were studying military service by Native Americans, in 2006, when other scholars analyzed issues related to portrayal of and participation by Native Americans in the Hollywood film industry. Named George Mitchell, Jr by his European-American father George Mitchell, known as Strongheart, the boy was born to a Yakima mother named Chi-Nach-Lut Schu-Wah-Elks, she was known as Lenora Mitchell. Strongheart's mother died when the boy was young. According to an article in the Encyclopedia of the American Indian in the Twentieth Century, after his mother's death, Strongheart was adopted or raised by one of his mother's relatives for several years, living with them and attending the reservation boarding school at Fort Simcoe.
This was in keeping with Yakama tradition. These biographies – and others – agree that Strongheart and his father were employed as bareback trick riders for the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show and Pawnee Bill traveling shows. Full families, including women and children, were traveled on tour, they set up and lived in encampments on the road, similar to the traditional Indian camps. In a sense this helped them preserve their culture at a time. One biography states that he acquired the name Nipo during a show, after he fainted and regained consciousness, it was as if he had risen from the dead, the name is interpreted as "he lives!" or the imperative "live!" He added "Nipo" to his Yakama name, Chtu-Tum-Nah, which he translated as "Strongheart". Another biography states that the name "Nipo" was given to Strongheart in his infancy by his adoptive mother. At some point his official status as a member of the Yakama Nation ended. At a performance in 1927, he said that when his military service had ended, he was given the choice of returning to the reservation or losing his tribal rights.
He did return but soon left the reservation again. In the 1930s, Strongheart attempted to document his Yakama lineage, when the government was encouraging tribes to reorganize their governments under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Strongheart was honorarily adopted by a Yakama family during the administration of the 1946 Yakima Enrollment Act --> after having helped the Tomaskin family. Leonard Tomaskin would have been 22 yrs old in 1946; some 22 years he was elected as chairman of the General Council of the Yakama Nation, their tribal government, serving from 1968 to 1983. Strongheart wrote an article in 1954 article that dates his involvement in what he called "historical ethnological studies" to around 1905 between seasons of the Wild Bill show, he attended Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania, where he would have been among the students from many different Indian nations. While there, he participated in a Lubin film company production of the silent film The White Chief.
Because he spoke enough English and a smattering of other Indian languages to act a
Chautauqua was an adult education movement in the United States popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Chautauqua assemblies spread throughout rural America until the mid-1920s; the Chautauqua brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, musicians, showmen and specialists of the day. Former U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt was quoted as saying that Chautauqua is "the most American thing in America." The first Chautauqua, the New York Chautauqua Assembly, was organized in 1874 by Methodist minister John Heyl Vincent and businessman Lewis Miller at a campsite on the shores of Chautauqua Lake in the state of New York. Two years earlier, editor of the Sunday School Journal, had begun to train Sunday school teachers in an outdoor summer school format; the gatherings grew in popularity. The organization founded by Vincent and Miller became known as the Chautauqua Institution, it was called the Mother Chautauqua, because many independent, or "daughter" Chautauquas were developed under the same fashion.
The educational summer camp format proved to be a popular choice for families and was copied by the "daughter" Chautauquas. Within a decade, Chautauqua assemblies, named for the original location in New York, sprang up in various locations across North America; the Chautauqua movement may be regarded as a successor to the Lyceum movement earlier in the 19th century. As the Chautauqua assemblies began to compete for the best performers and lecturers, lyceum bureaus assisted with bookings; the original site in Chautauqua, New York, near Jamestown, has hosted such diverse speakers and performers as Bill Monroe and the Bluegrass Boys and former American vice president Al Gore. Independent Chautauquas operated at permanent facilities fashioned after the Chautauqua Institute in New York, or at rented venues such as in an amusement park; such a Chautauqua was built in an attractive semi-rural location a short distance outside an established town with good rail service. At the height of the Chautauqua movement in the 1920s, several hundred of these existed, but their numbers have since dwindled.
"Circuit Chautauquas" were an itinerant manifestation of the Chautauqua movement, founded by Keith Vawter and Roy Ellison in 1904. Although Vawter and Ellison were unsuccessful in their initial attempts to commercialize Chautauqua, by 1907 they had found a great amount of success in their adaptation of the concept; the program would be presented in tents pitched "on a well-drained field near town". After several days, the Chautauqua would move on; the method of organizing a series of touring Chautauquas is attributed to Vawter. Among early Redpath comedians was Boob Brasfield. Reactions to tent Chautauquas were mixed. In We Called it Culture and Robert Case wrote of the new itinerant Chautauqua: "The credit–or blame–for devising the Frankenstein mechanism, both to exalt and to destroy Chautauqua, the tent circuit, must be given to two youths of similar temperament, a common purpose; that purpose, was to'make a million'." Frank Gunsaulus attacked Vawter: "You're ruining a splendid movement," Gunsaulus roared at Keith Vawter, whom he met at a railroad junction.
