Châteauroux is the capital of the Indre department in central France and the second-largest town in the province of Berry, after Bourges. Its residents are called Castelroussins. Châteauroux temperatures range from an average January low of 0.8 °C to an average August high of 25.1 °C. The old town, close to the river, forms a nucleus around which a newer and more extensive quarter, bordered by boulevards, has grown up; the castle from which the city takes its name was built in the latter part of the 10th century by Raoul, prince of Déols. From 920 to 1008, the Norman raids forced the monks of the abbey of Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys, founded in Brittany by Saint Gildas, to bring his relics to the abbey of Saint-Gildas of Châteauroux that they founded under the protection of the prince Ebbes of Déols, father of Raoul. During the Middle Ages it was the seat of a seigniory, which passed to the Chauvigny from 1207 to 1473 and was raised to the rank of countship in 1497 for Jean V d'Aumont. In 1616, when it was held by Henry II, Prince of Condé, it was raised to the rank of duchy.
In 1736 it returned to the crown, was given to Marie Anne de Mailly-Nesle, duchess of Châteauroux, by Louis XV in 1744. The present Château Raoul housing the préfecture offices dates from the 15th century. Châteauroux is one of the communes awarded the grand prize by the Concours National des Villes et Villages Fleuris, a beautification initiative begun in 1959. Château de Bouges Château Raoul Church of St. André Church of St. Martial Église Notre-Dame Convent of the Cordeliers Equinoxe La Prairie St. Gildas Le Parc de loisirs de Belle-Isle Le Tarmac Musée Bertrand Musée des Arts et Traditions Populaires Musée du Compagnonnage Public Garden and the Jardins des Cordeliers Quartier St. Christophe La Berrichonne de Châteauroux is the town's football club based in Châteauroux, founded in 1883; the team plays in Ligue 2, the second division of French football, played only one season in Ligue 1 in 1997–98. Châteauroux reached the final of the 2003–04 Coupe de France, where they were defeated 1–0 by Paris Saint-Germain, qualifying for the following season's UEFA Cup.
The team play their home fixtures at the 17,173-capacity Stade Gaston Petit. Bals'arts Festival Country Good Old Days Châteauroux Festival de théâtre "les Nocthalies" Festival Multirythmes Festival Populaire du Folklore Forum des associations La Biennale de Céramique contemporaine La Châteauroux Classic d'Indre Trophée Fenioux Les Litztomanias Rock à Belle-Isle Salon du livre de Châteauroux Stage festival de danse de Châteauroux Vendredi... Musique There are direct services from Châteauroux railway station to Paris, Orléans, Limoges and several other regional destinations; the A20 motorway connects Châteauroux with Vierzon, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Toulouse. The city offers free public transportation since 2001. Total ridership is up 208% between 2001 and 2012; the city is served by Châteauroux-Centre "Marcel Dassault" Airport, in the commune of Déols to the North. The airport is used for cargo, maintenance and light aviation but is served by seasonal charter services. Born in Châteauroux: Henri Gratien, Comte Bertrand, general of Napoleon's army Albert Aurier, symbolist poet and art critic Marcel Boussac and horse breeder Robert Falcucci, illustrator Jack Claude Nezat, City Councilor of Lésigny, initiator of Lésigny-Leingarten twinning and first President of Rencontres Franco Allemandes, Annecy Gérard Depardieu and businessman Dean Brown, jazz guitarist Mardi Jacquet, playmate Tom Darby, American journalist, Nevada Broadcast Hall of Fame inductee and blogger Gilles Sunu, footballer Roger Barbat, International Illusionist as: Le Magicien Blanc Jean Lauron Jean-Claude Guymon de la Touche Pierre Leroux Napoléon Chaix Adolphe Combanaire George-Albert Aurier Fernand Maillaud Bernard Naudin Ernest Nivet Émile Goué Abbé Paviot Édouard Ramonet Louis Suard Jean Fourton, humanist and psychoanalyst.
Former town councillor of Châteauroux. Châteauroux is twinned with: Gütersloh since 1977 Bittou since November 1985 Olsztyn since 23 February 1991 Fresno since January 1 2016. Berrichonne de Châteauroux Châteauroux-Déols "Marcel Dassault" Airport Communes of the Indre department Marie-Anne de Mailly-Nesle duchess de Châteauroux Saint-Benoît-du-Sault INSEE http://www.lameteo.org/chateauroux.html https://web.archive.org/web/20080327174957/http://www.villes-et-villages-fleuris.com/chateaur.htm This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Châteauroux". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. P. 964. City of Châteauroux Official Website
Le Blanc is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Indre department in central France. Le Blanc is the main city of the Parc naturel régional de la Brenne, on the banks of the Creuse River. Near Le Blanc, there is a VLF-transmitter of French Navy, it transmits messages on 18.3 kHz and 21.7 kHz to submerged submarines Saint-Benoît-du-Sault Communes of the Indre department Marcel Gaumont. Sculptor of war memorial INSEE "Le Blanc". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. 1911. P. 351
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for three centuries in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory corresponded to ancient Gaul and the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania; the semi legendary Merovech was supposed to have founded the Merovingian dynasty, but it was his famous grandson Clovis I who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. After the death of Clovis, there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front. During the final century of Merovingian rule, the kings were pushed into a ceremonial role; the Merovingian rule ended in March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III. Zachary's successor, Pope Stephen II, confirmed and anointed Pepin the Short in 754, beginning the Carolingian monarchy; the Merovingian ruling family were sometimes referred to as the "long-haired kings" by contemporaries, as their long hair distinguished them among the Franks, who cut their hair short.
