Indonesian Navy

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Indonesian Navy
Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut
Lambang TNI AL.png
TNI-AL insignia
Founded 10 September 1945
Country  Indonesia
Allegiance Presidential Standard of Indonesia.svg President of Indonesia
Type Navy
Size 74,000 active duty personnel
Part of Indonesian National Armed Forces
Nickname(s) TNI-AL
Motto(s) Jalesveva Jayamahe
(Sanskrit, lit: "Victorious on the Sea")
Colors Idnavyflag.gif
Anniversaries 10 September 1945 (founded)
Engagements Battle of Arafura Sea
Operation Trikora
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
Incorporation of West Papua into Indonesia
Indonesian Invasion of East Timor
Insurgency in Aceh
Commander-in-Chief President Joko Widodo
Chief of Staff Admiral Ade Supandi
Vice Chief of Staff Vice Admiral Achmad Taufieqoerrochman
Eddy Martadinata
Josaphat Sudarso
John Lie
Naval Ensign Flag of Indonesia.svg
Naval Jack Naval Jack of Indonesia.svg
Naval Aviation Roundel & Fin Flash Roundel of Indonesia - Naval Aviation.svg Flag of Indonesia.svg

The Indonesian Navy (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut, TNI–AL) was founded on 10 September 1945. Its role is to patrol Indonesia's lengthy coastline, to enforce and patrol the territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Indonesia, to protect Indonesia's maritime strategic interests, to protect the islands surrounding Indonesia, and to defend against seaborne threats.

The Indonesian Navy is headed by a Navy Chief of Staff (Kepala Staf Angkatan Laut – Kasal), the Indonesian Navy is strengthen by two major fleets known as "Armada" which are Komando Armada Barat (Western Fleet Command) located in Tanjung Priok and Komando Armada Timur (Eastern Fleet Command) located in Surabaya with one Military Sealift Command (Komando Lintas Laut Militer). The Navy also heads the Marine Corps.

All commissioned ships of the TNI-AL have the prefix KRI, standing for Kapal Republik Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia Ship).


According to Law No.34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces, Article 9, the Navy has the following tasks:

  1. perform military duties in national defence;
  2. enforce the law and secure the order in the sea area of national jurisdiction in accordance with national laws and ratified international laws;
  3. perform diplomatic duties in support of foreign policy set by the government;
  4. engage other duties relevant for the maintenance and development of naval power;
  5. support civilian empowerment in sea defence areas.


Creation and actions during the revolution[edit]

The official Indonesian Navy's history began on 10 September 1945, at the outset of the Indonesian National Revolution, the administration of the early Indonesian government established the People's Marine Security Agency (Badan Keamanan Rakyat Laut/ BKR Laut) on 22 August 1945, the predecessor to the modern Indonesian Navy. BKR Laut with only wooden ships, a few landing craft and weapons left by Japan, was initially composed of Indonesian sailors who had served in the ranks of the Royal Netherlands Navy during the Dutch colonial period, and who had fought the Japanese during the years of military occupation, plus active militias who served with the Japanese and ex-Indonesian officers and ratings of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The formation of the Indonesian military organisation known as the People's Security Army (Tentara Keamanan Rakyat / TKR) on 5 October 1945, at the height of the National Revolution, helped spur the further existence of the TKR Naval Branch – the Peoples' Security Navy (TLKR), which later became the Republic of Indonesia Navy (Angkatan Laut Republik Indonesia/ ALRI). The name ALRI was used until 1970, when it was changed to Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL).

As the revolution grew and the Navy began its work, naval bases were established throughout the archipelago. Former ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy handed down to the new republic were acquired. Simple strength did not discourage the Navy to deploy Sea Traffic Operations in order to spread the news of the proclamation and helping to form and train Republican military forces and militias nationwide. Besides, they also attempted to breach the Dutch naval blockade in order to obtain aid from abroad.

The newly formed navy confronted the more superior Royal Netherlands Navy in Bali, Sibolga and Cirebon. Cross-sea operations are also able to prepare the armed forces in South Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Limitations in strength and ability to lead the Navy had to divert the struggle in the countryside, after most boats were sunk and nearly all bases battered by the Dutch and Allied military forces, but the determination to participate again in the sea never subsided. In the hard times during the National Revolution the Navy succeeded in forming the Fleet Forces (CA), Marine Corps (Corps Mariniers/ CM), and educational institutions in various places, the formation of these elements mark the presence of aspects for the formation of a modern national navy.

