SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Indonesian occupation of East Timor

The Indonesian occupation of East Timor began in December 1975 and lasted until October 1999. After centuries of Portuguese colonial rule in East Timor, a 1974 coup in Portugal led to the decolonisation of its former colonies, creating instability in East Timor and leaving its future uncertain. After a small-scale civil war, the pro-independence Fretilin declared victory in the capital city of Dili and declared an independent East Timor on 28 November 1975. Claiming that its assistance had been requested by East Timorese leaders, Indonesian military forces invaded East Timor on 7 December 1975 and by 1979 they had all but destroyed the armed resistance to the occupation. Following a controversial "Popular Assembly" which many said was not a genuine act of self-determination, Indonesia declared the territory a province of Indonesia. After the invasion, the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council passed resolutions condemning Indonesia's actions in East Timor and calling for its immediate withdrawal from the territory.

Australia and Indonesia were the only nations in the world which recognised East Timor as a province of Indonesia, soon afterwards they began negotiations to divide resources found in the Timor Gap. Other governments, including those of the United States, Japan and Malaysia supported the Indonesian government; the invasion of East Timor and the suppression of its independence movement, caused great harm to Indonesia's reputation and international credibility. For twenty-four years the Indonesian government subjected the people of East Timor to routine and systematic torture, sexual slavery, extrajudicial executions and deliberate starvation; the 1991 Santa Cruz Massacre caused outrage around the world, reports of other such killings were numerous. Resistance to Indonesian rule remained strong. A 1999 vote to determine East Timor's future resulted in an overwhelming majority in favour of independence, in 2002 East Timor became an independent nation; the Commission for Reception and Reconciliation in East Timor estimated the number of deaths during the occupation from famine and violence to be between 90,800 and 202,600, including between 17,600 and 19,600 violent deaths or disappearances, out of a 1999 population of 823,386.

The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings. After the 1999 vote for independence, paramilitary groups working with the Indonesian military undertook a final wave of violence during which most of the country's infrastructure was destroyed; the Australian led International Force for East Timor restored order and following the departure of Indonesian forces from East Timor, the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor administered the territory for two years, establishing a Serious Crimes Unit to investigate and prosecute crimes committed in 1999. Its limited scope and the small number of sentences delivered by Indonesian courts have caused numerous observers to call for an international tribunal for East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the occupation of East Timor a genocide and Yale University teaches it as part of its Genocide Studies program; the Portuguese first arrived in Timor in the 16th century, in 1702 East Timor came under Portuguese colonial administration.

Portuguese rule was tenuous until the island was divided with the Dutch Empire in 1860. A significant battleground during the Pacific War, East Timor was occupied by 20,000 Japanese troops; the fighting helped prevent a Japanese occupation of Australia, but resulted in 60,000 East Timorese deaths. When Indonesia secured its independence after World War II under the leadership of Sukarno, it did not claim control of East Timor, aside from general anti-colonial rhetoric it did not oppose Portuguese control of the territory. A 1959 revolt in East Timor against the Portuguese was not endorsed by the Indonesian government. A 1962 United Nations document notes: "the government of Indonesia has declared that it maintains friendly relations with Portugal and has no claim to Portuguese Timor...". These assurances continued after Suharto took power in 1965. An Indonesian official declared in December 1974: "Indonesia has no territorial ambition... Thus there is no question of Indonesia wishing to annex Portuguese Timor."In 1974, a coup in Lisbon caused significant changes in Portugal's relationship to its colony in Timor.

The power shift in Europe invigorated movements for independence in colonies like Mozambique and Angola, the new Portuguese government began a decolonisation process for East Timor. The first of these was an opening of the political process; when East Timorese political parties were first legalised in April 1974, three groupings emerged as major players in the postcolonial landscape. The União Democrática Timorense, was formed in May by a group of wealthy landowners. Dedicated to preserving East Timor as a protectorate of Portugal, in September UDT announced its support for independence. A week the Frente Revolucionária de Timor-Leste Independente appeared. Organised as the ASDT, the group endorsed "the universal doctrines of socialism", as well as "the right to independence"; as the political process grew more tense, the group changed its name and declared itself "the only legitimate representative of the people". The end of May saw the creation of a third party, Associacão Popular Democratica Timorense (Timorese Popular Democra

DC-International

DC-International is a tape cassette format developed by Grundig and marketed in 1965. DC is the abbreviation of "Double Cassette". Since DC-International did not compete against the similar Compact Cassette, it was discontinued in 1967. Starting in 1961, Philips began work in its Vienna tape production facilities, on a -compatible single-hole cassette. At the same time, a Philips team in Belgium developed a 2-hole cassette, under the name Pocket Recorder. Philips' management gave preference to this development, but informed its partner Grundig rather late, which led Grundig - who received an offer to participate in the Pocket Recorder, to abandon the DC-International cassette it developed without further ado; this was based upon construction drawings of the compact cassette, which Grundig had taken after their negotiations with Philips. The DC-International system was presented at Germany radio exhibition. At that time, Grundig was the largest tape recorder manufacturer worldwide and wanted to be represented in the newly created tape cassette market, as well.

