Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1970s. Used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was used interchangeably with alternative rock; as grunge and punk revival bands in the US and Britpop bands in the UK broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, some indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term. Sometimes used interchangeably with "guitar pop rock", in the mid-1980s, the term "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels; some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. During the 1990s, grunge bands broke into the mainstream, the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning.
The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status. By the end of the 1990s, indie rock developed several subgenres and related styles, including lo-fi, noise pop, slowcore, post-rock, math rock. In the 2000s, changes in the music industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success. In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped-down, back-to-basics version of guitar rock emerged into the mainstream; the commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives and The Vines. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s. By the end of the decade, the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill"; the term indie rock, which comes from "independent," describes the small and low-budget labels on which it is released and the do-it-yourself attitude of the bands and artists involved. Although distribution deals are struck with major corporate companies, these labels and the bands they host have attempted to retain their autonomy, leaving them free to explore sounds and subjects of limited appeal to large, mainstream audiences.
The influences and styles of the artists have been diverse, including punk, post-punk and country. The terms "alternative rock" and "indie rock" were used interchangeably in the 1980s, but after many alternative bands followed Nirvana into the mainstream in the early 1990s, "indie rock" began to be used to describe those bands, working in a variety of styles, that did not pursue or achieve commercial success. Aesthetically speaking, indie rock is characterized as having a careful balance of pop accessibility with noise, experimentation with pop music formulae, sensitive lyrics masked by ironic posturing, a concern with "authenticity," and the depiction of a simple guy or girl. Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of "varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes". Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge-influenced bands, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco.
In fact, there is an everlasting list of subgenres of indie rock. Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but unknown elsewhere. However, there are still indie bands that start off locally, but attract an international audience. Indie rock is noted for having a high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of the feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music of acts like Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, 7 Year Bitch, Team Dresch and Huggy Bear. However, Cortney Harding pointed out that this sense of equality is not reflected in the number of women running indie labels; the BBC documentary Music for Misfits: The Story of Indie pinpoints the birth of indie as the 1977 self-publication of the Spiral Scratch EP by Manchester band Buzzcocks. Although Buzzcocks are classified as a punk band, it has been argued by the BBC and others that the publication of Spiral Scratch independently of a major label led to the coining of the name "indie".
"Indie pop" and "indie" were synonymous. In the mid-1980s, "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves; the indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the college rock that dominated college radio playlists, which included key bands like R. E. M. from the US and The Smiths from the UK. These two bands rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s, helped inspire guitar-based jangle pop. In the United States, the term was associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of the Pixies, Hüsker Dü, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr. and The Replacements. In the United Kingdom the C86 cassette, a 1986 NME compilation featuring Primal Scream, The Pastels, The Wedding Present and other bands, was a document of the UK indie scene at the start of 1986, it gave its name to the indie pop scene that followed, a major influence on the development of the British indie scene as a whole. Major precursors of indie pop included Postcard bands Josef K and Orange Juice, significant labels included Creation and Glass.
The Jesus and Mary Chain's sound combined the Velvet
Events in the year 1966 in Norway. Monarch – Olav V Prime Minister – Per Borten 7 August – The Storskog border control between Norway and the Soviet Union is opened, it remains the only legal border crossing from Norway to Russia till this day. The first Bislett Games were held at Bislett Stadium in Oslo. Arne Bendiksen – "Intet er nytt under solen", performed by Åse Kleveland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1966 Harald Sæverud – Symphony no 9 Karin Bang and novelist, is awarded the Riksmål Society Literature Prize. Ebba Haslund, novelist, is awarded the Norwegian Booksellers' Prize for the novel Det trange hjerte. 9 February – Harald Eia, comedian 2 May – Øyvind Rimbereid and poet 11 July – Arnfinn Bårdsen, judge 14 July – Brynjar Lia and research professor 27 October – Helene Falch Fladmark, politician 27 October – Hege Nerland, politician 28 September – Alvhild Hedstein, politician 19 December – Sylvia Brustad and Minister 15 January – Birger Braadland, politician 3 February – Ivar Navelsaker, military officer.
24 March – Morten Ansgar Kveim, pathologist 26 March – Wilhelm Engel Bredal, politician 2 April – Sverre Hope, politician 6 April – Hans Engen, journalist and politician 10 April – Jens Marcus Mottré, politician 11 May – Rolf Hofmo and sports official. 26 May – Helga Eng and educationalist. 28 May – Harry Haraldsen, speed skater 6 June – Hans Ingvald Hansen Ratvik, politician 18 June – Einar Skjæraasen, author 5 July Ole Jørgensen, politician Anders Moen and Olympic silver medallist 14 July – Nils Andresson Lavik, politician 17 July – Nils Dahl, middle distance runner 16 August – Carl Klæth, gymnast and Olympic silver medallist 20 August – Marie Ingeborg Skau, politician 26 August – Nils Asheim, politician 13 September – Alfred Engelsen and Olympic gold medallist 13 October – Asbjørn Øverås, educator 15 October – Jon Andrå, politician 25 November – Hans Reidar Holtermann, commander of Hegra Fortress 13 December – Ingvald Johannes Jaklin, politician 20 December – Aslaug Låstad Lygre, poet.
26 December – Christopher Dahl and Olympic gold medallist
Gene McDonald is an American bass singer and was the bass vocalist for the Florida Boys southern gospel quartet from 1998–2007. McDonald's roots in gospel music began when he traveled throughout the Midwest as a child singing with his family. At that time, Gene sang the high tenor part, he sang with his mom and sister from 1968 to 1980, recording three albums together. His sister Janeene went to college and the family group stopped touring. In 1980, McDonald joined Jack Campbell and the Ambassadors where he sang tenor, he recorded one album with them. In 1982, Gene's voice started changing and he became a bass singer, he went to college in 1983 at Arkansas State University and was taught by Al Skoog, one of the leading choral directors in the country. He was taught voice by Mr. David Niederbrach and Ms. Julia Lansford and did opera under their teaching. After ASU, he attended the Ben Speer School of Music, where Ben took special interest in Gene, invited him to a Gaither Homecoming video taping in 1994, he became a regular member of the Homecoming "bass" section.
McDonald joined The Plainsmen Quartet in 1989 and sang with them until 1992. They recorded one album, he joined the Florida Boys Quartet in 1998 and sang bass with the quartet until 2007. The quartet recorded over ten projects with Gene as the bass singer. McDonald is still recording and singing with the Gaither Homecoming group and has done so since 1994, he has been on all with the exception of a few videos. In 2006, Gene released his first solo CD entitled In Times Like These. In 2010, he released his second solo CD, he is married to Teri McDonald, has a son, Nathan Taft McDonald. Gene works for a bus company in Tennessee, he now drives the bus for Gordon Mote, has returned to the Gaither Homecoming tour as one of their bass singers