Indiana University of Pennsylvania is a public research university in Indiana County, Pennsylvania. As of fall 2018, the university enrolled 9,215 undergraduates and 2,110 postgraduates, for a total enrollment of 11,325 students; the university is 55 miles northeast of Pittsburgh. It is governed by a local Council of Trustees and the Board of Governors of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. IUP has branch campuses at Punxsutawney and Monroeville. IUP is accredited by the Middle States Association of Schools. IUP was conceived as first chartered in 1871 by Indiana County investors; the school was created under the Normal School Act, which passed the Pennsylvania General Assembly on May 20, 1875. Normal schools established under the act were to be private corporations in no way dependent upon the state treasury, they were to be "state" normal schools only in the sense of being recognized by the commonwealth. The school opened its doors in 1875 following the mold of the French École Normale.
It enrolled just 225 students. All normal school events were held within a single building which contained a laboratory school for model teaching. Control and ownership of the institution passed to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1920. In 1927, by authority of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, it became State Teachers College at Indiana, with the right to grant degrees; as its mission expanded, the name was changed again in 1959 to Indiana State College. In 1965, the institution achieved university status and became Indiana University of Pennsylvania, or IUP. IUP total enrollment peaked in the Fall of 2012 at 15,379 and declined since, reporting a total enrollment of 12,316 for the Fall of 2017; this decline in enrollment caused financial difficulties for the university which struggled to cover costs for its 2010 dormitory expansion. IUP offers over 140 undergraduate degree programs and 70 graduate degree programs under the direction of eight Eberly College of Business and Information Technology – 2,338 undergraduate.
IUP's 374-acre main campus is a mix of 62 new red brick structures. Its original building, a Victorian structure named John Sutton Hall once housed the entire school. Today Sutton Hall is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it stands at the heart of campus—there was a fight to preserve it in 1974 when the administration scheduled it for demolition. Today it houses many administrative offices and reception areas. Breezedale Alumni Center is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Victorian mansion was once home to a Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice. The campus boasts a planetarium, University Museum, black box theater, Hadley Union Building, extensive music library, a newly remodeled Cogswell Hall for the university's music community. Stapleton Library boasts over 2 million microform units. At the heart of campus is the Oak Grove. Many alumni recall the many events that occur there. In January 2000 former President Lawrence K. Pettit established a board to create the Allegheny Arboretum at IUP.
This group works to furnish the Oak Grove with flora native to the region. The university operates an Academy of Culinary Arts in Punxsutawney and a police academy at its main campus; the university's Student Cooperative Association owns College Lodge several miles from campus. It provides skiing, biking and disc golfing opportunities. Boat access is made available through the Cooperative Association. Over the last five years, IUP has demolished most of the 1970 era dormitories on campus. Demolition began during summer 2006 and facilities are being replaced with modern suites. Construction is ongoing with seven new dormitories completed for Fall 2009. Two more suite-style buildings were completed by Fall 2010; that semester, the ribbon cutting ceremony at Stephenson Hall was considered to have finished the four-year-long "residence hall revival". These suite-style rooms are similar to those being built at other universities in PaSSHE. Acacia Alpha Chi Sigma Alpha Delta Alpha Phi Alpha Alpha Phi Omega Alpha Tau Delta Delta Omicron Delta Sigma Phi Delta Tau Delta Kappa Alpha Psi Kappa Delta Rho Kappa Sigma Iota Phi Theta IUPXC Men of God Christian Fraternity Omega Psi Phi Phi Beta Sigma Phi Kappa Psi Phi Kappa Tau Phi Mu Alpha Phi Delta Theta Phi Mu Delta Phi Sigma Kappa Phi Sigma Pi Pi Lambda Phi Pi Kappa Phi Rho Tau Chi Sigma Alpha Iota Sigma Alpha Lambda Sigma Chi Sigma Pi Sigma Tau Gamma Theta Chi Phi Gamma Nu Alpha Kappa Delta Alpha Kappa Alpha Alpha Gamma Delta Alpha Sigma Alpha Alpha Sigma Tau Alpha Xi Delta Chi Upsilon Sigma Delta Gamma Delta Phi Epsilon Delta Sigma Theta Delta Tau Sigma Delta Zeta Gamma Sigma Sigma Kappa Omega Kappa Mu Sigma Upsilon Sigma Gamma Rho Sigma Kappa Sigma Sigma Sigma Sigma Alpha Iota Theta
Easter, 1916 is a poem by W. B. Yeats describing the poet's torn emotions regarding the events of the Easter Rising staged in Ireland against British rule on Easter Monday, April 24, 1916; the uprising was unsuccessful, most of the Irish republican leaders involved were executed for treason. The poem was written between May and September 1916, but first published in 1921 in the collection Michael Robartes and the Dancer. Though a committed nationalist, Yeats rejected violence as a means to secure Irish independence, as a result had strained relations with some of the figures who led the uprising; the deaths of these revolutionary figures at the hands of the British, was as much a shock to Yeats as it was to ordinary Irish people at the time, who did not expect the events to take such a bad turn so soon. Yeats was working through his feelings about the revolutionary movement in this poem, the insistent refrain that "a terrible beauty is born" turned out to be prescient, as the execution of the leaders of the Easter Rising by the British had the opposite effect to that intended.