After the revolution[edit]

Grumman HU-16 Albatross of the naval aviation, 1950s–1960s

The end of the War of Independence marked the development of the Navy as a modern Navy; in accordance with the results of the Round Table Conference, since 1949, the Navy received a variety of war equipment such as ships – battleships and its various supporting facilities such as Naval Base. This step in the consolidation of the body along with the Navy, revamping the organization and recruitment of personnel through educational institutions before manning naval equipment, during 1949–1959 the Navy managed to enhance the strength and improve its capabilities. In the field of organization the Navy reorganized the Fleet Forces, the Marine Corps – then Korps Komando Operasi Angkatan Laut (KKO-AL – Naval Commando Operations Corps Command), Naval Aviation and a number of Naval Regions as territorial defense command aspects of the sea. Navy combat equipment grew, both from the Dutch and from other various countries.

With the increased strength and the capability, the Navy began refining the strategy, tactics, and techniques of marine operations are directly applied in a variety of military operations in order to deal with separatist movements that have sprung up in the year from 1950 to 1959; in assignment operations PRRI in Sumatra, Permesta , Darul Islam in West Java, and RMS in the Moluccas, the Navy gained lessons in applying the concept of marine operations, amphibious operations, and joint operations with other forces.

At the height of the Cold War[edit]

KRI Pasopati, a Whiskey-class submarine which is now a museum ship
KRI Siliwangi

At the time of the country started to recover from the threat of disintegration, in 1959, the Navy launched a program known as Menuju Angkatan Laut yang Jaya, the Navy experienced a significant progress until 1965 which was motivated by the politics of confrontation in order to seize West Irian, which Indonesia claimed as part of its territory, a claim refuted by the Dutch government. As part of the increasing military ties between Indonesia and the Warsaw Pact, various naval combat equipment from Eastern European countries strengthened the Navy and become the dominant force at the time, some military equipment of Soviet production served in the ranks of the Navy, among others Sverdlov-class cruiser, Skoryy-class destroyer, Riga-class frigate, Whiskey-class submarine (the first such vessels to be used in Southeast Asia), Komar-class missile boat, Ilyushin Il-28 long-range bomber aircraft of Naval Aviation and the PT-76 Amphibious light tanks and BTR-50 APCs of the Commando Corps, the first of their kind in the region. With such power in the era of the 1960s the Navy was called the largest Navy in Southeast Asia.

By January 1962 the Indonesian Navy started preparing a couple of naval operations for the liberation of West Irian known as Operation Trikora, which began on 15 December the year before as part of the military component of that operation under the Mandala Command for the Liberation of West Irian (Komando Mandala Pembebasan Irian Barat) . Beginning 1 January, fast-ship torpedo vessels of the Navy were forward deployed to deal with destroyers, frigates and aircraft of the Royal Netherlands Navy, on January 15, 1962 Commodore Yos Sudarso along with RI Macan Tutul sank in the sea battle in the Arafura Sea. This battle is known as the Vlakke Hoek incident.By mid-year the Navy was preparing to organize its role in the planned Operation Jayawijaya which would be the largest amphibious operation in the history of Indonesian military operations if commenced, the naval component was made up of 100 warships and 16,000 sailors and Marines. The deployment of forces preparatory to the planned landings in West Papua forced the Dutch to return to negotiations and reached an agreement to hand over West Irian to Indonesia.

After seizing West Irian, Sukarno by 1963 moved his sights on Malaysia. Indonesia political confrontation against Neocolonialism and Imperialism (Nekolim) continued in Operation Dwikora to oppose the formation of Malaysia, although elements of the National Armed Forces were prepared for operational deployments to the new state, the operations were limited to the infiltration operation along the Borneo frontier. Soldiers from the marine corps were involved in the operations which targeted both the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, the Marine Corps, though, would figure in the 1964 MacDonald House bombing in Singapore.

1965 onwards[edit]

USS John R. Perry, a Claud Jones-class destroyer escort that would later become KRI Samadikun

Operation Dwikora was discontinued in 1965 along with a succession of governments in Indonesia after an abortive coup d'état [2] took place in Jakarta, which were organized by the self-proclaimed organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces members who, in the early hours of 1 October 1965, assassinated six Indonesian Army generals. Since 1966, the Navy experienced a new chapter in its history as the military integration efforts, with the integration of the armed forces organizationally and operationally been able to keep up on the implementation of tasks in the field of defense and security so doctrinally, the direction of development of the power and capabilities of each branch to be concentrated. The operations were prominent during the period of the 1970s was Operation Seroja in the framework of the integration of East Timor to Indonesia. Navy played an active role in the operation of landings, a joint ground operation, and transporting troops by sea.

