Pante Macassar is a city in Pante Macassar Subdistrict on the north coast of East Timor, 152 km to the west of Dili, the nation's capital. It has a population of 4,730, it is the capital of the Oecusse exclave. The name means "beach of Makasar," alluding to the erstwhile trade with Makasar in Sulawesi. Locally Pante Macassar is known as "Oecussi," which means "water cannon," and was the name of one of the two original kingdoms that form the enclave; the other was Ambeno. During the Portuguese colonisation, the city was known as Vila Taveiro. Lifau, in the outskirts of the present city, was the place where the Portuguese first disembarked on Timor and was the first capital of Portuguese Timor, it remained the capital until 1769, when it was transferred to Dili because of constant attacks from the Topasses. Due to its distance from the remainder of East Timor, Oecussi-Ambeno, Pante Macassar, became the first territory occupied by Indonesia on November 29, 1975. In 1999, in the tumult that accompanied the referendum for independence, Pante Macassar was affected by the destruction of the pro-integration militias, supported by the Indonesian army.
Sixty-five civilian supporters of independence were hanged, 90 percent of the buildings were burned down. Today, the city has only a few dozen houses next to a beach with crystal-clear water, surrounded by palms. Crime is unknown; the only radio station works only due to an old transmitter, electricity is limited to five hours at night. Twice a week, the isolation is interrupted when a ferry boat from Dili arrives, for a journey that takes 12 hours. Timor-Leste at GeoHive Media related to Pante Macassar Vila at Wikimedia Commons
The Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, affiliated lay or secular Dominicans. Founded to preach the Gospel and to oppose heresy, the teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages; the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. In the year 2017 there were 5,742 Dominican friars, including 4,302 priests; the Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order Bruno Cadoré. A number of other names have been used to refer to its members.
In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed to "Whitefriars" or "Greyfriars", they are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit. In France, the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their convent in Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques, now disappeared, on the way to Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, which belonged to the Italian Order of Saint James of Altopascio Sanctus Iacobus in Latin, their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord". The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this ideal emerged two orders of mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi.
Like his contemporary, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy; the Order of Preachers was founded in response to a perceived need for informed preaching. Dominic's new order was to be trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, a developed governmental structure. At the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a "mixed" spirituality.
They were both active in preaching, contemplative in study and meditation. The brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns absorbed the latter characteristics and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart; as an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment to help his neighbors. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral chapter and he became a Canon Regular under the Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of Osma.
At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1203, Dominic de Guzmán joined Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of Denmark. At that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar movement; the Cathars were a heretical neo-gnostic sect. They believed that matter was evil and only the spirit was good; the Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. Dominic saw the need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought. Dominic became inspired into a reforming zeal after they encountered Albigensian Christians at Toulouse. Diego saw one of the paramount reasons for the spread of the unorthodox movement- the representatives of the Holy Church acted and moved with an offensive amount of pomp and ceremony.
In contrast, the Cathars led ascetic lifestyles. For these reasons, Diego suggested that the papal legates begin to live a reformed apostolic l
East Timor or Timor-Leste the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island surrounded by Indonesian West Timor. Australia is the country's southern neighbour, separated by the Timor Sea; the country's size is about 15,410 km2. East Timor was colonised by Portugal in the 16th century, was known as Portuguese Timor until 28 November 1975, when the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor declared the territory's independence. Nine days it was invaded and occupied by the Indonesian military, was declared as the country's 27th province the following year; the Indonesian occupation of East Timor was characterised by a violent, decades-long conflict between separatist groups and the Indonesian military. In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory.
East Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on 20 May 2002 and joined the United Nations and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. In 2011, East Timor announced its intention to become the eleventh member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. East Timor is part of the Timor Leste -- Indonesia -- Australia Growth Triangle, it is one of only two predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being the Philippines, as well as the only Asian country to be located in the Southern Hemisphere. "Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian language, which became recorded as Timor in Portuguese, thus resulting in the tautological toponym meaning "East East": In Portuguese Timor-Leste. In Indonesian, the country is called Timor Timur, thus using the Portuguese name for the island followed by the word for "east", as adjectives in Indonesian are put after the noun; the official names under the Constitution are Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste in English, República Democrática de Timor-Leste in Portuguese and Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste in Tetum.
