Gary is a city in Lake County, United States, 25 miles from downtown Chicago, Illinois. Gary borders southern Lake Michigan. Gary was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation; the city is known for its large steel mills, as the birthplace of the Jackson 5 music group. The population of Gary was 80,294 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in the state of Indiana, it was a prosperous city from the 1920s through the mid-1960s due to its booming steel industry, but overseas competition and restructuring of the steel industry resulted in a decline and a severe loss of jobs. Since the late 1960s, Gary has suffered drastic population loss, falling by 55 percent from its peak of 178,320 in 1960; the city faces the difficulties of many Rust Belt cities, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels. It is estimated that nearly one-third of all houses in the city are abandoned. Gary, was founded in 1906 by the United States Steel Corporation as the home for its new plant, Gary Works.
The city was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation. Gary was the site of civil unrest in the steel strike of 1919. On October 4, 1919, a riot broke out on Broadway, the main north-south street through downtown Gary, between striking steel workers and strike breakers brought in from outside. Three days Indiana governor James P. Goodrich declared martial law. Shortly thereafter, over 4,000 federal troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood arrived to restore order; the jobs offered by the steel industry provided Gary with rapid growth and a diverse population within the first 26 years of its founding. According to the 1920 United States Census, 29.7% of Gary's population at the time was classified as foreign-born from eastern European countries, with another 30.8% classified as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. By the 1930 United States Census, the first census in which Gary's population exceeded 100,000, the city was the fifth largest in Indiana and comparable in size to South Bend, Fort Wayne, Evansville.
At that time, 19.3% of the population was classified as foreign-born, with another 25.9% as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. In addition to white internal migrants, Gary had attracted numerous African-American migrants from the South in the Great Migration, 17.8% of the population was classified as black. 3.5% was classified as Mexican. Gary's fortunes have fallen with those of the steel industry; the growth of the steel industry brought prosperity to the community. Broadway was known as a commercial center for the region. Department stores and architecturally significant movie houses were built in the downtown area and the Glen Park neighborhood. In the 1960s, like many other American urban centers reliant on one particular industry, Gary entered a spiral of decline. Gary's decline was brought on by the growing overseas competitiveness in the steel industry, which had caused U. S. Steel to lay off many workers from the Gary area; the U. S. Steel Gary Works employed over 30,000 in 1970, declined to just 6,000 by 1990, further declined to 5,100 in August 2015.
Attempts to shore up the city's economy with major construction projects, such as a Holiday Inn hotel and the Genesis Convention Center, failed to reverse the decline. Rapid racial change occurred in Gary during the late 20th century; these population changes resulted in political change which reflected the racial demographics of Gary: the non-white share of the city's population increased from 21% in 1930, 39% in 1960, to 53% in 1970. Non-whites were restricted to live in the Midtown section just south of downtown. Gary had one of the nation's first African-American mayors, Richard G. Hatcher, hosted the ground-breaking 1972 National Black Political Convention. Since the 1930s, Gary had developed a reputation as a tough city due to rampant political corruption, racial violence & segregation, labor unrest, industrial pollution. In the 1960s through the 1980s, surrounding suburban localities such as Merrillville, Crown Point and Valparaiso experienced rapid growth, including new homes and shopping districts.
Owing to white flight, economic distress, a perception of skyrocketing crime, many middle-class and affluent residents moved to other cities in the metro area. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Gary had the highest percentage of African-Americans of U. S. cities with a population of 100,000 or more, 84%. This no longer applies to Gary since the population of the city has now fallen well below 100,000 residents; as of 2013, the Gary Department of Redevelopment has estimated that one-third of all homes in the city are unoccupied and/or abandoned. U. S. Steel continues to be a major steel producer, but with only a fraction of its former level of employment. While Gary has failed to reestablish a manufacturing base since its population peak, two casinos opened along the Gary lakeshore in the 1990s, although this has been aggravated by the state closing of Cline Avenue, an important access to the area. Today, Gary faces the difficulties of a Rust Belt city, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels.
Gary has closed several of its schools within the last ten years. While some of the school buildings have been reused, most remain unused since their closing; as of 2014, Gary is consid
Hammond is a city in Lake County, United States. It is part of the Chicago metropolitan area. First settled in the mid-19th century, it is one of the oldest cities of northern Lake County; as of the 2010 United States census, it is the largest in population: the 2010 population was 80,830, replacing Gary as the most populous city in Lake County. From north to south, Hammond runs from Lake Michigan down to the Little Calumet River; the city is traversed by numerous railroads and expressways, including the South Shore Line, Borman Expressway, Indiana Toll Road. Notable local landmarks include the parkland around Wolf Lake and the Horseshoe Hammond riverboat casino. Part of the Rust Belt, Hammond has been industrial from its inception, but is home to a Purdue University campus and numerous historic districts that showcase the residential and commercial architecture of the early 20th century. Hammond is located at 41°36′40″N 87°29′35″W; the city's elevation above sea level ranges from 577 feet to 610 feet.
