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Indo-Aryan peoples

The Indo-Aryan peoples, or Indic peoples, are a diverse collection of ethnolinguistic groups speaking Indo-Aryan languages, a subgroup of the Indo-European language family. Indo-Aryan peoples are native to the northern Indian subcontinent, presently found all across South Asia, where they form the majority; some of the theories proposed in the 20th century for the dispersal of Indo-Aryan languages are described by linguist Colin Masica in the chapter, "The Historical Context and Development of Indo-Aryan" in his book, The Indo-Aryan Languages. A recent Indo-Aryan migration theory—proposed by anthropologist David W. Anthony and by archaeologists Elena Efimovna Kuzmina and J. P. Mallory—claims that the introduction of the Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent was a result of a migration of people from the Sintashta culture through the Bactria-Margiana Culture and into the northern Indian subcontinent; these migrations started 1,800 BCE, after the invention of the war chariot, brought Indo-Aryan languages into the Levant and Inner Asia and western China.

The Indo-Aryan migration was part of the diffusion of Indo-European languages from the Proto-Indo-European homeland, either at the Pontic steppe or from a region between Armenia and Iran, which started in the 7th to 4th millennia BCE. The theory posits that these Indo-Aryan speaking people may have been a genetically diverse group of people who were united by shared cultural norms and language, referred to as aryā, "noble." Diffusion of this culture and language took place by patron-client systems, which allowed for the absorption and acculturalisation of other groups into this culture, explains the strong influence on other cultures with which it interacted. The Proto-Indo-Iranians, from which the Indo-Aryans developed, are identified with the Sintashta culture, the Andronovo culture, which flourished ca. 1800–1400 BCE in the steppes around the Aral sea, present-day Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The proto-Indo-Iranians were influenced by the Bactria-Margiana Culture, south of the Andronovo culture, from which they borrowed their distinctive religious beliefs and practices.

The Indo-Aryans split off around 1800-1600 BCE from the Iranians, whereafter the Indo-Aryans migrated into the Levant and north-western India. The alternate Indigenous Aryans theory places the Indo-Aryans languages as being indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and they spread outside the subcontinent. Horseplay at Harappa - People Fas Harvard - Harvard University A tale of two horses - Frontline

Dad for a Day (2009 film)

Dad for a Day is a 2009 Argentine film starring Nicolás Cabré, Luisana Lopilato and Gimena Accardi. It was premiered on 6 August 2009, was screened at the Mar del Plata Film Festival on 14 November 2009, not as the part of the competition. Federico, the coach of Argentine most important hockey team The Mary Mastersons, is engaged to Cecilia, an upper class woman and the captain of the team, he is about to take two important steps in his life — planning a great wedding and becoming the new coach of Las Leonas, the national team. Far away from Buenos Aires, in a little sea town, lives Federico's father, a great hockey player and a coach as well, they have not seen each other for ten years. Before dying, he tells Federico that he has an eight–year–old sister he has not met, asks him to take care of her. Federico's life changes drastically with this new responsibility, he is captivated by the beauty and simplicity of Julieta, the captain of the hockey team his father used to coach and falls in love.

Both Tini, the little sister, Julieta, wish to be accepted as a part of Federico's life despite Cecilia's wish to carry on with the marriage. Julieta and Cecilia confront each other in the final hockey match, not only as captains of the teams but in a dispute for Federico's love. Federico has to make a decision between his marriage with Cecilia and Julieta's next tournament's destiny, Australia. Nicolás Cabré as Federico Luisana Lopilato as Julieta Gimena Accardi as Cecilia Julieta Poggio as Tini Official website Dad for a Day on IMDb

