American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Eric Joseph Holcomb is an American politician serving as the 51st governor of Indiana since January 2017. From March 2016 to January 2017 he was the 51st lieutenant governor of Indiana under Governor Mike Pence, now the 48th Vice President of the United States. Holcomb was nominated to fill the remainder of Lieutenant Governor Sue Ellspermann's term after Ellspermann resigned on March 2, 2016, to become president of Ivy Tech Community College. A member of the Republican Party, Holcomb won the 2016 election for Governor of Indiana over Democratic nominee John R. Gregg. Holcomb was born in Indiana, he graduated from Pike High School in Indianapolis, in 1990 from Hanover College in Hanover, Indiana. While at Hanover, he served as chapter president. Holcomb served in the United States Navy for six years as an intelligence officer, stationed in Jacksonville, in Lisbon, Portugal. Holcomb began working for John Hostettler, a member of the United States House of Representatives, in 1997. In 2000, Holcomb was defeated.
From 2003 to 2011, Holcomb served as an advisor to Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels rising to the role of Deputy Chief of Staff, served as campaign manager for Daniels's 2008 gubernatorial campaign. He became Chairman of the Indiana Republican Party in 2010. In 2013, he resigned to become the state Chief of Staff to U. S. Senator Dan Coats. In March 2015 Coats announced that he would not run for reelection to the Senate in the 2016 election, Holcomb announced his intention to run. In February 2016, Holcomb withdrew from the Senate race. After Lieutenant Governor Sue Ellspermann announced her resignation, Governor Mike Pence chose Holcomb to succeed her and to be his running mate in the 2016 gubernatorial election. Holcomb was sworn in as lieutenant governor on March 3, 2016. After Pence withdrew from the gubernatorial race to be Donald Trump's running mate in the 2016 presidential election, Holcomb ended his candidacy for lieutenant governor in order to seek the gubernatorial nomination; the Indiana State Republican Committee selected Holcomb to replace Pence as its gubernatorial nominee.
Holcomb defeated the Democratic nominee, former Indiana House Speaker John R. Gregg, 51.4% to 45.4%. Holcomb was sworn into office on January 9, 2017. In his first month in office, he focused on the five parts of his "Next Level" Agenda: cultivating a strong and diverse economy by growing Indiana as a magnet for jobs, creating a 20-year plan to fund roads and bridges, developing a 21st-century skilled and ready workforce, attacking the drug epidemic, delivering great government service. In his first State of the State address, Holcomb emphasized the need to fix state roads, address the drug epidemic, train workers. In April 2017, the Indiana legislature approved Holcomb's request for higher fuel taxes and BMV registration fees to fund infrastructure spending; the law came into effect on July 1, 2017, is projected to raise on average $1.2 billion per year through 2024 for infrastructure spending. Holcomb's wife, runs a family business in Madison County, Indiana, they have a miniature schnauzer, Henry Holcomb, known as the "First Dog of Indiana".
Governor of Indiana official government site Eric Holcomb at Curlie Profile at Vote Smart Appearances on C-SPAN
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Indiana House of Representatives
The Indiana House of Representatives is the lower house of the Indiana General Assembly, the state legislature of the United States state of Indiana. The House is composed of 100 members representing an equal number of constituent districts. House members serve two-year terms without term limits. According to the 2010 census, each State House district contains an average of 64,838 people; the House convenes at the Indiana Statehouse in Indianapolis. In order to run for a seat for the Indiana House of Representatives one must be a citizen of the United States, has to be at least 21 years of age upon taking office, should reside in the state of Indiana for 2 years and in the district to represent for at least 1 year at the time of the election. Representatives serve terms of two years, there is no limit on how many terms a representative may serve. †Member was appointed to the seat. As of 25 July 2018; the Indiana House of Representatives held its first session in the first statehouse in the original state capital of Corydon and the first speaker of the body was Isaac Blackford.