The International Organization for Standardization official short form in English and all other languages is Timor-Leste, adopted by the United Nations, the European Union, the national standards organisations of France, the United States, United Kingdom and Sweden, all diplomatic missions to the country by protocol and the CIA World Factbook. Humans first settled in East Timor 42,000 years ago. Descendants of at least three waves of migration are believed still to live in East Timor; the first is described by anthropologists as people of the Veddo-Australoid type. Around 3000 BC, a second migration brought Melanesians; the earlier Veddo-Australoid peoples withdrew at this time to the mountainous interior. Proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina. Hakka traders are among those descended from this final group. Timorese origin myths tell of ancestors that sailed around the eastern end of Timor arriving on land in the south; some stories recount Timorese ancestors journeying from the Malay Peninsula or the Minangkabau highlands of Sumatra.
Austronesians migrated to Timor, are thought to be associated with the development of agriculture on the island. Before European colonialism, Timor was included in Chinese and Indian trading networks, in the 14th century was an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves and wax. Since the 1500's, the Timorese people had military ties with the Luções of present-day northern Philippines, it was the relative abundance of sandalwood in Timor that attracted European explorers to the island in the early 16th century. During that time, European explorers reported that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms; the Portuguese established outposts in Maluku. Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory began in 1769, when the city of Dili was founded and the colony of Portuguese Timor declared. A definitive border between the Dutch-colonised western half of the island and the Portuguese-colonised eastern half of the island was established by the Permanent Court of Arbitration of 1914, it remains the international boundary between the successor states East Timor and Indonesia.
For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century, with minimal investment in infrastructure and education. Sandalwood remained the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century; as was the case, Portuguese rule was neglectful but exploitative where it existed. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies, met with East Timorese resistance. During World War II, first the Allies and the Japanese occupied Dili, the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor. Waged by East Timorese volunteers and Allied forces against the Japanese, the struggle resulted in the deaths of between 40,000 and 70,000 East Timorese; the Japanese drove the last of the Australian and Allied forces out. However, following the end of World War II and Japanese surrender, Portuguese control was reinstated.
Following the 1974 Portuguese revolution, Portugal abandone
Indonesian invasion of East Timor
The Indonesian invasion of East Timor, known in Indonesia as Operation Lotus, began on 7 December 1975 when the Indonesian military invaded East Timor under the pretext of anti-colonialism. The overthrowing of a popular and Fretilin-led government sparked a violent quarter-century occupation in which between 100,000–180,000 soldiers and civilians are estimated to have been killed or starved to death; the Commission for Reception and Reconciliation in East Timor documented a minimum estimate of 102,000 conflict-related deaths in East Timor throughout the entire period 1974 to 1999, including 18,600 violent killings and 84,200 deaths from disease and starvation. During the first months of the occupation, the Indonesian military faced heavy insurgency resistance in the mountainous interior of the island, but from 1977–1978, the military procured new advanced weaponry from the United States and other countries, to destroy Fretilin's framework; the last two decades of the century saw continuous clashes between Indonesian and East Timorese groups over the status of East Timor, until 1999, when a majority of East Timorese voted overwhelmingly for independence.
After a further two and a half years of transition under the auspices of three different United Nations missions, East Timor achieved independence on 10 May 2002. East Timor owes its territorial distinctiveness from the rest of Timor, the Indonesian archipelago as a whole, to being colonised by the Portuguese, rather than the Dutch. Colonial rule was replaced by the Japanese during World War II, whose occupation spawned a resistance movement that resulted in the deaths of 60,000 people, 13 percent of the population at the time. Following the war, the Dutch East Indies secured its independence as the Republic of Indonesia and the Portuguese, meanwhile, re-established control over East Timor. According to the pre-1974 Constitution of Portugal, East Timor, known until as Portuguese Timor, was an "overseas province", just like any of the provinces outside continental Portugal. "Overseas provinces" included Angola, Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe in Africa. In April 1974, the left-wing Movimento das Forças Armadas within the Portuguese military mounted a coup d'état against the right-wing authoritarian Estado Novo government in Lisbon, announced its intention to withdraw from Portugal's colonial possessions.