Starting the 1980s the Navy began to modernize combat equipment. Ships made in Eastern Europe that has been the core strength of the Navy in the era of the 1960s and 1970s were not suited to meet the growing and changing needs for the navy and its branches (saving for its submarines and several corvettes and frigates, the submarines were retired in 1990), the worsening relations between Indonesia and the Soviet Union after the government of President Sukarno resulted a cessation of military cooperation between the two countries and the Warsaw Pact. Therefore, the Navy switched once more to using Western technology to modernize the power and ability to buy warships, logistics vessels and other major combat equipment from various countries. Included among those commissioned during the Suharto presidency were Fatahillah-class corvette and Van Speijk-class frigate from the Netherlands, Type 209 submarine from West Germany, Fast Patrol boat from South Korea, and the GAF Nomad patrol aircraft from Australia. In 1993 the Navy also received 39 ships from the former Volksmarine (East German Navy), including 13 Parchim Class corvettes, the Frosch-class landing ship tank (LST), and 9 Kondor II-class minessweepers.

KRI Cut Nyak Dien

At the same time the Navy began to develop a non-combat military operations in the form of humanitarian service program Surya Bhaskara Jaya in various remote areas in Indonesia that can only be reached by sea, the core of the operating activities are health services, construction and rehabilitation of public facilities and various counseling in health, law, and civil defense. This event is held regularly every year until now. A number of countries also participated in these activities, among others, Singapore, Australia and the United States, the navy also seeks promoting the development of the maritime sector, especially those related to aspects of defense and security at sea, activities that had been present since independence before the formation of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries. The actual activities undertaken today by the Navy are establishing marine development assessment bodies together with the government and private sectors in some areas, coastal village pilot program are summarized in Coastal Rural Development (Bindesir), and the National Potential Development Program for Maritime Defense (Binpotnaskuatmar); in order to inflame the marine life of the nation, the Navy held an international scale maritime event Arung Samudera 1995. The navy was responsible for the programs for National Maritime Year 1996 and the Bunaken Declaration of 1998, which is a manifestation of marine development in Indonesia.

Expansion in the 21st century[edit]

During the presidencies of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Joko Widodo, the Navy has begun a program of expansion of its combat commands and has begun a program of national warship construction in naval arsenals, while acquiring nationally produced transport aircraft for the needs of the Navy.


KRI Makassar 590

According to presidential decree No. 62/ 2016,[3] the organisation structure of the navy comprises the following components:

Leadership Elements[edit]

Assistant for Leadership Element[edit]

  • Inspector General of the Navy, position held by two-star admiral.
  • Naval Expert Staff, position held by two-star or one-star admiral.
  • Naval Planning and Budgeting Staff
  • Naval Security Staff
  • Naval Operation Staff
  • Naval Human Resource Staff
  • Naval Supply Staff
  • Marine Potential Staff

Other Service Element as may be organized by the Chief of Staff of the Navy[edit]

Central Executive Agencies[edit]

An Indonesian Naval Academy recruiting poster
  1. Naval Security Service (Dinas Keamanan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  2. Naval Public Relations and Media Service (Dinas Penerangan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  3. Naval Communication and Electronics Service (Dinas Komunikasi dan Elektronika TNI Angkatan Laut)
  4. Naval Legal Counsel Service (Dinas Pembinaan Hukum TNI Angkatan Laut)
  5. Naval Marine Potential Development Service (Dinas Potensi Maritim TNI Angkatan Laut)
  6. Naval Personnel Administration Service (Dinas Administrasi Personal TNI Angkatan Laut)
  7. Naval Education Service (Dinas Pendidikan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  8. Naval Personnel Maintenance (Dinas Perawatan Personel TNI Angkatan Laut)
  9. Naval Medical Department (Dinas Kesehatan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  10. Naval Ordnance Service (Dinas Materiil TNI Angkatan Laut)
  11. Naval Weapons and Electronics Equipment Service (Dinas Materiil Senjata dan Elektronika TNI Angkatan Laut)
  12. Naval Seaworthiness Equipment Service (Dinas Kelaikan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  13. Naval Base Facility Service (Dinas Fasilitas Pangkalan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  14. Naval Procurement Service (Dinas Pengadaan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  15. Naval Supply Service (Dinas Pembekalan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  16. Naval Finance Corps (Dinas Keuangan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  17. Naval Research and Development Service (Dinas Penelitian dan Pengembangan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  18. Naval Information and Data Processing Service (Dinas Informasi dan Pengolahan Data TNI Angkatan Laut)
  19. Naval Psychology Service (Dinas Psikologi TNI Angkatan Laut)
  20. Naval Operation and Training (Dinas Operasi dan Latihan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  21. Naval Aviation Command (Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Laut / Puspnerbal)
    MBB Bo 105 of the Naval Aviation landing on the flight deck of USS Fort Worth.