"You're cheapening Chautauqua, breaking it down, replacing it with something what will have neither dignity nor permanence." In Vawter's scheme, each performer or group appeared on a particular day of the program. "First-day" talent would move on to other Chautauquas, followed by the "second-day" performers, so on, throughout the touring season. By the mid-1920s, when circuit Chautauquas were at their peak, they appeared in over 10,000 communities to audiences of more than 45 million. Lectures were the mainstay of the Chautauqua. Prior to 1917, lectures dominated the circuit Chautauqua programs; the reform speech and the inspirational talk were the two main types of lecture until 1913. Topics included current events and stories with a comedic twist; the most prolific speaker was Russell Conwell who delivered his famous "Acres of Diamonds" speech 5,000 times to audiences on the Chautauqua and Lyceum circuits, which had this theme: Get rich, young man, for money is power and power ought to be in the hands of good people.
I say. Maud Ballington Booth, the "Little Mother of the Prisons", was another popular performer on the circuit. Booth's descriptions of prison life would rouse them to reform. Jane Addams spoke on her work at Hull House. Helen Potter is another notable woman in the Chautaquas. Potter performed a variety of roles, including women; as Gentile notes: "Potter's choice of subjects is noteworthy for its variety and for the fact that she was credible in her impersonations of men as well as of women. In retrospect, Potter's impersonations are of special interest as examples of the kind of recycling or refertilization of inspiration that occurs throughout the history of the one-person show." On a lighter note, author Opie Read's stories and homespun philosophy endeared him to audiences. Other well-known speakers and lecturers in Chautauqua events of various forms included Member of the U. S. House of Representatives Champ Clark from Missouri, Missouri Governor Herbert S. Hadley, "Fighting Bob" La Follette.
Christian instruction and worship were a strong part of the Chautauqua experience. Although the Chautauqua movement was founded by Methodists, nondenomina
United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Arguably one of the most consequential amendments to this day, the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War; the amendment was bitterly contested by the states of the defeated Confederacy, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress. The amendment its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education regarding racial segregation, Roe v. Wade regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore regarding the 2000 presidential election, Obergefell v. Hodges regarding same-sex marriage; the amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, including those acting on behalf of such an official. The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, Equal Protection Clause.
The Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship, nullifying the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which had held that Americans descended from African slaves could not be citizens of the United States. Since the Slaughter-House Cases, the Privileges or Immunities Clause has been interpreted to do little; the Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without a fair procedure. The Supreme Court has ruled this clause makes most of the Bill of Rights as applicable to the states as it is to the federal government, as well as to recognize substantive and procedural requirements that state laws must satisfy; the Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people, including all non-citizens, within its jurisdiction. This clause has been the basis for many decisions rejecting irrational or unnecessary discrimination against people belonging to various groups.
The second and fourth sections of the amendment are litigated. However, the second section's reference to "rebellion, or other crime" has been invoked as a constitutional ground for felony disenfranchisement; the fourth section was held, in Perry v. United States, to prohibit a current Congress from abrogating a contract of debt incurred by a prior Congress; the fifth section gives Congress the power to enforce the amendment's provisions by "appropriate legislation". Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed, but when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, having taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof, but Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4; the validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave.
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery. Following the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, Republicans grew concerned over the increase it would create in the congressional representation of the Democratic-dominated Southern States; because the full population of fre
Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e. without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but include a promise to obeying and upholding that country's laws and subscribing to the oath of allegiance, may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they hold, but whether this renunciation causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved; the massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.
In some rare cases, laws for mass naturalization were passed. As naturalization laws had been designed to cater for the few people who had voluntarily moved from one country to another, many western democracies were not ready to naturalize large numbers of people; this included the massive influx of stateless people which followed massive denationalizations and the expulsion of ethnic minorities from newly created nation states in the first part of the 20th century, but they included the aristocratic Russians who had escaped the 1917 October Revolution and the war communism period, the Spanish refugees. As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation, wherein their country had expelled them or deprived them of their nationality, while they had not been naturalized, thus living in a judicial no man's land. Since World War II, the increase in international migrations created a new category of migrants, most of them economic migrants.
For economic, political and pragmatic reasons, many states passed laws allowing a person to acquire their citizenship after birth, such as by marriage to a national – jus matrimonii – or by having ancestors who are nationals of that country, in order to reduce the scope of this category. However, in some countries this system still maintains a large part of the immigrant population in an illegal status, albeit with some massive regularizations, for example, in Spain by José Luis Zapatero's government and in Italy by Berlusconi's government; the People's Republic of China gives citizenship to persons with one or two parents with Chinese nationality who have not taken residence in other countries. The country gives citizenship to people born on its territory to stateless people who have settled there. Furthermore, individuals may apply for nationality if they have a near relative with Chinese nationality, if they have settled in China, or if they present another legitimate reason. In practice, only few people gain Chinese citizenship.