Under the terms of the constitution of 1816, state representatives served one years terms, meaning elections were held annually. In 1851, the constitution was replaced by the current constitution and terms were lengthened to two years, but sessions were held biennially. A 1972 constitutional amendment allowed for a short legislative session to be held in odd numbered years. On November 6, 2012, the Republican Party in Indiana expanded their majority in the House of Representatives from 60 members in the 117th General Assembly to 69 members, a "quorum-proof" majority; the Republicans were able to take 69% of the seats, despite having only received 54% of the votes for the state's House of Representatives. Of the 3 newly elected members of the U. S. House elected to the 113th Congress from Indiana, two are former members of the Indiana House of Representatives. Congresswoman Jackie Walorski represented Indiana's 21st district from 2005 to 2011 and Congressman Luke Messer represented Indiana's 57th district from 2003 to 2007.
Congressman Marlin Stutzman was re-elected to a second term, he is a former member of the Indiana House of Representatives where he served Indiana's 52nd district from 2003 to 2009. Speaker of the Indiana State House of Representatives Indiana Senate Government of Indiana Politics of Indiana American Legislative Exchange Council members Indiana General Assembly Indiana House of Representatives at Ballotpedia State House of Indiana at Project Vote Smart Indiana House Democrats Indiana House Republicans 2015 Indiana Candidate Guide - Qualifications
Indiana State Fair
The Indiana State Fair is an annual fair held in Indianapolis, Indiana in August. The first fair was held in October 1852, on the grounds of; the first Indiana State Fair on its present site along East 38th Street was held in 1892 The state fair buildings and grounds are used for a variety of other shows when the fair is not being held. The largest building at the fairgrounds is the Indiana Farmers Coliseum; the fairgrounds are at the northwest corner of Fall Creek Parkway. In February 1851, at the urging of agricultural promoter Governor Wright, the Indiana General Assembly passed an act intended "to encourage agriculture" growth in the state, which included the formation of a State Board of Agriculture. A primary goal of the Board was to organize an Indiana State Fair. On October 20–22, 1852, Indiana's first state fair was held on the grounds of what became known as Military Park, west of downtown Indianapolis. In 1860 a new location for the fairgrounds was established on 38 acres along Alabama Street, north of the city.
Indiana became the sixth state to begin holding an annual statewide agricultural fair. During the American Civil War, the county fairgrounds was converted into Camp Morton, a prison camp for captured Confederate soldiers. During the war years no state fair was held, but it was resumed again in 1865 and held in Fort Wayne; the gates opened at the Indiana State Fairgrounds on East 38th Street for the first time on September 19, 1892. Since the fair has continually been held in Indianapolis; the State Fair has been held in Indianapolis for the majority of its existence but other Indiana cities hosted the event during the mid-19th century: 1853 - Lafayette 1854 - Madison 1859 - New Albany 1865 - Fort Wayne 1867 - Terre Haute On October 31, 1963, a propane tank exploded in the Indiana State Fair Coliseum, killing 54 at the scene. Around another 400 were injured, it is the deadliest disaster in Indianapolis history. On August 13, 2011, high winds from an approaching thunderstorm collapsed the roof over the grandstand stage just before Sugarland was about to perform, killing seven people and injuring 58.
Concerts were moved indoors to the Fairgrounds Coliseum, during that building's 2013 renovation events moved to Bankers Life Fieldhouse and Lucas Oil Stadium. The coliseum reopened in 2014. During each annual run of the Indiana State Fair, several competitions take place; the 4-H has a large participation in the fair and competitions are held in numerous areas for 4-H youth members. 4-H winners at county fairs can progress to the state fair with their live-stock, gardening, or other exhibits. The winner at the state fair can, in some cases, advance to a national competition; the winners receive other awards. Other competitions occur including art contests, a hot air balloon race, a high school marching band contest, the Indiana State Fair Band Day on "Band Day". Adult competitions occur in various farm related categories; the Indiana State Fairgrounds mile-long oval track has hosted auto races for over a century. The AAA National Championship and USAC National Championship have hosted Indy car races in 1946 and from 1953 to 1970, traditionally under the name Hoosier Hundred.