The city sits within the boundaries of the former Lake Chicago, much of its land area consists of former dune and swale terrain, subsequently leveled. Most of the city is on sandy soil with a layer of black topsoil that varies from non-existent to several feet thick. Much of the exposed sand was removed for purposes such as industrial use to make glass. According to the 2010 census, Hammond has a total area of 24.886 square miles, of which 22.78 square miles is land and 2.106 square miles is water. Grand Calumet River Lake George Lake Michigan Little Calumet River Oxbow Lake Wolf Lake IllinoisBurnham Calumet City Chicago LansingIndianaEast Chicago Gary Griffith Highland Munster Whiting As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 80,830 people, 29,949 households, 19,222 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,548.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,945 housing units at an average density of 1,446.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 59.4% White, 22.5% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 13.3% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.1% of the population. There were 29,949 households of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.8% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.36. The median age in the city was 33.3 years. 27.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 83,048 people, 32,026 households and 20,880 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,630.0 per square mile. There were 34,139 housing units at an average density of 1,492.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.35% White, 14.57% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 9.32% from other races, 2.81% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.04% of the population. There were 32,026 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.23. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,528, the median income for a family was $42,221. Males had a median income of $35,778 versus $25,180 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,254. About 12.0% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over.
Central Hammond Hessville North Hammond Robertsdale South Hammond Woodmar Most of Hammond's streets are laid out in a grid pattern similar to Chicago's streets. While Madison Street in Chicago acts as the reference point for north-south street numbering the first "1" is removed; the state line is used as the reference point for east-west street numbering. Other cities and towns in Northwest Indiana that use the Hammond numbering system are Whiting and Highland. Dyer uses the Hammond numbering system but the first number removed from the north-south streets is a "2," as by that point the Illinois numbers across the state line start with the number 2. I-9
Indiana Democratic Party
The Democratic Party of Indiana is the affiliate of the U. S. Democratic Party in the U. S. state of Indiana. The Indiana Democratic Party holds two of Indiana's nine Congressional seats; the party Chairman is John Zody. The Indiana Democratic Party has its roots in the work of Jonathan Jennings, Democratic-Republican and first governor of the newly formed state of Indiana in 1816. Jennings pushed hard for statehood, is attributed as an intellectual father of the Indiana Democratic Party, he pushed for a stable state bank. Indiana political parties in the 19th century were divided culturally. Indiana, more than any other Midwestern state, received an influx of southern farmers who didn't mix well with northern manufacturers and businessmen. Patronage was given out as Democratic and Whig politicians fought for control of state government. Whigs predominantly controlled the state legislature, while Democrats predominantly controlled the governorship. Turbulent elections and heated Democratic passion ended up persuading 50 Whig legislators to switch parties by 1852.
Though William Henry Harrison, a Whig and one of the first governors of the Indiana territory, ran for president in 1840, Democrats like Joseph Chapman were critical of him and his supporters. The first Indiana Democratic Party meeting was held in 1848, at the time was called the "Indiana State Central Committee of the Democratic Party". Only seven men were in attendance. Thomas Hendricks, nephew of the third governor of Indiana, became the first post-war Democrat to be elected governor in a Northern state, his popular bipartisan leadership would lead him to be President Grover Cleveland's first vice president from 1885 to 1889. As the city of Indianapolis grew into a massive urban area, Democrats began to continuously represent the city in the state legislature. Thomas Taggart, the mayor of Indianapolis from 1895–1901, became the first Hoosier to become chairman of the Democratic National Committee. In 1913, Thomas Marshall, Governor of Indiana, became yet another Democratic Hoosier to be a vice president.
Marshall is best known for his humorous quote as vice president, said on the Senate floor: "What this country needs is a good five-cent cigar." Years World War II veteran Frank McKinney became a delegate in the 1948 Democratic Convention, became the second Hoosier to be Chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 1951. In the 1980s, Evan Bayh became a popular figure within the Indiana Democratic Party as well as the state of Indiana. A young governor elected in 1988, Bayh was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1998. Bayh's two terms as governor, along with his lieutenant governor Frank O'Bannon's own gubernatorial years, resulted in a budget surplus, tax cuts and increased funding for education and health insurance for the poor. Long considered a moderate, Bayh was rumored to be a top pick for Barack Obama's vice presidential nominee in 2008, but the spot ended up going to Delaware Senator Joe Biden. Following O'Bannon's death in 2003, Lieutenant Governor Joe Kernan succeeded him in office. Kernan lost the 2004 gubernatorial election to Republican Mitch Daniels, ending sixteen years of Democratic control of the Governor's Mansion.
