The Indonesian National Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Indonesia. It consists of the Army and Air Force; the President of Indonesia is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. In 2016, it comprises 395,500 military personnel including the Indonesian Marine Corps, a branch of the Navy; the Indonesian Armed Forces was formed during the Indonesian National Revolution, when it undertook a guerrilla war along with informal militia. As a result of this, the need to maintain internal security, the Armed forces including the Army and Air Force has been organised along territorial lines, aimed at defeating internal enemies of the state and potential external invaders. Under the 1945 Constitution, all citizens are entitled and obliged to defend the nation. Conscription is provided for by law, yet the Forces have been able to maintain mandated strength levels without resorting to a draft. Most enlisted personnel are recruited in their own home regions and train and serve most of their time in units nearby.
The Indonesian armed forces are voluntary. The active military strength is 395,500 with available manpower fit for military service of males aged between 16 and 49 is 75,000,000, with a further 4,500,000 new suitable for service annually. Military spending in the national budget was estimated 3% of GDP in 2005, but is supplemented by revenue from many military-run businesses and foundations; the defence budget for 2017 was $8.17bn. The Indonesian armed forces personnel does not include members of law enforcement and paramilitary personnel such as the Indonesian National Police consisting of 590,000+ personnel, Mobile Brigade Corps of around 42,000+ armed personnel, the Civil Service Police Unit or Satpol PP, Indonesian College Students' Regiment or Resimen Mahasiswa, a collegiate military service consisting 26,000 trained personnel, civil defence personnel. Before the formation of the Indonesian Republic, the military authority in the Dutch East Indies was held by the Royal Dutch East Indies Army and naval forces of the Royal Netherlands Navy.
Although both the KNIL and KM were not directly responsible for the formation of the future Indonesian armed forces, took the role of foe during Indonesian National Revolution in 1945 to 1949, the KNIL had provided military training and infrastructure for some of the future TNI officers and other ranks. There were military schools and academies in the Dutch East Indies. Next to Dutch volunteers and European mercenaries, the KNIL recruited indigenous Ambonese, Kai Islanders and Minahasan people. In 1940, with the Netherlands under German occupation and the Japanese pressing for access to Dutch East Indies oil supplies, the Dutch had opened up the KNIL to large intakes of excluded Javanese; some of the indigenous soldiers that had enjoyed Dutch KNIL military academy education would become important TNI officers, like for example: Soeharto and Nasution. Indonesian nationalism and militarism started to gain momentum and support in World War II during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. To gain support from the Indonesian people in their war against the Western Allied force, Japan started to encourage and back Indonesian nationalistic movements by providing Indonesian youth with military training and weapons.
On 3 October 1943, the Japanese military formed the Indonesian volunteer army called PETA. The Japanese intended PETA to assist their forces oppose a possible invasion by the Allies; the Japanese military training for Indonesian youth was meant to rally the local's support for the Japanese Empire, but it became the significant resource for the Republic of Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution in 1945 to 1949. Many of these men who served in PETA, both officers and NCOs alike like Soedirman, formed majority of the personnel that would compose the future armed forces. At first, Indonesian Armed Forces started out as the BKR, formed in the 3rd PPKI meeting, on 29 August 1945; the decision to create a "security agency" and not an army, was taken to lessen the probability of the allied forces viewing it as an armed revolution and invading in full force. During their capitulation, one of the terms of surrender to Japan was to return the Asian domains they had conquered to the previous nation of the Allies not to liberate them independently.
When confrontations became sharp and hostile between Indonesia and the Allied forces, on 5 October 1945 the TKR was formed on the basis of existing BKR units. The Indonesian armed forces have seen significant action since their establishment in 1945, their first conflict was the 1945–1949 Indonesian National Revolution, in which the 1945 Battle of Surabaya was important. In January 1946, TKR renamed onto Tentara Keselamatan Rakyat
M. C. Brains is an American rapper from Cleveland, United States, he is best known for his hit single, "Oochie Coochie". Discovered by Michael Bivins of New Edition, Brains was signed to Motown Records, who issued his debut album Lovers Lane in 1992; the album's lead single, "Oochie Coochie", became a top-40 hit, peaking at number 21 on the Billboard Hot 100 and earning a gold certification four months after its release on to platinum. Despite the success of "Oochie Coochie", Lovers Lane could only reach gold status. In 1996, M. C. Brains released a second album entitled Brainwashed for Ichiban Records
Neural architecture search is a technique for automating the design of artificial neural networks, a used model in the field of machine learning. NAS has been used to outperform hand-designed architectures. Methods for NAS can be categorized according to the search space, search strategy and performance estimation strategy used: The search space defines the type of ANN that can be designed and optimized; the search strategy defines the approach used to explore the search space. The performance estimation strategy evaluates the performance of a possible ANN from its design. NAS is related to hyperparameter optimization and is a subfield of automated machine learning. Reinforcement learning can underpin a NAS search strategy. Zoph et al. applied NAS with RL targeting the CIFAR-10 dataset and achieved a network architecture that rivals the best manually-designed architecture for accuracy, with an error rate of 3.65, 0.09 percent better and 1.05x faster than a related hand-designed model. On the Penn Treebank dataset, that model composed a recurrent cell that outperforms LSTM, reaching a test set perplexity of 62.4, or 3.6 perplexity better than the prior leading system.
