Indian rhinoceros

The Indian rhinoceros called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros species native to the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as populations are fragmented and restricted to less than 20,000 km2. Moreover, the extent and quality of the rhino's most important habitat, alluvial grassland and riverine forest, is considered to be in decline due to human and livestock encroachment; as of 2008, a total of 2,575 mature individuals were estimated to live in the wild. The Indian rhinoceros once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, but excessive hunting and agricultural development reduced its range drastically to 11 sites in northern India and southern Nepal. In the early 1990s, between 1,870 and 1,895 rhinos were estimated to have been alive. Rhinoceros unicornis was the scientific name used by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 who described a rhinoceros with one horn; as type locality, he indicated India. The one-horned rhinoceros is monotypic.

Several specimens were described since the end of the 18th century under different scientific names, which are all considered synonyms of Rhinoceros unicornis today: R. indicus by Cuvier, 1817 R. asiaticus by Blumenbach, 1830 R. stenocephalus by Gray, 1867 R. jamrachi by Sclatter, 1876 R. bengalensis by Kourist, 1970 The genus name Rhinoceros is a combination of the ancient Greek words ῥίς meaning'nose' and κέρας meaning'horn of an animal'. The Latin word ūnicornis means one-horned. Ancestral rhinoceroses first diverged from other perissodactyls in the Early Eocene. Mitochondrial DNA comparison suggests the ancestors of modern rhinos split from the ancestors of Equidae around 50 million years ago; the extant family, the Rhinocerotidae, first appeared in the Late Eocene in Eurasia, the ancestors of the extant rhino species dispersed from Asia beginning in the Miocene. Fossils of R. unicornis appear in the Middle Pleistocene. In the Pleistocene, the genus Rhinoceros ranged throughout South and Southeast Asia, with specimens located on Sri Lanka.

Into the Holocene, some rhinoceros lived as far west as Gujarat and Pakistan until as as 3,200 years ago. The Indian and Javan rhinoceroses, the only members of the genus Rhinoceros, first appear in the fossil record in Asia around 1.6 million–3.3 million years ago. Molecular estimates, suggest the species may have diverged much earlier, around 11.7 million years ago. Although belonging to the type genus, the Indian and Javan rhinoceroses are not believed to be related to other rhino species. Different studies have hypothesised that they may be related to the extinct Gaindatherium or Punjabitherium. A detailed cladistic analysis of the Rhinocerotidae placed Rhinoceros and the extinct Punjabitherium in a clade with Dicerorhinus, the Sumatran rhinoceros. Other studies have suggested the Sumatran rhinoceros is more related to the two African species; the Sumatran rhino may have diverged from the other Asian rhinos as long as 15 million years ago. The Indian rhinoceros has a thick grey-brown skin with a black horn.

Its upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps. It has little body hair, aside from eyelashes, ear fringes and tail brush. Bulls have huge neck folds, its skull is heavy with an occiput above 19 cm. Its nasal horn is back-curved with a base of about 18.5 cm by 12 cm that narrows until a smooth stem part begins about 55 mm above base. In captive animals, the horn is worn down to a thick knob; the rhino's single horn is present in both cows, but not on newborn calves. The horn is pure keratin, like human fingernails, starts to show after about six years. In most adults, the horn reaches a length of about 25 cm, but has been recorded up to 36 cm in length and weight 3.051 kg. Among terrestrial land mammals native to Asia, the Indian rhinoceros is second in size only to the Asian elephant, it is the second-largest living rhinoceros, behind only the white rhinoceros. Bulls have a head and body length of 368–380 cm with a shoulder height of 170–186 cm, while cows have a head and body length of 310–340 cm and a shoulder height of 148–173 cm.

The bull, averaging about 2,200 kg is heavier than the cow, at an average of about 1,600 kg. The rich presence of blood vessels underneath the tissues in folds gives it the pinkish colour; the folds in the skin help in regulating the body temperature. The thick skin does not protect against bloodsucking Tabanus flies and ticks; the largest sized specimens range up to 4,000 kg. The one-horned rhinoceros once ranged across the entire northern part of the Indian Subcontinent, along the Indus and Brahmaputra River basins, from Pakistan to the Indian-Myanmar border, including Bangladesh and the southern parts of Nepal and Bhutan, it may have occurred in Myanmar, southern China and Indochina. It inhabits the alluvial grasslands of the Brahmaputra basin; as a result of habitat destruction and climatic changes its range has been reduced so that by the 19th century, it only survived in the Terai grasslands of southern Nepal, northern Uttar Pradesh, northern Bihar, northern West Bengal, in the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam.

The species was present in northern Bihar and Oudh at least until 1770 as indicated in maps produced by Colonel Gentil. On the former abundance of the species, Thomas C. Jerdon wrote in 1867: This huge rhinoceros is found in the Terai at the foot of the Himalayas, from Bhutan to Nepal, it is more common in the e


Sarigama is a 2016 Sinhala musical film written and directed by Somaratne Dissanayake and produced by his wife Renuka Balasooriya for Cine Films Lanka. The film features Pooja Umashankar and Ashan Dias in the leading roles while Malini Fonseka and Gayani Gisantika play key supporting roles, it released in 2 December 2016 only on EAP 3D cinemas. The film is an adaptation of the 1965 Oscar award winning musical Sound of Music, based on the autobiography of Maria Von Trapp in 1949. Changes were made to suit the local setting, the film avoids politics altogether; the film was shot in picturesque hill country areas capturing the natural attractions of the island. Maria, a young and beautiful music loving girl enters a convent with the intention of becoming a Catholic nun, her playful behavior and strong desire to make music create difficulties with the convent's administration. She is sent away to become a governess to the seven children of a widowed ex-navy captain. Maria's playful friendliness towards the children and the strict captain attracts the love of both the children and the captain, changing all of their lives.