Unlike the African colonies, East Timor did not experience a war of national liberation. Indigenous political parties sprang up in Timor: The Timorese Democratic Union was the first political association to be announced after the Carnation Revolution. UDT was composed of senior administrative leaders and plantation owners, as well as native tribal leaders; these leaders had conservative origins and showed allegiance to Portugal, but never advocated integration with Indonesia. Meanwhile, Fretilin was composed of administrators and other "newly recruited members of the urban elites." Fretilin became more popular than UDT due to a variety of social programs it introduced to the populace. UDT and Fretilin entered into a coalition by January 1975 with the unified goal of self-determination; this coalition came to represent all of the educated sector and the vast majority of the population. The Timorese Popular Democratic Association, a third minor party sprang up, its goal was integration with Indonesia.
The party had little popular appeal. By April 1975, internal conflicts split the UDT leadership, with Lopes da Cruz leading a faction that wanted to abandon Fretilin. Lopes da Cruz was concerned that the radical wing of Fretilin would turn East Timor into a communist front. Fretilin called this accusation an Indonesian conspiracy, as the radical wing did not have a power base. On 11 August, Fretilin received a letter from UDT leaders terminating the coalition; the UDT coup was a "neat operation", in which a show of force on the streets was followed by the takeover of vital infrastructure, such as radio stations, international communications systems, the airport and police stations. During the resulting civil war, leaders on each side "lost control over the behavior of their supporters", while leaders of both UDT and Fretilin behaved with restraint, the uncontrollable supporters orchestrated various bloody purges and murders. UDT leaders arrested more than 80 Fretilin members, including future leader Xanana Gusmão.
UDT members killed a dozen Fretilin members in four locations. The victims included a founding member of Fretilin, a brother of its vice-president, Nicolau Lobato. Fretilin responded by appealing to the Portuguese-trained East Timorese military units. UDT's violent takeover thus provoked the three-week long civil war, in pitting its 1,500 troops against the 2,000 regular forces now led by Fretilin commanders; when the Portuguese-trained East Timorese military switched allegiance to Fretilin, it came to be known as Falintil. By the end of August, the UDT remnants were retreating toward the I
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, north and east of Timor; the islands were known as the Spice Islands due to the nutmeg and cloves that were exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked colonial interest from Europe in the sixteenth century. The Maluku Islands formed a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku is predominantly Muslim, its capital is Sofifi on Halmahera island. Maluku province has a larger Christian population, its capital is Ambon. Though Melanesian, many island populations in the Banda Islands, were massacred in the seventeenth century during the spice wars.
A second influx of immigrants from Java began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era. Between 1999 and 2002, conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people; the name Maluku is thought to have been derived from the term used by Arab traders for the region, Jazirat al-Moluk, from the word malik. However, since the name itself has been mentioned in a fourteenth-century Majapahit eulogy, that predates the arrival of Islam in Maluku at the late fifteenth century, other sources claim that the name comes from a local language with the meaning "the head of a bull" or "the head of something large"; the Maluku Islands were a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999 when they were split into North Maluku and Maluku. North Maluku province includes Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera. Arab merchants began bringing Islam. Peaceful conversion to Islam occurred in many islands in the centres of trade, while aboriginal animism persisted in the hinterlands and more isolated islands.
Archaeological evidence here relies on the occurrence of pigs' teeth, as evidence of pork eating or abstinence therefrom. The most significant lasting effects of the Portuguese presence was the disruption and reorganization of the Southeast Asian trade, in eastern Indonesia—including Maluku—the introduction of Christianity; the Portuguese had conquered the city-state of Malacca in the early sixteenth century and their influence was most felt in Maluku and other parts of eastern Indonesia. After the Portuguese annexed Malacca in August 1511, one Portuguese diary noted'it is thirty years since they became Moors'. Afonso de Albuquerque learned of the route to the Banda Islands and other'Spice Islands', sent an exploratory expedition of three vessels under the command of António de Abreu, Simão Afonso Bisigudo and Francisco Serrão. On the return trip, Francisco Serrão was shipwrecked at Hitu island in 1512. There he established ties with the local ruler, impressed with his martial skills; the rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the 1511 conflict in Malacca.