On the PTB character language modeling task it achieved bits per character of 1.214. Learning a model architecture directly on a large dataset can be a lengthy process. NASNet addressed this issue by transferring a building block designed for a small dataset to a larger dataset; the design was constrained to use two types of convolutional cells to return feature maps that serve two main functions when convoluting an input feature map: normal cells that return maps of the same extent and reduction cells in which the returned feature map height and width is reduced by a factor of two. For the reduction cell, the initial operation applied to the cell’s inputs uses a stride of two; the learned aspect of the design included elements such as which lower layer each higher layer took as input, the transformations applied at that layer and to merge multiple outputs at each layer. In the studied example, the best convolutional layer was designed for the CIFAR-10 dataset and applied to the ImageNet dataset by stacking copies of this cell, each with its own parameters.
The approach yielded accuracy of 82.7% top-1 and 96.2% top-5. This exceeded the best human-invented architectures at a cost of 9 billion fewer FLOPS—a reduction of 28%; the system continued to exceed the manually-designed alternative at varying computation levels. The image features learned from image classification can be transferred to other computer vision problems. E.g. for object detection, the learned cells integrated with the Faster-RCNN framework improved performance by 4.0% on the COCO dataset. In the so-called Efficient Neural Architecture Search, a controller discovers architectures by learning to search for an optimal subgraph within a large graph; the controller is trained with policy gradient to select a subgraph that maximizes the validation set's expected reward. The model corresponding to the subgraph is trained to minimize a canonical cross entropy loss. Multiple child models share parameters, ENAS requires fewer GPU-hours than other approaches and 1000-fold less than "standard" NAS.
On CIFAR-10, the ENAS design achieved a test error of 2.89%, comparable to NASNet. On Penn Treebank, the ENAS design reached test perplexity of 55.8. Several groups employed evolutionary algorithms for NAS. Mutations in the context of evolving ANNs are operations such as adding a layer, removing a layer or changing the type of a layer. On CIFAR-10, evolution and RL performed comparably. Another group used a hill climbing procedure that applies network morphisms, followed by short cosine-annealing optimization runs; the approach yielded competitive results, requiring resources on the same order of magnitude as training a single network. E.g. on CIFAR-10, the method designed and trained a network with an error rate below 5% in 12 hours on a single GPU. While most approaches focus on finding architecture with maximal predictive performance, for most practical applications other objectives are relevant, such as memory consumption, model size or inference time; because of that, researchers created a multi-objective search.
LEMONADE is an evolutionary algorithm that adopted Lamarckism to efficiently optimize multiple objectives. In every generation, child networks are generated to improve the Pareto frontier with respect to the current population of ANNs. Neural Architect is claimed to be a resource-aware multi-objective RL-based NAS with network embedding and performance prediction. Network embedding encodes an existing network to a trainable embedding vector. Based on the embedding, a controller network generates transformations of the target network. A multi-objective reward function considers network accuracy, computational resource and training time; the reward is predicted by multiple performance simulation networks that are pre-trained or co-trained with the controller network. The controller network is trained via policy gradient. Following a modification, the resulting candidate network is evaluated by both an accuracy network and a training time network; the results are combined by a reward engine. RL-based NAS requires thousands of GPU-days of searching/training to achieve state-of-the-art computer vision results as described in the NASNet, mNASNet and MobileNetV3 papers.
