Renée Lynn Fleming is an American opera singer and soprano. Fleming has a full lyric soprano voice, she has performed coloratura and lighter spinto soprano operatic roles in Italian, French and Russian, aside from her native English. She has sung chansons and indie rock, she speaks along with limited Italian. Her signature roles include Countess Almaviva in Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro, Desdemona in Verdi's Otello, Violetta in Verdi's La traviata, the title role in Dvořák's Rusalka, the title role in Massenet's Manon, the title role in Massenet's Thaïs, the title role in Richard Strauss's Arabella, the Marschallin in Der Rosenkavalier, the Countess in Capriccio. A National Medal of Arts and Richard Tucker Award winner, she performs in opera houses and concert halls worldwide. In 2008, she was awarded the Swedish Polar Music Prize for her services in music. In 2010, she took the title of'Creative Consultant' to the Lyric Opera of Chicago, the first person to hold such a title with the company. Conductor Sir Georg Solti said of Fleming, "In my long life, I have met maybe two sopranos with this quality of singing.
A daughter of two music teachers, Fleming was born on February 14, 1959, in Indiana and grew up in Churchville, New York. She has great-grandparents who were born in Prague and emigrated to the US. Fleming attended Churchville-Chili High School under the tutelage of Rob Goodling who taught orchestra, voice, theory/composition, music history, she studied with Patricia Misslin at the Crane School of Music at the State University of New York at Potsdam. While at SUNY Potsdam, she took up singing with a jazz trio in an off-campus bar called Alger's; the jazz saxophonist Illinois Jacquet invited her on tour with his big band, but she chose instead to continue with graduate studies at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York with voice teacher John Maloy. She won a Fulbright Scholarship, which enabled her to work in Europe with Arleen Augér and Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, she sang at jazz clubs to pay for further studies at the Juilliard School. While at Juilliard she sang in roles with the Juilliard Opera Center, appearing as Musetta in Puccini's La bohème and the Wife in Menotti's Tamu-Tamu, among others.
Her voice teacher at Juilliard was Beverley Peck Johnson. Fleming began performing professionally in smaller concerts and with small opera companies while still a graduate student at Juilliard, she sang in the Musica Viva concert series sponsored by the New York Unitarian Church of All Souls during the 1980s. In 1984 she sang nine songs by Hugo Wolf in the world premiere of Eliot Feld's ballet Adieu, which she again performed in 1987 and 1989 at the Joyce Theater. In 1986 she sang her first major operatic role, Konstanze in Die Entführung aus dem Serail, at the Salzburger Landestheater. Two years she portrayed Thalie, Clarine and La Folie in Jean-Philippe Rameau's Platée with the Piccolo Teatro Dell Opera, her major break came in 1988 when she won the Metropolitan Opera Auditions at age 29. That same year she sang the Countess in The Marriage of Figaro in her debut with Houston Grand Opera, she reprised the role the following year in her debut at the Spoleto Festival. In 1989, Fleming made her debut with the New York City Opera as Mimì in La bohème under conductor Chris Nance and her debut with The Royal Opera, London, as Dircé in Cherubini's Médée.
She was awarded a Richard Tucker Career Grant and won the George London Competition. In 1990 she was once again honored by the Richard Tucker Music Foundation but this time with the coveted Richard Tucker Award; that same year she made her debut with Seattle Opera in her first portrayal of the title role in Rusalka, a role that she has since recorded and reprised at many of the world's great opera houses. She sang for the 50th anniversary of the American Ballet Theatre in their production of Eliot Feld's Les Noces and returned to the New York City Opera to sing both the Countess in Le nozze di Figaro and Micaela in Bizet's Carmen, she sang the title role in the U. S. premiere presentation of Donizetti's 1841 opera Maria Padilla with Opera Omaha. In addition, she sang the title role in Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia with the Opera Orchestra of New York. Fleming made her Metropolitan Opera and San Francisco Opera debut portraying Countess Almaviva in Le nozze di Figaro in 1991, she was not scheduled to make her Met debut until the following season, but stepped in to replace Felicity Lott who had become ill.