The DC-International cassette is a two-roll cassette tape. The dimensions of a tape cassette are 120 mm × 77 mm × 12 mm, the weight is 65 grams; the case is made of polystyrene, a viewing window with scale incorporated into it, was included, so a user could view the tape from both sides of the cassette. The cassette has openings for the tape head and the erase head, as well as for the capstan pinch roller. A built-in pressure pad provides for tape-head contact. Like the Compact Cassette would have, a recording lock against unintentional erasure of a cassette was present in the form of 2 recesses in the cassette. If an opening is closed, it prevents any recording on that side. For protection against dust and scratches, the cassette can be inserted into a protective case when not in use; the tape's capable of recording 2 soundtracks in opposite directions. The tape speed is 5.08 cm/s = 2 ips faster than the Compact Cassette. Recording and playback in stereophonic sound would be possible with stereo devices, but there were never any such devices manufactured for this cassette format.

For a 90-minute DC-90 cassette, the tape length is 137 m with triple play band. For a 120-minute DC-120 cartridge, the tape length is 185 m with quadruple playband; the tape itself consisted of polyester. With the DC-International format, the focus was on music playback right from the start. At its launch, there were 25 pre-recorded music cassettes from Telefunken, Decca and RCA Victor available; these recordings on the cassettes ranged from country music to The Rolling Stones, the playing time is about 30 minutes per side. With a total playing time of about 60 minutes available, this was comparable to a phonograph record; the selling price of a pre-recorded cassette was 24 DM. For home recordings, blank cassettes were available from Grundig, Telefunken, BASF and Agfa-Gevaert; these blank cassettes were available 120 minutes of running time. A DC 90 blank cassette cost 12 DM, a DC 120 blank cassette 15 DM. DC-International cassettes were still commercially available a few years after the players' production had been discontinued.

Recorded music cassettes were distributed by Autoplay-Musikkassetten GmbH of Fuerth, Bavaria. Unrecorded cassettes were produced for several years. An unrecorded DC 90 cassette were 11 DM, the DC 120 cassette fetched 14 DM. Several portable cassette tape players were made using transistor technology and for installation in a motor vehicle; as portable devices, the Grundig C 100 was the first cassette tape recorder manufactured by Grundig and a similar model Magnetophon 401 by Telefunken. Both devices are battery powered; the power supply is hidden completely. The sales price of both devices was 298 DM; the Grundig C 100 was replaced by the 2 revised Grundig C 100 L models and the parallel model of the Grundig C 110 and replaced it later. The Grundig C 110 can be operated on electric power only - no portable options were available. For cars which did not feature a built-in radio, the Grundig AC 50 was able to connect to an existing radio head unit; the Grundig AC 60 contained a built-in 5-watt amplifier, as well as a tone control.

This model had no radio receiver uncoated into it, though Blaupunkt released 2 models of car tape recorders - identical to the Grundig models, as they were manufactured by Grundig. All built-in devices are only capable of playback. After just two years, the DC-International system was discontinued in favor of the Compact Cassette. At the 1967 Hannover Exhibition Telefunken announced it was ending support for the format, followed shortly after by Grundig at the 25th Radio Exhibition Berlin. At IFA, Grundig presented its Grundig C 200, a tape recorder for Compact Cassettes. At the launch of the DC-International, pre-recorded cassettes from Telefunken, RCA Victor were available. TTP 90000 Buntes Nachmittagskonzert TTP 90001 Gute Fahrt mit Schwung und Rhythmus TTP 90002 Im Reich der Operette TTP 90003 Große Marschparade TTP 90005 Musikalische Rundreise DTP 90006 Singen, Tanzen TTP 90007 Melodie und Rhythmus TTP 90009 Drei Meisteroperetten T

Iserhoff River

The Iserhoff River is a tributary of Lake Waswanipi, flowing into Regional County Municipality of Eeyou Istchee James Bay in the area of the Nord-du-Québec, Canadian province of Quebec, Canada. The course of the Iserhoff river successively crosses the townships of Desjardins and Bergeres; the hydrographic slope of the Iserhoff River is accessible from roads R1026 and R1018. These two roads are connected to the South at road 113 linking Lebel-sur-Quévillon to Chibougamau; the surface of the Iserhoff River is frozen from early November to mid-May, safe ice circulation is from mid-November to mid-April. The main hydrographic slopes near the Iserhoff River are: North side: Isernoff River North, Waswanipi River, Goéland Lake, Imbault Brook; the Iserhoff River originates at the mouth of a little lake in mountains at an elevation of 369 metres at: 31.1 kilometres South-west of the mouth of the Iserhoff River (confluence with Lake Waswanipi. From its source, the "Iserhoff River" flows on 92.0 kilometres according to the following segments: Course of the Upper Iserhoff River.

3.1 kilometres northeasterly in the canton of Desjardins, to the southern limit of the township of Berthiaume. The Iserhoff River flows into the Southwest Bay of Lake Waswanipi. From this mouth, the current flows East North, on the Lake Waswanipi to its mouth. From there, the current flows first north through the Waswanipi River west to the east shore of Goéland Lake; the latter is crossed to the northwest by the Waswanipi River, a tributary of Matagami Lake. The mouth of the Iserhoff River located at: 21.7 kilometres south-west of the mouth of Lake Waswanipi. The name of this river evokes a missionary active in the region in the nineteenth century. A natural extension of, called Baie Iserhoff evokes Charles Iserhoff, nephew of this missionary employed by the Hudson's Bay Company, at the former trading post of Baie-du-Poste; this hydronym is reported in both editions of the Dictionary of Rivers and Lakes of the Province of Quebec. Jacques and Madeleine Rousseau used in 1946 the services of an informant, bearing the name of Mrs. Wilfrid Jefferys.

This river is designated in the Cree community "Packîwâgâ Sîbî", meaning "river digs the bank, so that there is an overhang". The toponym "Iserhoff River" was formalized on December 5, 1968, at the Commission de toponymie du Québec, i.e. at the creation of this commission