The naturalization process starts with a written application. Applicants must submit three copies, written with a ball-point or fountain pen, to national authorities, to provincial authorities in the Ministry of Public Security and the Public Security Bureau. Applicants must submit original copies of a foreign passport, a residence permit, a permanent residence permit, four two-and-a-half inch long pictures. According to the conditions outlined in the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, authorities may require "any other material that the authority believes are related to the nationality application"; the Indian citizenship and nationality law and the Constitution of India provides single citizenship for the entire country. The provisions relating to citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution of India. Relevant Indian legislation is the Citizenship Act 1955, amended by the Citizenship Act 1986, the Citizenship Act 1992, the Citizenship Act 2003, the Citizenship Ordinance 2005.
The Citizenship Act 2003 received the assent of the President of India on 7 January 2004 and came into force on 3 December 2004. The Citizenship Ordinance 2005 was promulgated by the President of India and came into force on 28 June 2005. Following these reforms, Indian nationality law follows the jus sanguinis as opposed to the jus soli; the Italian Government grants Italian citizenship for the following reasons. Automatically Jus sanguinis: for birth. Following declaration By descent. Indonesian nationality is regulated by Law No. 12/2006. The Indonesia
The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family, they migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers; the term "Osage" is a French version of the tribe's name, which can be translated as "warlike". The Osage people refer to themselves in their indigenous Dhegihan Siouan language as Wazhazhe, or "Mid-waters". At the height of their power in the early 19th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in the region, feared by neighboring tribes; the tribe controlled the area between the Missouri and Red rivers, the Ozarks to the east and the foothills of the Wichita Mountains to the south. They depended on agriculture.
The 19th-century painter George Catlin described the Osage as "the tallest race of men in North America, either red or white skins. In the Ohio Valley, the Osage lived among speakers of the same Dhegihan language stock, such as the Kansa, Ponca and Quapaw. Researchers believe that the tribes became differentiated in languages and cultures after leaving the lower Ohio country; the Omaha and Ponca settled in what is now Nebraska, the Kansa in Kansas, the Quapaw in Arkansas. In the 19th century, the Osage were forced to remove from Kansas to Indian Territory, the majority of their descendants live in Oklahoma. In the early 20th century, oil was discovered on their land. Many Osage became wealthy through leasing fees generated by their headrights. However, during the 1920s, they suffered manipulation and numerous murders by whites eager to take over their wealth. In the 21st century, the federally recognized Osage Nation has ~20,000 enrolled members, 6,780 of whom reside in the tribe's jurisdictional area.
Members live outside the nation's tribal land in Oklahoma and in other states around the country, including Kansas. The Osage are descendants of cultures of indigenous peoples, in North America for thousands of years. Studies of their traditions and language show that they were part of a group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the Ohio River valley area, extending into present-day Kentucky. According to their own stories, they migrated west as a result of war with the Iroquois and/or to reach more game. Scholars are divided as to whether they think the Osage and other groups left before the Beaver Wars of the Iroquois; some believe that the Osage started migrating west as early as 1200 CE and are descendants of the Mississippian culture in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. They attribute their style of government to effects of the long years of war with invading Iroquois. After resettling west of the Mississippi River, the Osage were sometimes allied with the Illiniwek and sometimes competing with them, as that tribe was driven west of Illinois by warfare with the powerful Iroquois.
The Osage and other Dhegian-Siouan peoples reached their historic lands developing and splitting into the above tribes in the course of the migration to the Great Plains. By 1673, when they were recorded by the French, many of the Osage had settled near the Osage River in the western part of present-day Missouri, they were recorded in 1690 as having adopted the horse The desire to acquire more horses contributed to their trading with the French. They attacked and defeated indigenous Caddo tribes to establish dominance in the Plains region by 1750, with control "over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas," which they maintained for nearly 150 years, they lived near the Missouri River. Together with the Kiowa and Apache, they dominated western Oklahoma, they lived near the Quapaw and Caddo in Arkansas. The Osage held high rank among the old hunting tribes of the Great Plains. From their traditional homes in the woodlands of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, the Osage would make semi-annual buffalo hunting forays into the Great Plains to the west.
They hunted deer and other wild game in the central and eastern parts of their domain. The women cultivated varieties of corn and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food, they harvested and processed nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had cultural practices that had elements of the cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples; the villages of the Osage were important hubs in the Great Plains trading network served by Kaw people as intermediaries. In 1673 French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's 1673 map noted that the Kanza and Pawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas; the Osage called the Europeans I'n-Shta-Heh because of their facial hair. As experienced warriors, the Osage allied with the French, with whom they traded, against th