She returned to the Met that year to sing Rosina in the world premiere of John Corigliano's The Ghosts of Versailles. Continuing her progress, she made her Carnegie Hall debut performing music by Ravel with the New York City Opera Orchestra, sang Rusalka with Houston Grand Opera, made her debut at the Tanglewood Music Festival as Ilia in Mozart's Idomeneo with Seiji Ozawa and the Boston Symphony Orchestra.1992 saw Fleming making her debut with Grand Théâtre de Genève as Fiordiligi in Mozart's Così fan tutte, she sang the role of Anna in Boieldieu's La dame blanche at Carnegie Hall with the Opera Orchestra of New York and the role of Fortuna in Mozart's Il sogno di Scipione at Alice Tully Hall, as part of Lincoln Center's Festival of Mozart Operas in Concert. Fleming sang the role of Alaide in Bellini's La straniera in a concert performance by the Opera Orchestra of New York, she gave her New York City solo recital debut at Alice Tully Hall to great acclaim, sang her first Pamina in Mozart's The Magic Flute at the Metropolitan Opera
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
Jonathan Troy was Edward Abbey's first published novel, as detailed in James M. Cahalan's biography of Abbey. Only 5,000 copies were printed and immediately after it was released the author wanted to disown the work, he asked that it never be published again, it has not been, making it rare and the only one of his eight novels that many Edward Abbey fans have not read. When a fan once asked where they could find a copy of the novel, Abbey is reported to have told them "I don't know where you can find one, but if you do, burn it." Copies of the book offered for sale online start at $1,300 and go up to $7,500. Abbey's disgust with the novel was immediate. According to James M. Cahalan's biography, Edward Abbey, A Life, he could get through the galleys before the book was published, he said it seemed "even worse than I had thought," too "juvenile, succeeded in nothing. Too much empty rhetoric, not enough meat and bone. Not convincing. All the obvious faults of the beginner." In 1984 Abbey was quoted by William Plummer in "Edward Abbey's Desert Solecisms" as saying that Jonathan Troy "was a disgusting novel long out of print....
It's about the agonies of growing up in a small town: masturbation. There's a Faulkner chapter, an entire chapter in one sentence... There's a Thomas Wolfe wind-through-the-trees-outside-the-farmhouse chapter, a Joyce chapter, of course there are newspaper clips all through the thing, like in Dos Passos's Nineteen Nineteen." This is the only one of Abbey's eight novels, set east of the Mississippi River and away from his beloved deserts of the Southwestern United States. He does spend a good portion of The Fool's Progress in West Virginia, but it starts in Tucson and follows a road trip to its climax. In high school Abbey kept a journal and used the moniker Jonathan Troy to refer to himself. While no one has claimed that the book is in any way an autobiographical account, it was not well received by people who had known Abbey during his senior year of high school; the contempt Jonathan shows for the residents of his home town was a hard blow to people Abbey knew in high school, a fact that may have had something to do with Abbey's regret at having published this book.
Still, as with his novels, the book contains more fiction than fact. For example, in the book, Jonathan lives alone with his one-eyed father. In real life, both of Abbey's parents were living and his father had two good eyes. According to the back of the book jacket, Abbey began writing Jonathan Troy as a creative writing assignment at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque under the sponsorship of Professor C. V. Wicker. After receiving his B. A. degree in 1951, Abbey spent a year at the University of Edinburgh. It was there. Many of the other characters in the book refer to Jonathan Troy as the golden boy. He's a senior at the local high school and they call him that because he has everything: Looks and talent, but he is not an easy character for the reader to like. We're given an insight into the mind of a teen-age boy, where he holds nearly everyone he meets in contempt—especially his father and his favorite teacher, Feathersmith; the book is written as a series of different events none of them related.
Jonathan has had an ongoing relationship with Etheline. But once he succeeds in seducing her, he begins to lose interest when she starts talking about marriage. A chance meeting with a new girl in town, gives him new inspiration and he begins pursuit of her. Abbey introduces the only major gay character in any of his eight novels, Phillip Feathersmith. Abbey doesn't come right out and say he's gay, but he describes his "fairy-flower" hands, talks about what a pink little fellow he is, Jonathan calls him "Fairysmith" in his own mind. Feathersmith shows an attraction to Jonathan, not subtle. Most of the story is set in a western Pennsylvania town called Powhattan, it was based on the town near where Abbey grew up, Pennsylvania. Abbey uses some of the names of businesses in Indiana in the 1940s for his story; the Blue Star Restaurant becomes the Blue Bell Bar, the business under the apartment Jonathan Troy shares with his father. There are many hints of the greatness Abbey would fine tune in his works, including his love of the desert.