The killings led to a reinvigoration of the Irish Republican movement rather than its dissipation. The initial social and ideological distance between Yeats and some of the revolutionary figures is portrayed in the poem when, in the first stanza, the poem's narrator admits to having exchanged only "polite meaningless words" with the revolutionaries prior to the uprising, had indulged in "a mocking tale or gibe" about their political ambitions. However, this attitude changes with the refrain at the end of the stanza, when Yeats moves from a feeling of separation between the narrator and the revolutionaries, to a mood of distinct unity, by including all subjects of the poem in the last line with reference to the utter change that happened when the revolutionary leaders were executed by the British: "All changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born." These last lines of the stanza have rhythmic similarities to the popular ballads of the era as well as syntactic echoes of William Blake.
In the second stanza, the narrator proceeds to describe in greater detail the key figures involved in the Easter uprising, alluding to them without listing names. The female revolutionary described at the opening of the stanza is Countess Markievicz, well-known to Yeats and a long-time friend; the man who "kept a school/ And rode our winged horse" is a reference to Patrick Pearse, the lines about Pearse's "helper and friend" allude to Thomas MacDonagh. In Yeats's description of the three, his torn feelings about the Easter uprising are most keenly communicated, he contrasts the "shrill" voice of Countess Markievicz as a revolutionary, with his remembrance of her incomparably "sweet" voice when she was a young woman. This stanza shows how Yeats was able to separate his own private feelings towards some of the revolutionary figures from the greater nationalist cause that the group was pursuing. Whilst Yeats had positive regard for the three Republican leaders mentioned above, he despised Major John MacBride, who as the estranged husband of Maud Gonne had abused both Gonne and their daughter during their marriage.
In this poem, although MacBride is alluded to as a "vainglorious lout" who had "done most bitter wrong" to those close to the narrator's heart, Yeats includes him in his eulogy among those who have fallen for their republican ideals: "Yet I number him in the song. The phrase "the casual comedy" is laden with sarcasm, pointing to an unnecessary loss of life as well as the senselessness of the killings. Yeats emphasises his repeated charge at the end of the stanza, that, as a result of the execution of the Easter Rising leaders, "A terrible beauty is born"; the third stanza differs from the first two stanzas by abandoning the first-person narrative of "I" and moving to the natural realm of streams and birds. The speaker elaborates on the theme of change and introduces the symbol of the stone, which opens and closes the stanza. Unlike the majority of images presented in this stanza, of clouds moving, seasons changing, horse-hoof sliding, which are characterized by their transience, the stone is a symbol of permanence.
Yeats compares the fixedness of the revolutionaries' purpose to that of the stone, their hearts are said to be "enchanted to a stone". The stone disturbs or "trouble" "the living stream", a metaphor for how the steadfastness of the revolutionaries' purpose contrasts with the fickleness of less dedicated people; the singularity of their purpose, leading to their ultimate deaths, cut through the complacency and indifference of everyday Irish society at the time. The fourth and last stanza of the poem resumes the first person narrative of the first and second stanzas; the stanza returns to the image of the stony heart: "Too long a sacrifice/ Can make a stone of the heart", Yeats wrote, putting the determined struggle of Irish republicans in the Easter Rising in the context of the long, turbulent history of British colonialism in Ireland, as well as alluding to the immense psychological costs of the long struggle for independence. Indeed, the narrator cries, "O when may it suffice?", answering his own question with the line, "That is heaven's part" (making an allusion to S
Lincheng County is a county in the southwest of Hebei province, People's Republic of China, in the foothills of the Taihang Mountains. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Xingtai. In 2010, its population was 204,000 and lived in an area of 797 km2, it borders Neiqiu in the south and Baixiang in the east and Zanhuang in the north, the province of Shanxi in the west. The county administers 4 townships. Towns: Lincheng, Xishu, Haozhuang Townships: Heicheng Township, Yageying Township, Shicheng Township, Zhaozhuang Township