Democrats lost attempts to regain the office in 2008, 2012, 2016. Bayh, who had represented Indiana in the U. S. Senate since 1999, was reelected overwhelmingly in 2004 as Republican George W. Bush carried the state in the presidential race. Bayh declined run again in 2010, resulting in Republicans gaining the seat, was defeated in his bid for a non-consecutive third term in 2016. Republican control of both U. S. Senate seats from Indiana was ended when Joe Donnelly won the 2012 election, defeating controversial Republican candidate Richard Mourdock. Donnelly sought reelection in 2018, campaigning on his willingness to compromise with President Donald Trump, but was defeated by Mike Braun. Democratic candidate J. D. Ford became the first gay Hoosier elected to the Indiana Senate following his 2018 victory over Mike Delph, to whom he had narrowly lost a State Senate bid four years earlier. In February 2011, 37 out of 40 House Democrats refused to show up to a legislative session in protest of a Republican right-to-work bill, which would allow workers to have the option of paying union dues.
With the Republicans in the majority, Democrats feared that what they consider to be a radical bill would be passed, many of them relocated across the border in Urbana, Illinois. The move took a cue from Indiana's counterparts in Wisconsin, where Democratic lawmakers there hid out in Illinois in protest of a controversial public-sector union bill in the same month; the Indiana Democratic caucus released a statement on the matter, saying that "By staying here, we will be giving the people of Indiana a chance to find out more about this radical agenda and speak out against it." Republican Governor Mitch Daniels, who had urged Republican lawmakers not to pursue a right-to-work bill during that legislative session, stated his hope that Democrats would return to do their jobs. Daniels supported the bill, but not the political timing of it, as it would distract from other parts of his legislative agenda he wanted to focus on. In early March 2011, Democrats faced a choice of either returning to the state, or paying a daily fine of $250.
The Indiana Constitution allows such fines as a way of compelling missing lawmakers to return. Such a tactic was employed as an alter
Valparaiso is a city and the county seat of Porter County, United States. The population was 31,730 at the 2010 census; the site of present-day Valparaiso was included in the purchase of land from the Potawatomi people by the U. S. Government in October 1832. Chiqua's town or Chipuaw was located a mile east of the current Courthouse along the Sauk Trail. Chiqua's town existed from or before 1830 until after 1832; the location is just north of the railroad crossing on County Road 400 North. Located on the ancient Native American trail from Rock Island to Detroit, the town had its first log cabin in 1834. Established in 1836 as Portersville, county seat of Porter County, it was renamed to Valparaiso in 1837 after Valparaíso, near which the county's namesake David Porter battled in the Battle of Valparaiso during the War of 1812; the city was once called the "City of Churches" due to the large number of churches located there at the end of the 19th Century. Valparaiso Male and Female College, one of the earliest higher education institutions admitting both men and women in the country, was founded in Valparaiso in 1859, but closed its doors in 1871 before reopening in 1873 as the Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute.
In the early 20th century, it became Valparaiso College Valparaiso University. It was affiliated with the Methodist Church but after 1925 with the Lutheran University Association and expanded after World War II. Valparaiso has a long history of being a transportation hub for the region. In 1858, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad reached Valparaiso, connecting the city directly to Chicago. By 1910, an interurban railway connected the city to Indiana. Today, while the city no longer has a passenger train station, it is still much a part of the "Crossroads of America" due to its proximity to I-65, I-80, I-90, I-94. Additionally, the Canadian National railroad still runs freight on the tracks, including through the downtown area; until 1991, Valparaiso was the terminal of Amtrak's Calumet commuter service. The city is situated at the junctions of U. S. Route 30, State Road 2, State Road 49. According to the 2010 census, Valparaiso has a total area of 15.578 square miles, of which 15.53 square miles is land and 0.048 square miles is water.
The city is situated on the Valparaiso Moraine. Glaciation has left numerous features on the landscape here. Kettle lakes and knobs make up much of this hilly area of Northwest Indiana; the Pines Ski Area is the only remaining kame in the city. Many glacial erratics can be found throughout the city; the moraine has left the city with clay soil. As of the census of 2010, there were 31,730 people, 12,610 households, 7,117 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,043.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,506 housing units at an average density of 869.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.9% White, 3.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.1% of the population. There were 12,610 households of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.6% were non-families.