Peters Mountain Wilderness

The Peters Mountain Wilderness is an area protected by act of Congress to maintain its present, natural condition. As part of the wilderness system, it helps to preserve a variety of natural life forms and contributes to a diversity of plant and animal gene pools. Over half of the ecosystems in the United States exist within designated wilderness; the ridge of Peters Mountain offers excellent vantage points overlooking the hills of West Virginia, the area includes interesting bogs and mountain outcrops. The deep forests are occupied by many species of warblers; the mountain is home of the rare Peters Mountain Mallow. The area is part of the Mountain Lake Wilderness Cluster; the area is located on Peters Mountain in the Jefferson National Forest, about 10 miles north of Pearisburg, Virginia. The Appalachian National Scenic Trail travels about 1.5 miles through the middle of the area. The section of the Appalachian Trail passing through the wilderness can be reached by following the Appalachian Trail south from the trail head at Stony Creek or going north from the trail head at the New River.

Besides the Appalachian Trail, there are several other trails in the area. These include the Allegheny Trail extending along the ridge of Peters Mountain, the Ground Hog Trail, a 2-mile blue-blazed trail that begins at Painters Run Road off of Route 219 in West Virginia. Trail information is available on National Geographic-Trails Illustrated Map #787. Vegetation in the wilderness is upland oak with yellow poplar, red oak, hickory with at least three tracts of old growth forest. There are numerous sandstone outcroppings along the crest of the mountain and a number of high mountain bogs on Pine Swamp Ridge. Peters Mountain Mallow, one of the rarest plants in the United States, is unique to the mountain, it is protected in a 398-acre preserve purchased by the Nature Conservancy of Virginia, located just outside of the wilderness area. Peters Mountain mallow was discovered in 1927 by botanists; the plant was placed on the endangered species list in 1986 when a survey crew found only four specimens.

In order to sprout, dormant seeds require fire to let water in. Cores from nearby trees showed. After a small blaze was lit in 1992 a few mallows sprouted. and 500 seedlings were found. In 1849 John James Audubon and John Bachman found a fisher on Peters Mountain, just south of Peterstown, West Virginia; the fisher is a secretive, dark-colored mammal that once ranged as far south as the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. The fisher is no longer found in this area, but it has been introduced in parts of West Virginia and could return to the wild habitat provided by the Peters Mountain Wilderness. Stony Creek contains the colorful candy darter, an imperiled fish found in only a few tributaries of the New River. A bog at the head of Pine Branch Swamp near the crest of Peters Mountain contains cinnamon fern, sphagnum moss and sundew. Loggers last cut the area in the 1930s leaving a 10-acre stand of old-growth hemlocks. Peters Mountain straddles the Virginia - West Virginia state line, it is a long, rugged ridge extending from the New River on the South, through Monroe County, West Virginia and into Alleghany County, Virginia.

The elevation ranges from about 2000 feet near the southern boundary on Big Stony Creek to 3956 feet on the ridge near Pine Swamp Ridge. The northern boundary of the wilderness is the ridge of Peters Mountain. Pine Swamp Ridge defines the central region of Peters Mountain and marks the watershed between Pine Swamp Branch and Dismal Branch. Foster Knob is a mid-slope outlier with good views down Stony Creek; the ridge crest is capped with weather resistant sandstone with many rock outcrops. Dismal Creek and Pine Swamp Branch are two small creeks in the area; this wilderness is managed by the Forest Service. There are some regulations to maintain the integrity of the area. For example, motorized equipment, motor vehicles and mountain bikes are prohibited, group size is limited to ten people, limits are placed on camping. Further information can be obtained from the Eastern Divide Ranger District, 110 SouthPark Drive, Blacksburg, Va 24060, phone 540-552-4641, website The Peters Mountain Wilderness is in the Mountain Lake Wilderness Cluster.

Other areas in the cluster are: Mountain Lake Wilderness Cascades Mottesheard Hickory Flats Wilderness Eastern Wilderness Act Mountain Lake Wilderness Cluster Mill Creek Fact sheet for Peters Mountain Wilderness Appalachian Trail Parking and Access Areas between Stony Creek and the New River Map of Trails in Peters Mountain Wilderness Wilderness Society Peters Mountain Wilderness, Virginia Wilderness Committee Peters Mountain Mallow