    The Naval Aviation Command is one part of the Navy's Central Executive Agency led by a First Vice Admiral. Puspenerbal as the center of guidance to the Navy's aviation aviation units in the field of personnel as well as the readiness of air elements. Puspenerbal is not just a combat unit, but also participates in various Marine Corps operation tasks as well as providing logistics and personnel tactical transport facilities for marine and airbase systems; in carrying out these tasks, Puspenerbal carries out flight functions which include: Air surveillance, waterproof anti-submarine, anti-submarine, lander landing landing, fast logistics support, maritime patrol, marine combat operations, and the provision of material coaching functions. This unit is in charge of supporting naval operations, both for combat operations, SAR operations and humanitarian relief operations. Marine security to monitor the movement of foreign ships, especially in the archipelagic sea lanes of Indonesia, environmental protection from the pollution of dangerous materials, the prevention of smuggling and theft of marine wealth is also an important mission carried by Dispenerbal, in cooperation with other air force elements such as TNI-AU and Police. One of the most famous acts of Navy aircraft recently was when they were involved in evacuating victims of the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake.
  22. Naval Military Police Command (Pusat Polisi Militer TNI Angkatan Laut)
  23. Indonesian Naval Academy Surabaya (Akademi TNI Angkatan Laut/ AAL)
  24. Naval Staff College (Sekolah Staf dan Komando TNI Angkatan Laut/ Seskoal)
  25. Naval Technology College (Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi TNI Angkatan Laut)

Principal Commands under the Chief of Staff of the Navy[edit]

  • Fleet Commands :
    The navy strength are spread across several Navy Main Naval Base (Pangkalan Utama TNI Angkatan Laut/ Lantamal) and Naval Base (Pangkalan TNI Angkatan Laut/ Lanal) throughout Indonesia under two main fleet command. Navy HQ assign numbering of Main Naval Base I to XI according to the location from west to east on August 1, 2006 in line with the inauguration of the Naval Base (Pangkalan TNI Angkatan Laut/ Lanal) Teluk Bayur in Padang, West Sumatra into Main Naval Base II. In 2015, three Naval Base (Lanal) were upgraded to Main Naval Base (Lantamal) with the numbering of XII, XIII and XIV. Plans exist to have a single HQ at Surabaya, with commands at Riau (West), Papua (East), and Makassar (Central).[4] JDW reported on 12 November 2003 that Admiral Bernard Kent Sondakh, the Chief of Naval Staff, was advocating a plan to merge the two fleets to form a single Main Operations and Administration Defence Command, to be headed by a three-star officer and headquartered at Surabaya.[5] Plans exist for the establishment of a central fleet command in Makassar – Celebes (Sulawesi) and also to move its eastern fleet to Sorong – Papua.[6]
    • Western Fleet Command (Komando Armada Barat /Koarmabar), in Jakarta, conterminous with Army's KODAM Jaya, KODAM Iskandar Muda and KODAMs I through IV and VI and Air Force's Operation Command I West.
      • Main Naval Base I (Lantamal I) in Belawan, oversees naval bases covering Sabang, Dumai, Lhokseumawe, Tanjung Balai and Simeulue. The main naval base also oversee one Naval Air Station (Lanudal) Sabang and two facilities maintenance and repair (Fasharkan) in Sabang and Belawan, the main naval base is scheduled to be moved to Lhokseumawe in Aceh.
      • Main Naval Base II (Lantamal II) in Padang, oversees naval bases covering Sibolga, Nias, Mentawai (planned), and Bengkulu.
      • Main Naval Base III (Lantamal III) in Jakarta, oversees six naval bases covering Palembang, Cirebon, Lampung, Banten, Bandung, and Bangka-Belitung. Moreover, it has a maintenance and repair facility in Pondok Rowing, Jakarta, these maintenance and repair facility now has the ability to make small patrol boat with a size of 28–35 meters. Furthermore, the main naval base also oversees Naval Air Station (Lanudal) Pondok Cabe.
      • Main Naval Base IV (Lantamal IV) in Tanjung Pinang oversees naval bases covering Batam, Tarempa, Ranai, Tanjung Balai Karimun, and Dabo Singkep. Main Naval Base Tanjung Pinang has a maintenance and repair facility or Fasharkan in Mentigi (Fasharkan Mentigi) that has the ability to make the patrol boat (KAL) 12, 28 and 35 meters; in addition, it has 2 Naval Air Station (Lanudal) in Matak, Natuna Islands, and in Tanjungpinang / Kijang.
      • Main Naval Base XII (Lantamal XII) in Pontianak oversees naval bases covering Pangkalan Bun, Ketapang and Sambas.
    • Eastern Fleet Command (Komando Armada Timur /Koarmatim), in Surabaya, conterminous with Army's KODAM V and KODAMs VII through XVIII and Air Force's Operation Command II East.
  • Military Sealift Command – coordinates the navy's logistical assets in support of its personnel
    • Military Sealift Force Jakarta
    • Military Sealift Force Surabaya
  • Marine Corps, with two Marine Forces and an independent Marine Brigade plus support units
  • Naval Doctrine, Education, and Training Development Command (Kodiklatal)
    • Naval Operation Education Command (Komando Pendidikan Operasi Laut (Kodikopsla))
    • Marine Corps Education Command (Komando Pendidikan Marinir (Kodikmar))
    • Naval Support Training Command (Komando Pendidikan Dukungan Umum (Kodikdukum))
    • Basic Military Training and Education Centre (Pusat Latihan dan Pendidikan Dasar Kemiliteran (Puslatdiksarmil))
    • Electronics and Naval Weapon Guidance System Training Centre (Pusat Latihan Elektronika dan Sistem Kendali Senjata (Puslatlekdalsen))
    • Naval Operation Training Centre (Pusat Latihan Operasi Laut (Puslaopsla))
    • Marine Corps Training Centre (Pusat Latihan Marinir (Puslatmar))
  • Naval Hydrography and Oceanography Center (Pushidrosal)