Pooja Umashankar as Maria Ashan Dias as Captain Tony Gayani Gisantika as Sandra Somasiri Alakolnga as John Malani Fonseka as Reverend Mother Rathna Lalani Jayakody as Sister Rita Sakunathala Sathsarani as Sister Kathy Bhudhi Randheniya as Sister Lisa Sherin Ishani as Sister Sofia Narthana Dhilmini as Sister Eva Sinethi Akila as Olu Milni Menaara as Manel Vethuli Uvanya as Rosy Lalith Janakaantha as Max Thisari Anjali as Nelum Pramuditha Udayakumara as Sadun Ramya Vanigasekara as Dalci Kaushalya Nirmana as Saman Menaaraa Thisanya as Kumudhu Dasun Madusanka as Michael The film had music scored by Rohana Weerasinghe and director Somaratne Dissanayake wrote the songs. Thirteen songs were released onto CD and sold at cinemas where the film was playing singers included Nanda Malini, Edward Jayakody, Uresha Ravihari, Shashika Nisansala and Harshana Dissanayake.. සම්මානයක් ලැබුණාම ඔළුවට තව බරක් - Gayani Gisanthika

Swartswood State Park

Swartswood State Park is a 3,460-acre protected area located in the Swartswood section of Stillwater and Hampton townships in Sussex County, New Jersey, in the United States. Established in 1915 by the state's Forest Park Reservation Commission, it was the first state park established by the state of New Jersey for the purposes of recreation at the state's third-largest freshwater lake. Today, Swartswood State Park is operated and maintained by the New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry; the park's main feature is Swartswood Lake, a 502-acre glacial lake located in northwestern New Jersey's Kittatinny Valley—part of New Jersey's Ridge and Valley physiographic province. Both Swartswood Lake and the smaller Little Swartswood Lake are remnants of the retreat glaciers from the Wisconsin glaciation which began 20,000 years ago. Both lakes have been the focus of water-quality improvement efforts by the state, including invasive aquatic-weed control and watershed protection in association with a local non-profit organization.

The park is open all year, with many recreational activities available, including hiking, cross-country skiing, swimming and camping. Fishing and hunting are permitted within the park. In 1905, Governor Edward C. Stokes established the Forest Park Reservation Commission to begin acquiring and setting aside lands within the state of New Jersey as parks and forest reserves; the first acquisitions were forest lands with an aim toward protecting their commercial value. According to the commission's first annual report, "the forests are'the great savings banks of nature' from which we have been taking the interest and reducing the capital". However, in 1908, the state forester, Alfred Gaskill, proposed the creation of parks for recreation, writing that "the aesthetic part of forestry must be dominant here because a large proportion of the people live in towns and cities and consider the forests as their playgrounds". From his acquisition of the lake in 1888 until his death in 1905, Newark-based rubber and harness manufacturer Andrew Albright, Sr. sought to prevent free public access to the lake for fishing and strenuously fought state efforts to exercise its legislative and eminent domain powers to compel such access.

In August 1914, his children and heirs Andrew Albright, Jr. and Elizabeth Spurr sold 544 acres which included the waters of Swartswood Lake, to the commission for $30,000. The transaction was finalized with deeds filed on June 30, 1915; this included the 520-acre lake and 20 acres of land to provide nine boat launching and landing sites as well as picnic and recreation grounds. The commissioners reported. Boat liveries and picnic shelters to be maintained under proper control will make it available to a large number of people" and to stock the lake with fish; because of its focus on recreational activities, Swartswood is considered New Jersey's first state park. The park was expanded from two tracts obtained from the farm of Stillwater resident George Emmons, 12.5 acres in 1916 and 168 acres in 1941. A June 1962 park pamphlet described the park as "704 acres including the entire water body of Swartswood Lake; the land area consists of 185 acres with about one mile of lake frontage". Since 1961, open space preservation and acquisition funds from the state's Green Acres Program have aided the expansion of state's protected areas, including Swartswood State Park.

Recent purchases have connected the park with the Trout Brook Wildlife Management Area and provided protected habitat for wildlife including the bobcat and black bear. In 1992, the Swartswood Lakes and Watershed Association was established by local residents to "protect the water quality of Swartswood and Little Swartswood Lakes and preserve the lakes for recreational use"; the association has partnered with the State Park Service, Rutgers University, the United States Geological Survey in watershed management and conservation efforts. However, association members have criticized the New Jersey Division of Environmental Protection for failing to address the identification or harvesting of invasive species from the lake. Swartswood State Park is a 3,460-acre protected area located in Stillwater and Hampton townships, New Jersey. Located at 502 feet above mean sea level, the park is located along County Route 619 southeast of the hamlet of Swartswood; the focus of park is Swartswood Lake, 520-acre glacial lake, the third-largest freshwater lake in New Jersey.

The lake stretches 1 mile wide. The park's area comprises several mountain streams, including Neldon's Brook, other lakes, including Little Swartswood Lake—an 84-acre glacial lake—as well as Duck Pond, Spring Lake, Willow Crest Lake, Frog Pond; the park, its bodies of water, are located within the watershed of the Paulins Kill, a tributary of the Delaware River. Camp Lou Henry Hoover, a camp affiliated with the Girl Scouts, the 1,843.6-acre Trout Brook Wildlife Management Area administered by the New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife are located nearby the state park. Swartswood State Park is located in the Kittatinny Valley, a segment of the Great Appalachian Valley that stretches from Quebec to Alabama; the valley and surrounding area is part of New Jersey's Valley physiographic province. The surficial geology of the valley, namely its soils and parent materials, were created from materials left behind by the retreat of