A rhinoceros abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species therein. Two of the extant species are native to Africa, three to Southern Asia; the term "rhinoceros" is more broadly applied to now extinct species of the superfamily Rhinocerotoidea. Members of the rhinoceros family are some of the largest remaining megafauna, with all species able to reach or exceed one tonne in weight, they have a herbivorous diet, small brains for mammals of their size, one or two horns, a thick protective skin formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure. They eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter when necessary. Unlike other perissodactyls, the two African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their lips to pluck food. Rhinoceros are killed by some humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black market, used by some cultures for ornaments or traditional medicine.

East Asia Vietnam, is the largest market for rhino horns. By weight, rhino horns cost as much as gold on the black market. People consume them, believing the dust has therapeutic properties; the horns are made of the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails. Both African species and the Sumatran rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan rhinoceros have a single horn; the IUCN Red List identifies the Black and Sumatran rhinoceros as critically endangered. The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Ancient Greek: ῥῑνόκερως, composed of ῥῑνο- and κέρας with a horn on the nose; the plural in English is rhinoceroses. The collective noun for a group of rhinoceroses is herd; the name has been in use since the 14th century. The family Rhinocerotidae consists of only four extant genera: Ceratotherium, Diceros and Rhinoceros; the living species fall into three categories. The two African species, the white rhinoceros and the black rhinoceros, belong to the tribe Dicerotini, which originated in the middle Miocene, about 14.2 million years ago.

The species diverged during the early Pliocene. The main difference between black and white rhinos is the shape of their mouths – white rhinos have broad flat lips for grazing, whereas black rhinos have long pointed lips for eating foliage. There are two living Rhinocerotini species, the Indian rhinoceros and the Javan rhinoceros, which diverged from one another about 10 million years ago; the Sumatran rhinoceros is the only surviving representative of the most primitive group, the Dicerorhinini, which emerged in the Miocene. A subspecific hybrid white rhino was bred at the Dvůr Králové Zoo in the Czech Republic in 1977. Interspecific hybridisation of black and white rhinoceros has been confirmed. While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes, all other rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes. However, chromosomal polymorphism might lead to varying chromosome counts. For instance, in a study there were three northern white rhinoceroses with 81 chromosomes. There are two subspecies of white rhinoceros: the southern white rhinoceros and the northern white rhinoceros.

As of 2013, the southern subspecies has a wild population of 20,405 – making them the most abundant rhino subspecies in the world. However, the northern subspecies is critically endangered, with all, known to remain being two captive females. There is no conclusive explanation of the name "white rhinoceros". A popular idea that "white" is a distortion of either the Afrikaans word wyd or the Dutch word wijd, meaning "wide" and referring to the rhino's square lips, is not supported by linguistic studies; the white rhino has a short neck and broad chest. Females weigh males 2,400 kg; the head-and-body length is 3.5–4.6 m and the shoulder height is 1.8–2 m. On its snout it has two horns; the front horn is larger than averages 90 cm in length and can reach 150 cm. The white rhinoceros has a prominent muscular hump that supports its large head; the colour of this animal can range from yellowish brown to slate grey. Most of its body hair is found on the ear fringes and tail bristles, with the rest distributed rather sparsely over the rest of the body.

White rhinos have the distinctive flat broad mouth, used for grazing. The name "black rhinoceros" was chosen to distinguish this species from the white rhinoceros; this can be confusing, as the two species are not distinguishable by color. There are four subspecies of black rhino: South-central, the most numerous, which once ranged from central Tanzania south through Zambia and Mozambique to northern and eastern South Africa.

Kirby Wright

Kirby Michael Wright is an American writer best known for his coming of age island novel Punahou Blues and the epic novel Moloka'i Nui Ahina, based on the life and times of Wright's paniolo grandmother. Both novels deal with the racial tensions between haoles and the indigenous Hawaiians, illustrate the challenge for characters who, as the product of mixed-race marriages, must try to bridge the two cultures and overcome prejudice from both camps. Wright has ventured into the genre of creative nonfiction in 2019 with The Queen of Moloka'i, which explores the teenage years of his part-Hawaiian grandmother and documents the Wright family saga in the islands. Wright's work is concerned with the complexities of multicultural Hawaii, Killahaole Day, prejudices against island high schools, the tricky matter of interracial dating, he incorporates the local creole language into his novels and was the first author to document the pidgin English spoken by the paniolo cowboys on the east end of Molokai.