Specialty Corps[edit]

All officers regardless of specialty corps wear either peaked caps or specialty coloured berets with their uniforms.

  1. Fleet Forces Corps (Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Pelaut, abbrv: (Laut "P")) – Enlisted ratings wear navy blue berets or sailor caps in their dress uniforms, senior ranked NCOs wear peaked caps.
    • Nautical Corps
    • Navigation Corps
    • Communication Corps
    • Telegraphic Corps
    • Armaments Corps
    • Surface Weapon Systems
    • Underwater Armaments
  2. Naval Engineering Corps(Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Teknik, abbrv: (Laut "T")) - Enlisted ratings and senior NCOs wear construction helmets when performing engineering or transport work.
    • Mechanical Engineers
    • Diesel Mechanical Engineers
    • Structural Engineering Corps
    • General Construction Engineering
    • Transportation Corps
  3. Electronics Corps (Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Elektronika, abbrv: (Laut "E"))
    • Computer Data Processing Corps
    • Electricity Corps
  4. Supply and Administration Corps (Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Suplai atau Administrasi, abbrv: (Laut "S"))
    • Finance Corps
    • Administration Corps
    • Housekeeping Corps
    • Supply Corps
  5. Marine Corps (Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Marinir, abbrv: (Mar)) – Personnel wear purple berets
    • Marine Infantry
    • Marine Artillery
    • Marine Armored Cavalry
    • Engineers
    • Communications
    • Transport, Supplies and Ordnance
  6. Women's Naval Service Corps (Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Wanita Angkatan Laut / KOWAL, abbrv: (Laut "K/W")) - Personnel wear variant crusher caps with their uniforms.
  7. Medical Service Corps (Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Kesehatan, abbrv: (Laut "K"))
    • General Nursing Corps
    • Pharmacy Corps
    • Paramedic Assistance Corps
    • Dental Corps
  8. Special Corps (Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Khusus, abbrv: (Laut "KH"))
    • Physical Fitness and Sports Corps
    • Band Service Corps
    • Judge Advocate General's Corps
  9. Naval Military Police Corps (Bahasa Indonesia: Korps Polisi Militer, abbrv: (Laut "PM") – Personnel wear light blue berets pushed to the left or blue MP helmets


Ground forces[edit]

Marine Corps[edit]

Indonesian Marines

The Indonesian Marine Corps (Indonesian: Korps Marinir) officially known as KORMAR or simply "Marinir", Tentara Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Laut, ("KORMAR", TNI-AL); officially translated as: Marine Corps, Indonesian Navy[7] is the currently integral part of the Indonesian Navy (TNI-AL) and sized at the military corps level unit as the Naval Infantry and main amphibious warfare force of Indonesia. There are future plans to expand the Indonesian Marine Corps to become an independent, uniformed force, it is commanded by a two star marine general. It has two divisions, which are:

  • Pasukan Marinir I / "PASMAR I" (Marine Force I) based in Jakarta for operations in the western fleet of Indonesia
  • Pasukan Marinir II / "PASMAR II" (Marine Force II) based in Surabaya for operations in the eastern fleet of Indonesia.

The two marine divisions (PASMAR I and II) are each led by a one star admiral (Brigadier General/Commodore).