One of the memorable characters in the book is Fatgut, a pathological liar who Jonathan seems close to. But for most of the book you figure Jonathan has no friends because he's too full of himself. You hear his every thought, it's all brutally honest; the key secondary character of the story is Nathaniel Troy. He is a Communist living in 1950s America, right about the time of the Red Scare, he receives daily threats to his well-being. Jonathan avoids his father as much as possible, living a independent life, but the climax of the story comes when some town drunks decide they're going to make the Communist kiss the American flag. Another character in the novel is Red Ginter, who would be a character in The Fool's Progress. In this book, Ginter is the neighborhood bully. In the latter book, he's a member of a baseball team who hits the game-winning home run, but refuses to run the bases. There was a real person named Earl "Red" Ginter, part of Abbey's early life and seems to be the inspiration for these characters.
There is no nobility in Jonathan Troy. Having access to his thoughts kills any affection you might be able to muster. He's rude to nearly everyone he
Indiana station (Pennsylvania)
Indiana station is a historic railway station located at Indiana, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. It was built by the Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railway in 1904, it is a 1 1/2 - wood frame building with weatherboard siding in a railroad vernacular-style. It features a generous overhang on all four sides, it housed a restaurant named Tazé until mid-2016. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1993 as the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway Indiana Passenger Station
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Graff's Market was a historic commercial building located at Indiana, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. It was built between 1887 and 1892, was a three-story, wood building on a stone foundation with a cast-iron storefront in a High Victorian Italianate-style; the building measured 30 feet by 57 feet, 6 inches, had a flat roof. The building housed the Graff family business for over 90 years, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. The structure has since been demolished, a modern two-story brick office building constructed in its place
Old Indiana County Courthouse
The Old Indiana County Courthouse is a former courthouse located in Indiana, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. The courthouse was designed by local architect James W. Drum, it was the second courthouse to serve the county, with the first demolished in 1868. The final cost of the project was $150,000. A dedication ceremony took place on December 19, 1870. Former Governor of Pennsylvania William F. Johnston spoke at the ceremony; the architecture, done in the Second Empire Italianate style, is red brick and stone. The roof was designed in the Mansard style; the courthouse features a gold leaf cupola clocktower with four faces. The main courtroom, located on the second floor measured 100 feet by 82 feet, with a 30 feet ceiling; the large clock in the cupola was the largest in the county at the time. It was manufactured by Howard Clock Company of Springfield, Ohio; the four faces were each 7 feet in diameter. The clock required winding once a 15-minute process. Today the clock runs on a new digital style. A jail and sheriff's residence was constructed next door in 1879, with a bridge that connected it to the courthouse to transport prisoners.
At least six individuals were hung in the court's jailyard, between 1882 and 1913. On September 24, 1945, a picture of Indiana-native Jimmy Stewart in front of the courthouse was featured on the cover of Life magazine. John F. Kennedy gave a speech outside the courthouse on October 15, 1960 while campaigning during the presidential election. In the rafters above the court room, there is a painted "JFK"; as to whether this was from JFK himself is unknown. The courthouse held its final session on November 11, 1970. After being replaced by the newer building, the now "old" Courthouse fell into disuse and was scheduled for demolition; the county commissioners offered a restoration-lease agreement to interested parties. On January 3, 1972, the commissioners approved an agreement with the National Bank of the Commonwealth, who planned to renovate the building for administrative use. NBOC was required to spend $100,000 in restoration over the initial three-year lease period in order to be eligible for a 47-year extension.
The bank agreed to pay $12,000 total in taxes and rent for use of the courthouse, including the jail next door when it was vacated. Today, the entire bell tower is supported by scaffolding set up in the main court room of the building, due to the age of the building's supports; this area is not seen by visitors often. The courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 29, 1974; the building serves as administrative offices for First Commonwealth Financial. The courthouse is featured in the Miniature Railroad & Village at the Carnegie Science Center in Pittsburgh. National Register of Historic Places listings in Indiana County, Pennsylvania Busovicki, John F. Indiana County. Arcadia Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7385-1181-1