The term "Merovingian" comes from medieval Latin Merovingi or Merohingi, an alteration of an unattested Old Dutch form, akin to their dynasty's Old English name Merewīowing, with the final -ing being a typical patronymic suffix. The Merovingian dynasty owes its name to the semi-legendary Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks; the victories of his son Childeric I against the Visigoths and Alemanni established the basis of Merovingian land. Childeric's son Clovis I went on to unite most of Gaul north of the Loire under his control around 486, when he defeated Syagrius, the Roman ruler in those parts, he won the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alemanni in 496, at which time, according to Gregory of Tours, Clovis adopted his wife Clotilda's Orthodox Christian faith. He subsequently went on to decisively defeat the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507. After Clovis's death, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons; this tradition of partition continued over the next century.
When several Merovingian kings ruled their own realms, the kingdom—not unlike the late Roman Empire—was conceived of as a single entity ruled collectively by these several kings among whom a turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole kingdom under a single ruler. Leadership among the early Merovingians was based on mythical descent and alleged divine patronage, expressed in terms of continued military success. In 1906, the British Egyptologist Flinders Petrie suggested that the Marvingi recorded by Ptolemy as living near the Rhine were the ancestors of the Merovingian dynasty. Upon Clovis's death in 511, the Merovingian kingdom included all of Gaul except Burgundy and all of Germania magna except Saxony. To the outside, the kingdom when divided under different kings, maintained unity and conquered Burgundy in 534. After the fall of the Ostrogoths, the Franks conquered Provence. After this their borders with Italy and Visigothic Septimania remained stable. Internally, the kingdom was divided among Clovis's sons and among his grandsons and saw war between the different kings, who allied among themselves and against one another.
The death of one king created conflict between the surviving brothers and the deceased's sons, with differing outcomes. Conflicts were intensified by the personal feud around Brunhilda. However, yearly warfare did not constitute general devastation but took on an ritual character, with established'rules' and norms. Clotaire II in 613 reunited the entire Frankish realm under one ruler. Divisions produced the stable units of Austrasia, Neustria and Aquitania; the frequent wars had weakened royal power, while the aristocracy had made great gains and procured enormous concessions from the kings in return for their support. These concessions saw the considerable power of the king parcelled out and retained by leading comites and duces. Little is in fact known about the course of the 7th century due to a scarcity of sources, but Merovingians remained in power until the 8th century. Clotaire's son Dagobert I, who sent troops to Spain and pagan Slavic territories in the east, is seen as the last powerful Merovingian King.
Kings are known as rois fainéants, despite the fact that only the last two kings did nothing. The kings strong-willed men like Dagobert II and Chilperic II, were not the main agents of political conflicts, leaving this role to their mayors of the palace, who substituted their own interest for their king's. Many kings came to the throne at a young age and died in the prime of life, weakening royal power further; the conflict between mayors was ended when the Austrasians under Pepin the Middle triumphed in 687 in the Battle of Tertry. After this, though not a king, was the political ruler of the Frankish kingdom and left this position as a heritage to his sons, it was now the sons of the mayor that divided the realm among each other under the rule of a single king. After Pepin's long rule, his son Charles Martel assumed power, fighting against nobles and his own stepmother, his reputation for ruthlessness further undermined the king's position. Under Charles Martel's leadership, the Franks defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours in 732.