Supernetwork-based NAS provides a more computationally-efficient solution. The essential idea is to train one supernetwork that
Valerio Ciccone is an Australian artist, best known for his drawings of mass-media events and icons taken from popular culture. He has worked from his Northcote-based studio at Arts Project Australia since 1984, where he has had numerous solo shows, he has exhibited both nationally and internationally and his work is held in the collections of the National Gallery of Australia, MADMusée, Liège, the National Sports Museum. Ciccone grew up in the semi-rural suburb of the third of four children. According to his mother, he began “drawing obsessively” from the age of four or five, at this young age his key source of imagery was taken from the mass media, it was during his childhood that he began creating his collection of rendered logos from favourite television shows, a collection he has continued to expand throughout his life, alongside others, including a collection of music cassettes which extends to over 1000 objects. Ciccone has demonstrated an extraordinary memory for these collections and an ability to recall the names of individual persons met over periods stretching many years.
This ability has been noted as a key component of his artwork, informing the connections he draws between figures of public life and popular culture, the attention to detail in his technical execution. In 1984 Ciccone was one of the first artists to take up a studio residency at Arts Project Australia, an organisation devoted to supporting and promoting artists with an intellectual disability. Although he has received little formal training, his participation in the studio program at APA provided him with access to fine art materials and the informal tuition provided by the practicing artists employed by the organisation, he spent a number of years attending weekly drawing classes at the School of Art at RMIT University. Ciccone’s early works were in watercolour and in the early 1990s he produced a series of monochrome drawings featuring imagery and text taken directly from newspapers. Following a serious illness in 1993 and a lengthy period of rehabilitation, his work underwent a significant change as he introduced colour to his palette.
During this time he produced artworks centred on the actions and heroics of Australian Rules Football players, one of, acquired for the permanent collection of the National Sports Museum. Glenn Barkley, Curator at the Museum of Contemporary Art Australia, has described Ciccone’s “obsessive engagement” with television and mass media presentations of sporting events as being a quintessential trait of his generation, stating that for “Generation X,” there is “little difference between what we might watch and how we might feel.” He notes the manner in which Ciccone democratises his subjects, describing an oeuvre of works in which “cathedrals are as important as the corner of a studio and lions lie with mice, elephants, koala bears.” However, Barkley is careful to point out. Stylistically, Ciccone’s rendering of mass media personages and events in soft, layered pastel, work towards this elevation of his subject, transforming the “flatness of newsprint or flickering image on the screen” into something “warm and personal.”Although best known for his works in pastel on paper, Ciccone has worked in a range of mediums including painting, printmaking and digital animation.
His work has been categorised within the genre of Outsider Art and has been included in Outsider Art exhibitions and fairs, both in Australia and in the USA. However, in recent years his work has achieved success in more conventional art institutions and has been acquired for major permanent collections at the National Gallery of Australia and MADMusée, Liège, Belgium. Valerio Ciccone, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2014 Valerio Ciccone: Peripheral Observer, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2012 Ball! Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 1999 Works by Valerio Ciccone, Melbourne, 1996 Works on Paper by Valerio Ciccone, Pinacotheca, 1994. Red ball: the fine art of footy, Red Gallery, Fitzroy North, Melbourne, 2016 The 64th Blake Prize, Casula Powerhouse Arts Centre, Casula, NSW, 2016 After…, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2015 Melbourne Art Fair, Royal Exhibition Building, Melbourne, 1994 – 2014 Renegades: Outsider Art, national travelling exhibition, 2013 – 2014 Into the Vault and Out of the Box, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2014 Video Doctor, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2013 Classic Albums, Tank Art Centre, Cairns, QLD, 2013, Classic Albums, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2012 Fresh off the press, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2011 This Sensual World, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2011 Fred and Other Stories, Delmar Gallery, Ashfield, 2011 Portrait Exchange, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2010 Pictures of You, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2009 BloodLines: Art and the Horse, national travelling exhibition, 2007 – 2009 Pearls of Arts Project Australia: The Stuart Purves Collection, national travelling exhibition, 2007 – 2009 Portraits of Artists, Place Gallery, Melbourne, 2008 Behind the Scenes, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2008 The Dinner Party, Arts Project Australia Gallery, Melbourne, 2007 Yours and Ours: 50 Years of ABC TV, Penrith Regional Gallery & The Lewers Bequest, Penrith, 2006 Leo Cussen with Selected
Billy Davis Jr. is an American musician, best known as a member of the 5th Dimension. Along with his wife, Marilyn McCoo, he had hit records during 1976 and 1977 with "I Hope We Get to Love in Time", "Your Love", "You Don't Have to Be a Star". Davis and McCoo were married in 1969, they became the first African American married couple to host a network television series, The Marilyn McCoo & Billy Davis Jr. Show, on CBS in the summer of 1977; that same year, "You Don't Have to Be a Star" won a Grammy Award. Davis joined the 5th Dimension called the Versatiles, in 1966; the group's first big hit was with 1967's "Up and Away", written by Jimmy Webb. The song won four 1968 Grammy Awards and was the title track to the 5th Dimension's first hit LP. A year the group recorded Laura Nyro's "Stoned Soul Picnic". A medley of "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In" reached No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in April to May 1969 and won the Grammy for Record of the Year. The group's recording of Nyro's "Wedding Bell Blues" topped the Hot 100 in November 1969.