Wright has ventured into the arena of speculative fiction with a pair of books in 2013. The End, My Friend is a futuristic thriller set in the not-too-distant future featuring a survivalist couple roaming an apocalyptic landscape from San Diego north to Crater Lake, Oregon. Square Dancing at the Asylum is set, in part, at the former state asylum in Worcester, Mass. and is dedicated to Paul Ford Nolan, Wright's great uncle and lifelong resident of the asylum. Both books received Certificates of Excellence at the 2014 San Diego Book Awards. HOUDINI, his first play, was performed at the Secret Theatre in New York on February 20, 2016; the Secret Theatre produced his second play, ASYLUM UNCLE, on November 4, 2016. Wright was born in Hawaii, he is of English-Irish-Italian-Hawaiian heritage. His European roots are in Cork, Nelson and Genoa, Italy, his father, Harold S. Wright, was a corporate attorney for the firm Smith Wild Cades, his mother, the former June McCormack of Boston, was a secretary at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT.

Starting at the age of 4, Wright spent summers with his part-Hawaiian grandmother Julia Gilman on her ranch on the east end of Molokai. It was here that Wright met Sophie Cooke, a cattle rancher who wrote the memoir Sincerely, Sophie about her life and times on the islands; this meeting proved influential to the young Wright. Evidence of Wright's love for the written word surfaced at the Star of the Sea Elementary School in Honolulu, where he crafted and performed plays about vampires, pro wrestlers, secret agents. Kirby Wright won first place in a recital competition for his reading of "Trees" by Joyce Kilmer and won awards for his original poems. Kirby won the short story competition. Despite winning this competition, Wright felt like an outsider at Punahou School and his experiences at this private institution became fertile material for his coming of age novel Punahou Blues. Wright attended the University of Colorado for one semester and transferred to the University of Hawaii at Manoa. At UH he studied under the tutelage of Maxine Hong Kingston and met Kurt Vonnegut as well as Allen Ginsberg.

Wright transferred to the University of California at San Diego UC-San Diego, where he took classes taught by the poets Bobbie Louise Hawkins and Jerome Rothenberg. Kirby Wright received a B. A. in English and American literature of the University of California San Diego. After graduation, he sold cars for a living at Rancho Olds in Kearny Mesa became public relations director for the Carlsbad Inn and San Clemente Cove. Rich but unhappy, he applied to the San Francisco State University and was accepted into their Masters Program in Creative Writing by Anne Rice. While at the San Francisco State University, he took classes taught by Frances Mayes, Daniel J. Langton, Molly Giles, Harry Mark Petrakis. Kirby Wright earned a Master of Fine Arts in creative writing and was the first student in the history of his university to receive the; the setting of the book is Wright's high school Alma Mater Punahou School. The novel provides insight into the tumultuous 60s and 70s in multicultural Honolulu, from the viewpoint of a white boy narrator searching for his identity in this private school.

His rites of passage include losing the girl of his dreams, not living up to his father's great expectations, surviving Killahaole Day, being suspended, sibling rivalry, fighting the school bully, navigating the tricky waters of interracial dating. A parallel novel entitled Molokai'i Nui Ahina was published in August 2007; the book features the life and times of Julia Daniels, a Moloka'i pioneer woman of mixed blood, who invites her grandsons Jeff and Ben to spend the summer with her at her ranch. She shares the land with ex-husband Chipper, an alcoholic war hero with an estate bordering the swamp; the boys roam a true paradise consisting of fishponds and mountains with herds of deer. Jeff meets the kahuna woman who freezes pictures of her enemies, the transsexual who seduces the Chief of Police, the man who referees cock fights in Kaunakakai, the beautiful divorcee who lives in the saddle room, the prodigal grandfather who returns to woo Julia. All these characters shape Jeff's sensibilities as he learns the secrets of his grandmother's wild past in Honolulu and the intensity of her struggles on the Lonely Isle.