The USAC Silver Crown Series has been contesting the event since 1971. However, after the 2019 race, the track will be converted to a harness racing facility with an all-weather surface of crushed limestone; the half-mile dirt track in the infield will be eliminated to allow more parking for the State Fair and other events. The Midway is the area of amusement park games. Fairgoers can either by unlimited ride wristbands. Midway rides operate from noon till 11 p.m depending on the day. Numerous nationally-known entertainers have performed at the Indiana State Fair. In 1964, The Beatles performed two sold-out shows to nearly 30,000 audience members September 3 and, in 1989, New Kids on the Block set a Grandstand attendance record with 18,509 audience members; the fair presents Latino/Hispanic entertainment for Indiana's Hispanic population. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson gave a speech to a crowd of 40,000 on a day known as "Big Thursday." Over the years, President George W. Bush, President Bill Clinton, President John F. Kennedy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Barack Obama, President Donald Trump have all made appearances at the Fairgrounds.
List of attractions and events in Indianapolis Official site "Indiana State Fair Highlights: Velocipedes, Lady Aviators, “Better” Babies", Indiana Historical Bureau
1860 United States presidential election
The 1860 United States presidential election was the nineteenth quadrennial presidential election to select the President and Vice President of the United States. The election was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1860. In a four-way contest, the Republican Party ticket of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin emerged triumphant; the election of Lincoln served as the primary catalyst of the American Civil War. The United States had become divided during the 1850s over sectional disagreements regarding the extension of slavery into the territories. Incumbent President James Buchanan, like his predecessor Franklin Pierce, was a northern Democrat with sympathies for the South. During the mid-to-late 1850s, the anti-slavery Republican Party became a major political force in the wake of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the Supreme Court's decision in the 1857 case of Dred Scott v. Sandford. By 1860, the Republican Party had replaced the defunct Whig Party as the major opposition to the Democrats. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party, which sought to avoid secession by pushing aside the issue of slavery.
The 1860 Republican National Convention nominated Lincoln, a moderate former Congressman from Illinois, as its standard-bearer. The Republican Party platform promised not to interfere with slavery in the states, but opposed the further extension of slavery into the territories; the first 1860 Democratic National Convention adjourned without agreeing on a nominee, but a second convention nominated Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois for president. Douglas's support for the concept of popular sovereignty, which called for each individual territory to decide on the status of slavery, alienated many Southern Democrats; the Southern Democrats, with the support of President Buchanan, held their own convention and nominated Vice President John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for president; the 1860 Constitutional Union Convention nominated a ticket led by former Senator John Bell of Tennessee. Despite minimal support in the South, Lincoln won a plurality of the popular vote and a majority of the electoral vote.
The divisions among the Republicans' opponents were not in themselves decisive in ensuring the Republican capture of the White House, as Lincoln received absolute majorities in states that combined for a majority of the electoral votes. Lincoln's main opponent in the North was Douglas, who finished second in several states but only won the slave state of Missouri and three electors from the free state of New Jersey. Bell won three Southern states; the election of Lincoln led to the secession of several states in the South, the Civil War soon began, with the Battle of Fort Sumter. The election was the first of six consecutive victories for the Republican Party; the 1860 presidential election conventions were unusually tumultuous, due in particular to a split in the Democratic Party that led to rival conventions. Northern Democratic candidates: Stephen Douglas, senator from Illinois James Guthrie, former treasury secretary from Kentucky Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, senator from Virginia Joseph Lane, senator from Oregon Daniel S. Dickinson, former senator from New York Andrew Johnson, senator from Tennessee At the Democratic National Convention held in Institute Hall in Charleston, South Carolina, in April 1860, 51 Southern Democrats walked out over a platform dispute.
The extreme pro-slavery "Fire-Eater" William Lowndes Yancey and the Alabama delegation first left the hall, followed by the delegates of Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, three of the four delegates from Arkansas, one of the three delegates from Delaware. Six candidates were nominated: Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois, James Guthrie from Kentucky, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter from Virginia, Joseph Lane from Oregon, Daniel S. Dickinson from New York, Andrew Johnson from Tennessee. Three other candidates, Isaac Toucey from Connecticut, James Pearce from Maryland, Jefferson Davis from Mississippi received votes. Douglas, a moderate on the slavery issue who favored "popular sovereignty", was ahead on the first ballot, but needed 56.5 more votes to secure the nomination. On the 57th ballot, Douglas was 51.5 votes short of the nomination. In desperation, the delegates agreed on May 3 to adjourn the convention; the Democrats convened again at the Front Street Theater in Baltimore, Maryland, on June 18.