34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.99. The median age in the city was 33.4 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 27,428 people, 10,867 households, 6,368 families residing in the city; the population density was 971.6/km². There were 11,559 housing units at an average density of 409.4/km². The racial makeup of the city was 94.35% White, 1.60% African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.34% of the population. There were 10,867 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families.
33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 17.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,799, the median income for a family was $60,637. Males had a median income of $46,452 versus $26,544 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,509. About 4.8% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those unde
Michigan City, Indiana
Michigan City is a city in LaPorte County, United States. It is one of the two principal cities of the Michigan City-La Porte, Indiana Metropolitan statistical area, included in the Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City Combined statistical area. Located in the region known to locals as Michiana, it is 50 miles east of Chicago and 40 miles west of South Bend; the city had a population of 31,479 at the 2010 census. Michigan City is noted for both its proximity to Indiana Dunes National Park and for bordering Lake Michigan. Due to this, Michigan City receives a fair amount of tourism during the summer months by residents of Chicago and of nearby cities in Northern Indiana; the lighthouse is a notable symbol for the city and is incorporated in the heading of Michigan City's sole newspaper, The News Dispatch, the city's official seal. Michigan City hosted the sailing events at the 1987 Pan American Games. Michigan City is located at 41°42′34″N 86°53′13″W. According to the 2010 census, Michigan City has a total area of 22.855 square miles, of which 19.59 square miles is land and 3.265 square miles is water.
Michigan City is home to the stream Trail Creek which flows into Lake Michigan. As of the census of 2010, there were 31,479 people, 12,136 households, 7,147 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,606.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 14,435 housing units at an average density of 736.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64.9% White, 28.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 2.1% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.9% of the population. There were 12,136 households of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.4% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.1% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 37.1 years.
23.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.4% male and 48.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,900 people, 12,550 households, 7,906 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,678.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 14,221 housing units at an average density of 725.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.45% White, 26.31% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.15% of the population. There were 12,550 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 18.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.02.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,732, the median income for a family was $39,520. Males had a median income of $32,194 versus $23,125 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,995. About 10.4% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.2% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. The highest recorded temperature was 104 °F in 1953; the lowest recorded temperature was -23 °F in 1994. The city has a usual weather pattern for a temperate region, with thunderstorms in the summer and snow during winter. Summers are warm and humid. Due to its location next to Lake Michigan the city experiences lake-effect snows and rain showers.
Michigan City's origins date to 1830, when the land for the city was first purchased by Isaac C. Elston, a real estate speculator who had made his fortune in Crawfordsville, Indiana, he paid about $200 total for 160 acres of land. The now-closed Elston Middle School Elston High School, was named after the founder; the city was incorporated in 1836, by which point it had 1,500 residents, along with a post office, a newspaper, a church, a commercial district and ten hotels. In these six years the town had grown to a size of 15 square miles; that same year, the State Bank of Indiana opened a branch in town. Michigan City is the home of the Old Michigan City Light; the Pullman-Standard rail car plant was located in Michigan City. Marquette Mall, constructed in 1965, is Michigan City's sole indoor shopping mall. Lighthouse Place Premium Outlet mall, on the cities North end is an outdoor mall. St. Anthony Memorial Health Center is Michigan City's sole hospital. Michigan City houses a zoo, art center, is the home of the Indiana State Prison.
Michigan City has one of the nation's oldest active municipal bands. Free concerts are performed for the public every Thursday evening at the Guy F. Foreman Amphitheatre located in Washington Park; the eastern edge of Indiana
Term limits in the United States
Term limits in the United States apply to many offices at both the federal and state level, date back to the American Revolution. Term limits referred to as rotation in office, restrict the number of terms of office an officeholder may hold. For example, according to the 22nd Amendment, the President of the United States can serve two four-year terms and serve no more than 10 years. Term limits date back to the American Revolution, prior to that to the democracies and republics of antiquity; the council of 500 in ancient Athens rotated its entire membership annually, as did the ephorate in ancient Sparta. The ancient Roman Republic featured a system of elected magistrates—tribunes of the plebs, quaestors and consuls —who served a single term of one year, with re-election to the same magistracy forbidden for ten years. According to historian Garrett Fagan, office holding in the Roman Republic was based on "limited tenure of office" which ensured that "authority circulated frequently", helping to prevent corruption.