Kirby Wright has been nominated for three Best of the Net Awards. He is a past recipient of the Jodi Stutz Memorial Prize in Poet


The Saulteaux are a First Nations band government in Ontario, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, Canada. They are a branch of the Ojibwe when they pushed west forming into a mixed culture of woodlands and plains Indigenous customs and traditions; the Saulteaux are a branch of the Ojibwe Aboriginal Canadians. They are sometimes called the Anihšināpē. Saulteaux is a French term meaning "people of the rapids," referring to their former location in the area of Sault Ste. Marie, they were hunters and fishers, had extensive trading relations with the French and Americans at that post. The Saulteaux were settled around Lake Superior and Lake Winnipeg, principally in the areas of present-day Sault Ste. Marie and northern Michigan. Pressure from European Canadians and Americans pushed the tribe westward to Manitoba and Alberta, with one community in British Columbia. Today most live in the Interlake District; because they were forced to move to land ill-suited for European crops, they were able to keep much of their new lands.

The Saulteaux are divided into three major divisions. Eastern Saulteaux, better known as the Ontario Saulteaux, are located about Rainy Lake, about Lake of the Woods in Northwestern Ontario and southeastern Manitoba. Many of the Ontario Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 3, their form of Anishinaabemowin is sometimes called Northwestern Ojibwa language or Ojibwemowin. Today English is the first language of many members; the Ontario Saulteaux culture is descended from the Eastern Woodlands culture. Central Saulteaux, better known as Manitoba Saulteaux, are found in eastern and southern Manitoba, extending west into southern Saskatchewan. During the late 18th century and early 19th century, as partners with the Cree in the fur trade, the Saulteaux migrated northwest into the Swan River and Cumberland districts of west-central Manitoba, into Saskatchewan along the Assiniboine River, as far its confluence with the Souris River. Once established in the area, the Saulteaux adapted some of the cultural traits of their allies, the Plains Cree and Assiniboine.

Together with the Western Saulteaux, the Manitoba Saulteaux are sometimes called Plains Ojibwe. Many of the Manitoba Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 1 and Treaty 2; the Manitoba Saulteaux culture is a transitional one from the Eastern Woodlands culture of their Ontario Saulteaux neighbours and Plains culture of the Western Saulteaux neighbours. The term Bungi or Bungee has been used to refer to either the Manitoba Saulteaux or their Métis population; the language of their Métis population is described as the Bungi language. Western Saulteaux are found in central Saskatchewan, but extend east into southwestern Manitoba and west into central Alberta and eastern British Columbia, they call themselves Nakawē —an autonym, a general term for the Saulteaux. The neighbouring Plains Cree call them a word of related etymology, their form of Anishinaabemowin, known as Nakawēmowin or Western Ojibwa language, is an Algonquian language. Like most First Nations, most members use English as the first language.

Many of the Western Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 4 and Treaty 6. The Western Saulteaux culture is that of the Plains culture. Population figures are as of May 2013. Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation Buffalo Point First Nation, Buffalo Point, MB Cote First Nation, Kamsack, SK Cowessess First Nation, Cowessess, SK Eagle Lake First Nation, Migisi Sahgaigan, ON Ebb and Flow First Nation and Flow, MB Foothills Ojibway Society, Hinton, AB Gordon First Nation, Punnichy, SK Iskatewizaagegan 39 Independent First Nation, Kejick, ON Keeseekoose First Nation, Kamsack, SK Key First Nation, Norquay, SK Lac des Bois Band of Saulteaux Big Grassy First Nation, Morson, ON Anishnaabeg of Naongashiing First Nation, Morson, ON Northwest Angle 33 First Nation Northwest Angle 37 First Nation Niisaachewan Anishinaabe Nation, Kenora, ON Ojibways of Onigaming First Nation Anishinabe of Wauzhushk Onigum First Nation, Kenora, ON Lac des Mille Lacs First Nation Muscowpetung First Nation, Fort Qu'Appelle SK Muskowekwan First Nation Lestock, SK Naotkamegwanning First Nation, Pawitik, ON Obashkaandagaang Bay First Nation O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation O'Chiese First Nation, Rocky Mountain House, AB Pasqua First Nation, Fort Qu'Appelle, SK Pauingassi First Nation, Pauingass, MB Pinaymootang First Nation, Fairford, MB Pine Creek First Nation, Pine Creek MB Poorman's Band of Cree —primarily Cree but hi