This time, 110 Southern delegates walked out when the convention would not adopt a resolution supporting extending slavery into territories whose voters did not want it. Some considered Horatio Seymour a compromise candidate for the National Democratic nomination at the reconvening convention in Baltimore. Seymour wrote a letter to the editor of his local newspaper declaring unreservedly that he was not a candidate for either spot on the ticket. After two ballots, the remaining Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois for president. Benjamin Fitzpatrick from Alabama was nominated for vice president; that nomination went instead to Herschel Vespasian Johnson from Georgia. Southern Democratic candidates: John C. Breckinridge, Vice President of the United States Daniel S. Dickinson, former senator from New York Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, senator from Virginia Joseph Lane, senator from Oregon Jefferson Davis, senator from Mississippi The Charleston bolters reconvened in Richmond, Virginia on June 11.
When the Democrats reconvened in Baltimore, they rejoined. When the convention seated two replacement delegations on June 18, they bolted again, now accompanied
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson referred to as LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. The 37th vice president of the United States from 1961 to 1963, he assumed the presidency following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people. Born in a farmhouse in Stonewall, Johnson was a high school teacher and worked as a congressional aide before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1937, he won election to the Senate in 1948 and was appointed to the position of Senate Majority Whip in 1951. He became the Senate Minority Leader in 1953 and the Senate Majority Leader in 1955, he became known for his domineering personality and the "Johnson treatment", his aggressive coercion of powerful politicians to advance legislation. Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election.
Although unsuccessful, he accepted the invitation of then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate, they went on to win a close election over the Republican ticket of Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated and Johnson succeeded him as president; the following year, Johnson won in a landslide. With 61.1 percent of the popular vote, Johnson won the largest share of the popular vote of any candidate since the uncontested 1820 election. In domestic policy, Johnson designed the "Great Society" legislation to expand civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicaid, aid to education, the arts and rural development, public services and his "War on Poverty". Assisted in part by a growing economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration. Civil rights bills that he signed into law banned racial discrimination in public facilities, interstate commerce, the workplace and housing.
With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the country's immigration system was reformed, encouraging greater emigration from regions other than Europe. Johnson's presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism after the New Deal era. In foreign policy, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use military force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war; the number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 525,000 in 1967, many in combat roles. American casualties soared and the peace process stagnated. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry anti-war movement based chiefly among draft-age students on university campuses. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots began in major cities in 1965 and crime rates soared, as his opponents raised demands for "law and order" policies.
While Johnson began his presidency with widespread approval, support for him declined as the public became frustrated with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized. Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed. After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, where he died of a heart attack at age 64, on January 22, 1973. Johnson is ranked favorably by many historians because of his domestic policies and the passage of many major laws that affected civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation, Social Security, although he has drawn substantial criticism for his escalation of the Vietnam War. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a small farmhouse on the Pedernales River, he was the oldest of five children born to Samuel Ealy Johnson Rebekah Baines. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, three sisters.
The nearby small town of Johnson City, was named after LBJ's cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Georgia. Johnson had English and Ulster Scots ancestry, he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana. Baines, the grandfather of Johnson's mother, was the president of Baylor University during the American Civil War. Johnson's grandfather, Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. was raised as a Baptist and for a time was a member of the Christian Church. In his years the grandfather became a Christadelphian; as a politician, Johnson was influenced in his positive attitude toward Jews by the religious beliefs that his family his grandfather, had shared with him. Johnson's favorite Bible verse came from the King James Version of Isaiah 1:18. "Come now, let us reason together..." In school, Johnson was an awkward, talkative youth, elected president of his 11th-grade class.
He graduated in 1924 from Johnson City High School, where he participated in public speaking and baseball. At age 15, Johnson was the youngest member of his class. Pressured by his parents to attend college, he en