Davis sang the male lead on the group's singles, "Worst That Could Happen", "A Change Is Gonna Come/People Got To Be Free", "I’ll Be Lovin' You Forever". In 1975, Davis and McCoo began performing as a duo. Landing a contract with ABC Records, they recorded their 1976 debut album, I Hope We Get to Love in Time; the first single was the title track, a mid-chart hit. Their follow up, "You Don't Have to Be a Star", was an bigger hit, reaching No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 in January 1977. Davis and McCoo were awarded a gold single and a gold album as well as a Grammy Award for Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals, they became the first African American married couple to host a network television program, The Marilyn McCoo & Billy Davis Jr. Show, on CBS in Summer 1977, they released one more album on ABC in 1978, produced by Frank Wilson and containing the popular ballad, "My Reason To Be" by songwriters Judy Wieder and John Footman. The pair signed with CBS Records the following year and released their last album as a duo until October 2008 when the pair released The Many Faces of Love, a collection of hit songs from the 1960s and 1970s.
The album Marilyn and Billy featured the track "Saving All My Love for You" sung by Whitney Houston, as well as a disco hit, "Shine On Silver Moon". The pair decided to go solo professionally in the early 1980s. In 1982 Davis recorded a gospel album, Let Me Have A Dream, with Rev. James Cleveland. Davis followed up that project with a guest appearance on a jazz/pop album by Scott Scheer. On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed McCoo and Davis among hundreds of artists whose material was destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. Davis starred in the musical Blues in the Night at the Old Globe Theatre. In the role of James "Thunder" Early, he starred in the North Carolina Theatre production of Dreamgirls. Kay McLain, of the Durham Herald-Sun, wrote, "Davis made an endearing character of Early…give him a microphone and the spotlight and he’s a pro." In his guest appearances on the WB’s Jamie Foxx Show, he and McCoo played the affluent parents of Foxx's girlfriend, Fancy. Over the years, Davis has made frequent appearances on most of the national morning and night time talk and variety shows.
Marilyn McCoo & Billy Davis, Jr. Billy Davis Jr. on IMDb
Gaby Natale is an Argentinian-Italian-American journalist, entrepreneur and executive producer of the TV program SuperLatina and president of AGANARmedia. Gaby Natale has won three Daytime EMMY awards for Outstanding Daytime Talent in a Spanish Language Program and Outstanding Entertainment Program in Spanish, she is one of the few women in the entertainment industry who owns not only the rights to her TV show but a television studio. Gabriela Natale has a BA in International Relations from University of San Andrés and University of Westminster and a master's degree in Journalism from Columbia University’s joint international program for Hispanic journalists. Gaby Natale worked in numerous news-related positions including news anchor for Univision in Texas, border reporter for TV Azteca Mexico and Washington correspondent for some of the most prestigious media outlets in Latin America such as Colombia’s Cadena Caracol and Argentina’s Radio Continental. In 2017, HarperCollins Español announced the launch of Natale's first book, "El Circulo Virtuoso", an exploration of Natale’s life story and intellectual curiosity, laced with references to the ancient art of Japanese calligraphy, post-war industrial design and the application of Venn diagrams to personal projects.
In 2014, the city of Dallas included Gaby in their first "Dallas BIG Influence" campaign featuring distinguished Dallasites. In 2014, Gaby started TV show SuperLatina that airs in the United States and Puerto Rico through VmeTV, PBS' Spanish Language sister network. Gaby’s as host secured interviews and exclusives with headliners as varied as Deepak Chopra, Enrique Iglesias, Carlos Santana, Gloria Trevi, Manu Ginóbili and former president George H. W. Bush, among others, she has taught Journalism and Communications courses at the University of Texas, Midland College and Odessa College. Won two NATAS Daytime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Daytime Talent in a Spanish Language Program and Outstanding Entertainment Program in Spanish. Won one was nominated seven times. In 2008, SuperLatina was named Best Magazine Show by the Texas Associated Press Broadcasters. In 2010, Gaby’s investigative reports on the challenges facing gay Latinos were recognized with a national nomination to the Glaad media awards.
2015, NATAS Lone Star Chapter Emmy award for Interview Program Official website Gaby Natale Is Ready to Talk