The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to monopolize nor disrupt this trade. Allying himself with Ternate's ruler, Serrão constructed a fortress on that tiny island and served as the head of a mercenary band of Portuguese seamen under the service of one of the two local feuding sultans who controlled most of the spice trade. Both Serrão and Ferdinand Magellan, perished before they could meet one another; the Portuguese first landed in Ambon in 1513, but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah and his son Sultan Said. Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia through to contemporary times, which has contributed to a sense of shared interest with Europeans among the Ambonese; the Dutch competed with the Portuguese in the area for trade.
With the declaration of a single republic of Indonesia in 1950 to replace the federal state, a Republic of South Maluku was declared and attempted to secede. And led by Chris Soumokil and supported by the Moluccan members of the Netherlands special troops; this movement was defeated by the Indonesian army and by special agreement with the Netherlands the troops were transferred to the Netherlands. Maluku is one of the first provinces of Indonesia, proclaimed in 1945 until 1999, when the Maluku Utara and Halmahera Tengah Regencies were split off as a separate province of North Maluku, its capital used to be Ternate, on a small island to the west of the large island of Halmahera, but has been moved to Sofifi on Halmahera itself. The capital of the remaining part of Maluku province remains at Ambon. Religious conflict erupted across the islands in January 1999; the subsequent 18 months were characterized by fighting between local groups of Muslims and Christians, the destruction of thousands of houses, the displacement of approximately
Portuguese colonialism in Nusantara
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a colonial presence in the East Indies. Their quest to dominate the source of the lucrative spice trade in the early 16th century through the Portuguese East India Company, their simultaneous Roman Catholic missionary efforts, saw the establishment of trading posts and forts, a Portuguese cultural element that remains in modern-day Indonesia, although not nearly as strong as in neighbouring East Timor. Europeans were making technological advances in the early 16th century. Starting with the first exploratory expeditions sent from newly conquered Malacca in 1512, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in the East Indies, sought to dominate the sources of valuable spices and to extend their Roman Catholic missionary efforts. Initial Portuguese attempts to establish a coalition and peace treaty in 1522 with the West Javan Sunda Kingdom, failed due hostilities among indigenous kingdoms on Java; the Portuguese turned east to Moluccas, which comprised a varied collection of principalities and kingdoms that were at war with each other but maintained significant inter-island and international trade.
Through both military conquest and alliance with local rulers, they established trading posts and missions in the Spice Islands, including Ternate and Solor. The height of Portuguese missionary activities, came at the latter half of the 16th century, after the pace of their military conquest in the archipelago had stopped and their east Asian interest was shifting to Japan and China. In addition, the first European people that arrived in Northern Sulawesi was the Portuguese. Francisco Xavier visited the Portuguese mission at Tolo on Halmahera; this was the first Catholic mission in the Moluccas. The mission began in 1534. Simão Vaz, the vicar of Ternate, went to Tolo to found the mission; the mission was the source of conflict between the Portuguese and Ternate. Simão Vaz was murdered at Sao; the Portuguese presence in the East Indies was reduced to Solor and Timor following defeat in 1575 at Ternate at the hands of indigenous Ternateans, Dutch conquests in Ambon, north Maluku and Banda, a general failure for sustained control of trade in the region.
In comparison with the original Portuguese ambition to dominate Asian trade, their influences on modern Indonesian culture are minor: the romantic keroncong guitar ballads. The most significant impacts of the Portuguese arrival were the disruption and disorganisation of the trade network as a result of their conquest of Portuguese Malacca, the first significant plantings of Christianity in Indonesia (cf. the Kristang people. There have continued to be Christian communities in eastern Indonesia through to contemporary times, which has contributed to a sense of shared interest with Europeans among the Ambonese. East Indies East India Company Portuguese East India Company Indonesia–Portugal relations Portuguese loanwords in Indonesian Mardijker people History of Indonesia Timeline of Indonesian history
Indonesian occupation of East Timor
The Indonesian occupation of East Timor began in December 1975 and lasted until October 1999. After centuries of Portuguese colonial rule in East Timor, a 1974 coup in Portugal led to the decolonisation of its former colonies, creating instability in East Timor and leaving its future uncertain. After a small-scale civil war, the pro-independence Fretilin declared victory in the capital city of Dili and declared an independent East Timor on 28 November 1975. Claiming that its assistance had been requested by East Timorese leaders, Indonesian military forces invaded East Timor on 7 December 1975 and by 1979 they had all but destroyed the armed resistance to the occupation. Following a controversial "Popular Assembly" which many said was not a genuine act of self-determination, Indonesia declared the territory a province of Indonesia. After the invasion, the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council passed resolutions condemning Indonesia's actions in East Timor and calling for its immediate withdrawal from the territory.