An additional benefit of the cursus honorum or Run of Offices was to bring the "most experienced" politicians to the upper echelons of power-holding in the ancient republic. Many of the founders of the United States were educated in the classics, quite familiar with rotation in office during antiquity; the debates of that day reveal a desire to study and profit from the object lessons offered by ancient democracy. Prior to independence, several colonies had experimented with term limits; the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut of 1639, for example, prohibited the colonial governor from serving consecutive terms, setting terms at one year's length, holding "that no person be chosen Governor above once in two years." Shortly after independence, the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 set maximum service in the Pennsylvania General Assembly at "four years in seven". Benjamin Franklin's influence is seen not only in that he chaired the constitutional convention which drafted the Pennsylvania constitution, but because it included unchanged, Franklin's earlier proposals on executive rotation.
Pennsylvania's plural executive was composed of twelve citizens elected for the term of three years, followed by a mandatory vacation of four years. The Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, established term limits for the delegates to the Continental Congress, mandating in Article V that "no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years."On October 2, 1789, the Continental Congress appointed a committee of thirteen to examine forms of government for the impending union of the states. Among the proposals was that from the State of Virginia, written by Thomas Jefferson, urging a limitation of tenure, "to prevent every danger which might arise to American freedom by continuing too long in office the members of the Continental Congress"; the committee made recommendations, which as regards congressional term limits were incorporated unchanged into the Articles of Confederation. The fifth Article stated that "no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years".
In contrast to the Articles of Confederation, the federal constitution convention at Philadelphia omitted mandatory term limits from the U. S. Constitution of 1789. At the convention, some delegates spoke passionately against term limits such as Rufus King, who said "that he who has proved himself to be most fit for an Office, ought not to be excluded by the constitution from holding it." The Electoral College, it was believed by some delegates at the convention, could have a role to play in limiting unfit officers from continuing. When the states ratified the Constitution, several leading statesmen regarded the lack of mandatory limits to tenure as a dangerous defect they thought, as regards the presidency and the Senate. Richard Henry Lee viewed the absence of legal limits to tenure, together with certain other features of the Constitution, as "most and dangerously oligarchic". Both Jefferson and George Mason advised limits on reelection to the Senate and to the Presidency, because said Mason, "nothing is so essential to the preservation of a Republican government as a periodic rotation".
The historian Mercy Otis Warren, warned that "there is no provision for a rotation, nor anything to prevent the perpetuity of office in the same hands for life. Michael Korzi says George Washington did not set the informal precedent for a two-term limit for the Presidency, he only meant he was too worn out to continue in office. It was Thomas Jefferson who made it a principle in 1808, he made many statements calling for term limits in another. The tradition was challenged by Ulysses Grant in 1880, by Theodore Roosevelt in 1912. Otherwise no major effort to avoid it took place until 1940 when Franklin Roosevelt explicitly broke it; the 22nd Amendment to the U. S. Constitution was ratified in 1951 formally establishing in law the two-term limit—although it did not apply to the incumbent Harry Truman; the fact that "perpetuity in office" was not approached until the 20th century is due in part to the influence of rotation in office as a popular 19th-century concept. "Ideas are, in truth, forces", rotation in office enjoyed such normative support at the local level, that it altered political reality.
For a detailed study of the 19th-century concepts of rotation, consult Political Science Quarterly, vol. 94, "House Turnover and the Principle of Rotation", by Robert Struble, Jr. See his Treatise on Twelve Lights, chapter six, "Rotation in History". Consult James Young's The Washington Community, 1
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power; the lower house is the larger of the two chambers, i.e. its members are more numerous. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral. In comparison with the upper house, lower houses display certain characteristics. Powers In a parliamentary system, the lower house: In the modern era, has much more power based on restrictions against the upper house. Able to override the upper house in some ways. Can vote a motion of no confidence against the government, as well as vote for or against any proposed candidate for head of government at the beginning of the parliamentary term. Exceptions are Australia, where the Senate has considerable power approximate to that of the House of Representatives, Italy, where the Senate has the same powers as the Chamber of Deputies.
In a presidential system, the lower house: Debatably somewhat less, the lower house has exclusive powers in some areas. Has the sole power to impeach the executive. Initiates appropriation/supply-related legislation. Status of lower house Always elected directly, while the upper house may be elected directly, indirectly, or not elected at all, its members may be elected with a different voting system to the upper house. Most populated administrative divisions are better represented than in the upper house. Elected more frequently. Elected all at once, not by staggered terms. In a parliamentary system, can be dissolved by the executive. More members. Has total or initial control over budget and monetary laws. Lower age of candidacy than the upper house. Many lower houses are named in the following manner: House/Chamber of Representatives/the People/Commons/Deputies. Chamber of Deputies Chamber of Representatives House of Assembly House of Representatives House of Commons House of Delegates Legislative Assembly National Assembly Representative democracy