Special Forces[edit]


KOPASKA special forces

Formed in 31 March 1962, Frogman Commando (Komando Pasukan Katak) or KOPASKA is a Frogman unit of the Indonesian Navy which is considered as one of Indonesia's most elite special forces after the Kopassus from the army. The unit gained notoriety after managed to free the MV Sinar Kudus who was hijacked by Somali pirates on 16 March 2011 without resulting any casualties,[8] the Unit's main duties are underwater demolition (raiding enemy ships and bases), destroying main underwater installations, reconnaissance, prisoner snatches, preparing beaches for larger naval amphibious operations, and counter-terrorism. In peacetime the unit deploys a seven-person team to serve as security personnel for VIPs. Primary among these duties are the escort and personal security of the Indonesian president and vice-president.


Taifib personnel during training exercise

Amphibious reconnaissance battalion (Battalion Intai Amfibi) or Taifib is an elite recon unit within the Indonesian Marine Corps which is tasked for conducting Amphibious reconnaissance and Special reconnaissance. It is operationally similar to the Combat Reconnaissance Platoon (Indonesian: Peleton Intai Tempur, abbreviated "Tontaipur") from the Army's Kostrad corps. Taifib was previously known as "Kipam" (abbreviation from: "Komando Intai Para Amfibi") which literally means in English: the Para-Amphibious reconnaissance Commandos.

They were officially formed on 13 March 1961 as marine commandos.[9] Set at a regimental strength of two battalions, "Taifib" is was formed as the elite amphibious reconnaissance unit of the Indonesian Marine Corps, it was first used for conflict management in Irian Jaya (Papua) in April 1962. Starting from November 1971 it was called "Batalyon Intai Amphibi" ("Yon Taifib") or Amphibious Recon Battalion. Today, two force recon battalions are deployed as part of the 1st (Surabaya) and 2nd (Jakarta) Marine Forces.


Jala Mangkara Detachment personnel

Jala Mangkara Detachment (Detasemen Jala Mangkara) or Denjaka is the special operations and counter-terrorism forces of the Indonesian Navy. This is a combined detachment formed from selected personnel of the Navy's Underwater Special Unit (Kopaska) and the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion (Taifib), the unit was formed in 1984 by the Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces to counter maritime strategic threats including terrorism and sabotage. Despite the specific reason for its formation, as in the case of any other special operations forces around the world, the detachment is also fully trained in conducting reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, and clandestine behind-enemy-lines operations. Denjaka's primary task is to develop anti-terrorism, anti-sabotage and other clandestine operations capabilities in support of maritime counter-terrorism, counter-sabotage and other special operations as directed by the chief of the armed forces.

Ongoing projects[edit]

The Indonesian Navy plans to have 151 vessels (minimum), 220 vessels (standard), or 274 vessels (ideal), for which it has a blueprint up to 2024.[10]

In April 2011, PT PAL, in co-operation with Dutch Naval Shipbuilding, started designing a new light frigate for ASW purposes, it will be the largest warship built by PT PAL.[11] The first steel cutting ceremony was held on January 2014 and order for two PKR ships is confirmed. Equipped with VL Mica missiles and Oerlikon Millennium CIWS, these ships are also usable for air defence purposes.

At the same time, Indonesian Navy has accepted a grant of two used patrol boats equipped with guided missiles made in Britain from Brunei, which has replaced them with newer vessels.[12]

As of June 2011 Indonesia was in the process of choosing submarines from one of three countries: France's Scorpène class, Germany's Type 209 and the South Korean Chang Bogo class Type 209.[13] In December 2011, a contract to build three submarines was signed by Indonesia and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME). Two submarines will be built in South Korea in co-operation with Indonesian state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL, while the third will be built at PT Pal's facilities, the contract was worth $1.07 billion and construction was planned to start in January 2012, with delivery expected in 2015 and 2016. The submarines will weigh 1,400 tons and be 61.3 metres (201 ft 1 in) long, with a crew of up to 40 and with 8 weapons tubes for torpedoes and other weapons. The procurement is an effort to keep pace with other countries in the region,[14][15] the submarines will be based at Palu naval base in Central Sulawesi which is currently under construction.[16]

In January 2012, the Navy confirmed an order for the 24 guided-missile fast boats to be deployed in the shallow waters in the western part of Indonesia and in North Sulawesi which are geographically dotted by small islands and divided by straits. Indonesia now has 8 KCR-40s (Kapal Cepat Rudal 40-meter, literally meaning 40-meters Fast Missile Boat), all in full commission by 20 December 2013,[17] these vessels will be 45 percent locally sourced and are to be designed and built locally. They will cost Rp 73 billion ($7.98 million) each and have a top speed of 30 knots. They will carry Chinese C-705 anti-ship missiles with a range up to 120 kilometres (75 mi), a 6-barreled 30-millimeter close-in weapons system and two 20-millimeters guns.[18][19][20] Indonesia has also decided to restart procurement of the Trimaran, Klewang class FMPV(Fast missile patrol vessel), with an initial order of four boats.[21]

The Indonesian Navy is also preparing to acquire three new British built corvettes,[22] classified as Bung Tomo-class corvette, after its leading ship, KRI Bung Tomo (357). They were built for Brunei but rejected for not meeting their requirements, allowing Indonesia to buy them cheaply.