Australia and Indonesia were the only nations in the world which recognised East Timor as a province of Indonesia, soon afterwards they began negotiations to divide resources found in the Timor Gap. Other governments, including those of the United States, Japan and Malaysia supported the Indonesian government; the invasion of East Timor and the suppression of its independence movement, caused great harm to Indonesia's reputation and international credibility. For twenty-four years the Indonesian government subjected the people of East Timor to routine and systematic torture, sexual slavery, extrajudicial executions and deliberate starvation; the 1991 Santa Cruz Massacre caused outrage around the world, reports of other such killings were numerous. Resistance to Indonesian rule remained strong. A 1999 vote to determine East Timor's future resulted in an overwhelming majority in favour of independence, in 2002 East Timor became an independent nation; the Commission for Reception and Reconciliation in East Timor estimated the number of deaths during the occupation from famine and violence to be between 90,800 and 202,600, including between 17,600 and 19,600 violent deaths or disappearances, out of a 1999 population of 823,386.
The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings. After the 1999 vote for independence, paramilitary groups working with the Indonesian military undertook a final wave of violence during which most of the country's infrastructure was destroyed; the Australian led International Force for East Timor restored order and following the departure of Indonesian forces from East Timor, the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor administered the territory for two years, establishing a Serious Crimes Unit to investigate and prosecute crimes committed in 1999. Its limited scope and the small number of sentences delivered by Indonesian courts have caused numerous observers to call for an international tribunal for East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the occupation of East Timor a genocide and Yale University teaches it as part of its Genocide Studies program; the Portuguese first arrived in Timor in the 16th century, in 1702 East Timor came under Portuguese colonial administration.
Portuguese rule was tenuous until the island was divided with the Dutch Empire in 1860. A significant battleground during the Pacific War, East Timor was occupied by 20,000 Japanese troops; the fighting helped prevent a Japanese occupation of Australia, but resulted in 60,000 East Timorese deaths. When Indonesia secured its independence after World War II under the leadership of Sukarno, it did not claim control of East Timor, aside from general anti-colonial rhetoric it did not oppose Portuguese control of the territory. A 1959 revolt in East Timor against the Portuguese was not endorsed by the Indonesian government. A 1962 United Nations document notes: "the government of Indonesia has declared that it maintains friendly relations with Portugal and has no claim to Portuguese Timor...". These assurances continued after Suharto took power in 1965. An Indonesian official declared in December 1974: "Indonesia has no territorial ambition... Thus there is no question of Indonesia wishing to annex Portuguese Timor."In 1974, a coup in Lisbon caused significant changes in Portugal's relationship to its colony in Timor.
The power shift in Europe invigorated movements for independence in colonies like Mozambique and Angola, the new Portuguese government began a decolonisation process for East Timor. The first of these was an opening of the political process; when East Timorese political parties were first legalised in April 1974, three groupings emerged as major players in the postcolonial landscape. The União Democrática Timorense, was formed in May by a group of wealthy landowners. Dedicated to preserving East Timor as a protectorate of Portugal, in September UDT announced its support for independence. A week the Frente Revolucionária de Timor-Leste Independente appeared. Organised as the ASDT, the group endorsed "the universal doctrines of socialism", as well as "the right to independence"; as the political process grew more tense, the group changed its name and declared itself "the only legitimate representative of the people". The end of May saw the creation of a third party, Associacão Popular Democratica Timorense (Timorese Popular Democra