After the victory of 718 of the Bulgarian Khan Ter
Subprefectures in France
In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement; the civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary. Between May 1982 and February 1988, subprefects were known instead by the title commissaire adjoint de la République. Where the administration of an arrondissement is carried out from a prefecture, the general secretary to the prefect carries out duties equivalent to those of the subprefect; the municipal arrondissements of Paris and Marseille are divisions of the city rather than the prefecture, so are not arrondissements in the same sense. List of subprefectures of France List of arrondissements of France
Vienne is a department in the French region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It takes its name from the river Vienne. Established on March 4, 1790 during the French Revolution, Vienne is one of the original 83 departments, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Poitou and Berry, the latter being a part of the Duchy of Aquitaine until the 15th century. The original Acadians, who settled in and around what is now Nova Scotia, left Vienne for North America after 1604. Kennedy argues that the emigrants carried to Canada social structure, they were frontier peoples. They emphasized trading for a profit, they were politically active. Édith Cresson, France's first woman Prime Minister from 1991-1992, was a deputy for the department. It has three arrondissements: Poitiers, the prefecture, the subprefectures Châtellerault and Montmorillon; the capital Poitiers is the see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Poitiers, which pastorally serves the department. The most famous tourist sites include the Futuroscope theme park, the Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, a UNESCO world heritage site, the animal parks of Monkey's Valley in Romagne & the Crocodile Planet in Civaux.
Goat cheese making is an important industry of Vienne. Vienne has a partnership relationship with: Communes of the Vienne department Cantons of the Vienne department Arrondissements of the Vienne department Anjou wine French Vienne Tourism Agency General Council website
Haute-Vienne is a French department named after the river Vienne. It is one of the 12 departments; the neighbouring departments are: Creuse, Corrèze, Charente and Indre. There are three arrondissements in the department; the chief and largest city in the department is Limoges, the other towns in the department each having fewer than twenty thousand inhabitants. Haute-Vienne is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, it is bordered by six departments. The department has two main rivers. To the southeast of the department lies the Massif Central, the highest point in the department is Puy Lagarde, 795 m; the source of the Charente is in the department, in the commune of Chéronnac, near Rochechouart. At the west end of the department is the Rochechouart crater, an impact crater caused by a meteorite that crashed into the earth's surface over 200 million years ago. A few Paleolithic and Mesolithic remains have been found in the department, Neolithic inhabitants are attested to by standing stones and by burial chambers, like the dolmen Chez Boucher in La Croix-sur-Gartempe, others at Berneuil and Breuilaufa.
Artefacts from the Bronze Age include. With the coming of the Romans, trade was opened up and gold and tin were mined. Agriculture developed and grapes were grown. During the reign of Augustus, the city of Augustoritum was founded at a strategic ford across the Vienne; the Romans built roads from here to Brittany and the Mediterranean. The city declined in the 3rd Century; the domination of the Visigoths was short-lived and Clovis I seized control of Limousin after the battle of Vouillé in 507. By 674, the region was attached to the duchy of Aquitaine, the Viscount of Limoges was created. There followed an unsettled period with various powers vying for control. In 1199, Richard Cœur de Lion was mortally wounded during the siege of the Château de Châlus-Chabrol; the region was much involved in the Hundred Years' War and at the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360, France granted England a large area of territory comprising much of Limousin. Limoges city rebelled and gave its allegiance to the French crown, as a result was sacked in 1370.
Further troubled years followed but when peace was restored, the department benefited economically. After a revolt by the peasants, Henri IV brought prosperity to the region of Limousin, he was greeted enthusiastically. The Counter-Reformation led to the creation of numerous convents and religious orders in Limoges. In 1761, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot was appointed intendent of Limoges, he negotiated a reduction in taxes payable by the region and developed fairer methods of collecting taxes, as well as improving the road system and encouraging agricultural development. Around 1765, kaolin was discovered near Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche in the south of the department, the porcelain industry developed; the department was created on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution, the southern half being a subdivision of the Region of Limousin while the northern half was carved out of the county of Marche, as well as some parts of Angoumois and Poitou. At first it was given the number 81, but in the nineteenth century, the number was changed to the 87th department, when further land to the east and northeast was added.
It takes its name from the upper reaches of the Vienne. In 1998, the southwest part of the department, together with the northern part of the region of Périgord was designated as the Parc Naturel Régional Périgord-Limousin. In 2013, twenty million euros were earned from agriculture in the province, as against twenty-one million three hundred thousand from Limousin. There were 351,475 cattle in 22,780 pigs, 320,500 sheep and 6,500 goats. 723,340 hectolitres of milk were produced from 30,690 hectolitres from sheep. In the same year, 1,897,800 hectares of cereals were grown and in the previous year, 12,294 hectares of land were producing organic foodstuffs. In 1801, the population of the department was 245,150, it grew over the next century so that in 1901 it was 381,753. It peaked at 385,732 in 1906, fell back in 1911 to 384,736 and fell to 350,235 in 1921, after the Great War. By 1954 it had dwindled to 324,429 but after that it began to rise again, in 2007 stood at 371,102; the three arrondissements of the Haute-Vienne department are: Arrondissement of Bellac, with 63 communes.
The population of the arrondissement was 42,687 in 1990 and 40,120 in 1999, a decrease of 6.01%. Arrondissement of Limoges, with 108 communes; the population of the arrondissement was 274,643 in 1990 and 278,439 in 1999, an increas