In December 2013, the Indonesian Ministry of Defence stated that the Indonesian Navy planned to buy several used Kilo-class submarines still in commission with the Russian Navy.[23] A team consisting of Indonesian Navy experts was to be sent to Russia to inspect the condition of these future submarines;[24] in March 2014 the procurement was cancelled.[25]

Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems[edit]

With various coastal radars, Indonesia has one of the world's longest Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems (IMSS), the network covers more than 1,205 kilometres (749 mi) of coastline in the Straits of Malacca and about 1,285 kilometres (798 mi) of coastline in the Sulawesi Sea.[26]

Chief of Staff of the Navy[edit]

The following have served as Chief of Staff of the Navy:

No Name From To
1 Admiral III Mas Pardi (id) November 1945 February 1946
2 Admiral III Mohammad Nazir (id) February 1946 April 1948
3 Vice Admiral R. Soebijakto (id) April 1948 July 1959
4 Vice Admiral R.E. Martadinata July 1959 25 February 1966
5 Admiral Moeljadi (id) 25 February 1966[27] 16 December 1969
6 Admiral Sudomo (id) 16 December 1969[28] 26 Juni 1973
7 Admiral R. Soebono (id) 26 June 1973 26 June 1974
8 Admiral R.S. Subijakto (id) 26 June 1974[29] 1977
9 Admiral Waloejo Soegito (id) 1977 4 December 1982
10 Admiral Mochamad Romly (id) 4 December 1982 11 April 1986
11 Admiral Rudolf Kasenda (id) 11 April 1986[30] 1989
12 Admiral Muhamad Arifin (id) 1989 1993
13 Admiral Tanto Kuswanto (id) 1993 15 March 1996
14 Admiral Arief Koeshariadi (id) 15 March 1996 26 June 1998
15 Admiral Widodo Adi Sutjipto 26 June 1998 17 July 1999
16 Admiral Achmad Sutjipto (id) 17 July 1999 9 October 2000
17 Admiral Indroko Sastrowiryono (id) 9 October 2000 25 April 2002
18 Admiral Bernard Kent Sondakh (id) 25 April 2002 18 February 2005
19 Admiral Slamet Soebijanto (id) 18 February 2005 7 November 2007
20 Admiral Sumardjono (id) 7 November 2007 1 July 2008
21 Admiral Tedjo Edhy Purdijatno (id) 1 July 2008 7 November 2009
22 Admiral Agus Suhartono 7 November 2009 28 September 2010
23 Admiral Soeparno (id) 28 September 2010 17 December 2012
24 Admiral Marsetio (id) 17 December 2012[31] 31 December 2014
25 Admiral Ade Supandi 31 December 2014[32] present

Rank Structure[edit]

In the navy, as well as in other armed forces branches in Indonesia, the rank consists of officer known as in Indonesian: "Perwira", NCO "Bintara" and enlisted "Tamtama".

Indonesian Navy is one of few Navy in that world which use similar rank title with its Army, the difference is only on high officer and lower-ranking enlisted men, the only exception is Indonesian Marine Corps, while Marine Corps is a branch of the Navy, the rank titles of the Marine Corps are the same as those of the Army, but it still uses the Navy's style insignia (for lower-ranking enlisted men, blue are replacing the red colour).

The proper title to address of rank on official document are as follows, all high-ranking officers (Admiral or Marine General) use their rank followed by "(TNI)", while other officers use their rank followed by respective branch/corps abbreviation, for example, an Navy colonel from fleet forces corps use the title "Kolonel (Laut P)", while an Navy Vice Admiral from fleet forces corps use the title "Laksamana Madya (TNI)". Enlisted seamen may put their respective branch/corps specialty. All marine corps personnel, general officers inclusive, use their rank followed by "(Mar)".

Note: Indonesia is not a member of NATO, so there is not an official equivalence between the Indonesian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.


OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer
Indonesia Indonesia
23-TNI Navy-FADM.svg 22-TNI Navy-ADM.svg 21-TNI Navy-VADM.svg 20-TNI Navy-RADM.svg 19-TNI Navy-CDRE.svg 18-TNI Navy-CAPT.svg 17-TNI Navy-CDR.svg 16-TNI Navy-LCDR.svg 15-TNI Navy-LT.svg 14-TNI Navy-LTJG.svg 13-TNI Navy-ENS.svg
Laksamana Besar Laksamana Laksamana Madya Laksamana Muda Laksamana Pertama Kolonel Letnan Kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan Satu Letnan Dua
Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral (upper half) Rear Admiral (lower half) Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Lieutenant Junior Grade Ensign

Enlisted ratings[edit]

OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Indonesia Indonesia
12-TNI Navy-CWO.svg 11-TNI Navy-WO.svg Serma pdh al.png Serka pdh al.png Sertu pdh al.png Serda pdh al.png Kopka pdh al.png Koptu pdh al.png Kopda pdh al.png Kelasi kepala pdh al.png Kelasi satu pdh al.png Kelasi dua pdh al.png
Pembantu Letnan Satu Pembantu Letnan Dua Sersan Mayor Sersan Kepala Sersan Satu Sersan Dua Kopral Kepala Kopral Satu Kopral Dua Kelasi Kepala Kelasi Satu Kelasi Dua
Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer Master Chief Petty Officer First Class Master Chief Petty Officer Second Class Senior Chief Petty Officer Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer First Class Petty Officer Second Class Petty Officer Third Class Seaman Seaman Apprentice Seaman recruit


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Presiden Lantik Ade Supandi Sebagai KSAL". 31 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "The assassination of generals on the morning of 1 October was not really a coup attempt against the government, but the event has been almost universally described as an 'abortive coup attempt,' so I have continued to use the term." Crouch 1978, p. 101.
  3. ^ "Law" (PDF). 14 July 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2018. 
  4. ^ IISS Military Balance 2007, p.353
  5. ^ JDW 19 November 2003, p.16-17
  6. ^
  7. ^ Archived 29 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Kisah Operasi Pasukan Katak di MV Sinar Kudus
  9. ^ "Yontaifib Marinir: Pasukan Elit Marinir TNI AL -". 2016-12-16. Retrieved 2017-04-28. 
  10. ^ "Indonesia Targetkan Miliki 154 Kapal Perang Hingga 2024". JakartaGreater. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  11. ^ "Indonesia looks to build its own warships". The Jakarta Post. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  12. ^ "TNI considering two patrol boats from Brunei". ANTARA News. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  13. ^ "Navy shopping for new submarines". The Jakarta Post. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  14. ^ "December 22, 2011 – RI orders 3 submarines worth $1b in regional 'catch-up'". Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  15. ^ "Navy Opens New Base Prepared for Submarines". 7 April 2013. 
  16. ^ Rahmat, Ridzwan (30 July 2015). "Indonesian government calls for urgent completion of submarine basing facilities". IHS Jane's Navy International. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  17. ^ "Menhan Resmikan 1 KRI dan 2 KAL Buatan Batam". 
  18. ^ "Navy to procure 24 fast boats to patrol shallow waters". Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  19. ^ "Indonesia: Defense Minister Launches "KRI Clurit" >>". Naval Today. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  20. ^ "Bank Mandiri finances missile boats". The Jakarta Post. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  21. ^ Ridzwan Rahmat, Jakarta – IHS Jane's Defence Weekly (14 August 2014). "Indonesia confirms acquisition of four Klewang-class stealth patrol ships – IHS Jane's 360". Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  22. ^ "Purchase Confirmed, Navy Waits for Three New Ships". 
  23. ^ "Indonesia borong kapal selam dari Rusia". 
  24. ^ "Butuh Kapal Selam, TNI Kirim Tim ke Rusia". 
  25. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  26. ^ "News". 1 July 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  27. ^ "Amanat PJM Presiden Sukarno pada Upatjara Timbang-terima Djabatan Menteri/Panglima Angkatan Laut dari Laksamana Madia Laut E. Martadinata kepada Laksamana Muda Laut Muljadi di Halaman Istana Negara/Merdeka, Djakarta, 25 Pebruari 1966". Monash University Library Asian Studies Research Collection Online. Monash University Library. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  28. ^ G., Dwipayana; Nazarudin Sjamsuddin (2003). Jejak Langkah Pak Harto 28 Maret 1968-23 Maret 1973. Jakarta: PT. Citra Kharisma Bunda. p. 179. 
  29. ^ "1974-06-26 Amanat Presiden Soeharto Pada Upacara Pelantikan KASAL Dan KAPOLRI". Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  30. ^ "Rudolf Kasenda: Pak Harto Pemimpin yang Tenang dengan Komando yang Jelas". Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  31. ^ Mega Putra Ratya (17 December 2012). "Laksamana Marsetyo & Marsekal Ida Bagus Dilantik Jadi KSAL & KSAU". Detikcom. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  32. ^ Rivki (31 December 2014). "Jokowi Lantik Laksamana Madya Ade Supandi Menjadi KSAL". Retrieved 2 January 2015. 

External links[edit]